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Cold Spring, Town of Philipstown, Putnam Co., New York, USAi
Regional Level Types
Cold SpringSpring
Town of Philipstown- not defined -
Putnam Co.County
New YorkState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
41° 25' 12'' North , 73° 57' 17'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Cold Spring1,964 (2017)0.0km
Nelsonville625 (2017)0.9km
West Point6,763 (2017)3.2km
Highland Falls3,841 (2017)5.7km
Cornwall2,966 (2017)5.8km


Cold Spring is located about 2 3/4 miles south of the northern edge of the Hudson Highlands, a sub-region of the Reading Prong. The Reading Prong is an elongate area, stretching from western-most Connecticut to near Reading, Pennsylvania, underlain by mid Proterozoic igneous rocks and granulite facies gneisses along with minor post orogenic granites and pegmatites.

The rocks of the Reading Prong were folded and subjected to both ductile and brittle fracturing during the Paleozoic. One prominent feature are the complex imbricate thrust faulting which in some areas placed Proterozoic metamorphic rocks on Paleozoic sediments. In the Cold Spring area such a “shuffling of the deck” did not occur.

A great deal of geologic work has been done in the Reading Prong, most of it west of the Hudson River, especially in New Jersey. There is surprisingly little modern geologic work published for the Cold Spring, NY area, the West Point 7.5' quadrangle, or for the eastern Hudson Highlands generally. A look at the references in an extensive and recently published paper on the Tilly Foster Iron Mine (Nightingale and Wilson, 2016), located about 20 miles east of Cold Spring, is instructive on this point.

By far the most interesting mineral species reported from the Cold Spring area is an axinite-group species. It appears that axinite was found in the Cold Spring area only once and, although a few specimens are preserved in museum collections, the circumstances of its discovery are largely unknown. The locality was mentioned in mineralogy books at least as early as 1861 (Bristow, 1861). Valiant (1900), gives an extensive discussion of the collection, at Rutgers University, of Lewis Beck. Beck had written a treatise on the mineralogy of New York in 1842 with no mention of axinite. However, Valiant (1900)notes that his collection included 2 specimens of axinite from Cold Spring, apparently obtained before his death in 1853. It is interesting to note that in the interim the Hudson River Railroad was built through the area in the late 1840's. A travelogue published in 1851, notes that "The (rail)road passes directly through the village of Cold Spring, where two formidable rock cuts were encountered."

A specimen of axinite from Cold Spring, in the NY State Museum, does not include any of the country rock but does contain some tourmaline and actinolite. Two other small specimens in the collection of the Peabody Museum at Yale are accompanied by records indicating that they were sent to Prof. George Brush by Silas R. Horton. Horton lived near Goshen, NY, about 25 miles west of Cold Spring. He was a very active field collector for many years, focused on Orange County, NY, his home area. Horton supplied many specimens of various minerals to Brush over many years in the mid 19th century and also to others including Beck. It is not known if Horton was the original collector but he's a certainly a prime candidate.

The northwestern margin of the Reading Prong highlands is the site of eight documented alpine cleft type mineral occurrences that contain axinite-group minerals. This grouping does not include the axinite-Mn found in the Franklin, NJ zinc orebody. Nor does it include the axiniite-Fe at the Tilly Foster iron mine near Brewster, NY whose age and mode of occurrence have not been investigated in any detail. All the better documented axinite localities along the northwest margin of the Reading Prong highlands are found in a narrow, well defined set of circumstances. All are alpine cleft type veins in calcium – rich gneiss (amphibolite, skarn) or in pegmatite closely associated with marble. The axinite-group mineral bearing veins are situated near, but not within, major faults and are in close proximity to Paleozoic rocks. In the Cold Spring area calcium-rich lithologies appear to underlie significant areas. The mineral assemblages given in Mindat for all three sub localities listed under “Cold Spring” suggest a calcic environment. The metamorphic rocks of the area are cut by a number of larger faults and minor brittle fracturing is common in some intervening areas. The occurrence of epidote, a mineral commonly associated with axinite at other localities in the region, at the Mount Taurus Quarry is given, in Mindat, as “druses of microcrystals in calcite-filled vugs”. This is very reminiscent of axinite-bearing veins elsewhere in the region. Similar vuggy, epidote-bearing veins are not rare in parts of the Cold Spring area (Hershel Friedman, personal communication, 2017). Proximity to Paleozoic sedimentary rocks at the time of mineralization is unknown but separation was probably not that great.

The criteria that indicate favorable conditions for the occurrence of axinite in alpine cleft type veins are all present in parts of the Cold Spring, NY area. The axinite found near Cold Spring in the mid nineteenth century likely represents the 9th such occurrence in the region. That it is represented by a single find is typical since most of the occurrences in the region are very small.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

15 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Personal communication, Dr. Marian Lupulescu, Curator of Geology, NY State Museum (2019), concerning the museum's specimen number 18849, axinite, Cold Spring, NY.
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: (Mid-Hudson Valley Gem & Mineral Society field trips, March 2006)
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 69.
'Axinite Group'
Description: Cold Spring has been listed as an occurrence of an axinite - group mineral species since the mid 19th century. Although there are a few specimens preserved in museum collections labeled “Cold Spring, NY”, very little seems to be known about the details of the occurrence. The earliest mention of this locality in the literature seems to be in Brush (1860) followed quickly by Bristow (1861). This was about 8 to 10 years after the Hudson River railroad was under construction. The railroad was the first construction project in the area that moved significant amounts of rock so a railroad excavation is a likely axinite discovery site. However, at this point that's speculative at best. The mode of occurrence is not known but examination of preserved specimens may prove to be instructive. The locality is near the northwest margin of the Reading Prong highlands, an elongate region with 8 other known axinite - group mineral occurrences scattered from Fishkill, NY to near Bethlehem, Pa. All the better known localities are alpine cleft type veins in calcium – rich gneiss (amphibolite, skarn, pyroxene gneiss) or in pegmatite closely associated with marble. The axinite - group mineral bearing veins are situated near, but not within, major faults and are in close proximity to Paleozoic rocks. The Cold Spring area contains favorable ground.
Reference: Bristow, H.W., 1861, A Glossary of Mineralogy, London, 420 pg. Brush, G.J., 1860, Eighth Supplement to Dana's Mineralogy, American Journal of Science, 2nd series, vol. 29, p. 365,  Kunz,1892: Gems & Precious Stones of N. America, p.157.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: (Mid-Hudson Valley Gem & Mineral Society field trips, March 2006)
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Description: Massive filling in a few fissures and vugs.
Reference: (Mid-Hudson Valley Gem & Mineral Society field trips, March 2006)
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Diopside var: Diallage
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 69.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931):78.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 69.
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: (Mid-Hudson Valley Gem & Mineral Society field trips, March 2006)
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Description: Deep purple anhedral grains, often associated with epidote veinlets.
Reference: (Mid-Hudson Valley Gem & Mineral Society field trips, March 2006)
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: (Mid-Hudson Valley Gem & Mineral Society field trips, March 2006)
Laumontite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Reference: The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 69.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Description: 2cm anhedral masses embedded in quartz.
Reference: (Mid-Hudson Valley Gem & Mineral Society field trips, March 2006)
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: (Mid-Hudson Valley Gem & Mineral Society field trips, March 2006)
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 69.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: (Mid-Hudson Valley Gem & Mineral Society field trips, March 2006)
'Scapolite'
Reference: The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931):78.
'Scapolite var: Wernerite'
Reference: The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931):78.
'Stilbite subgroup'
Reference: The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 69.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 69.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Personal communication, Dr. Marian Lupulescu, Curator of Geology, NY State Museum (2019), concerning the museum's specimen number 18849, axinite, Cold Spring, NY.
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931):78.
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Fluorescence: orange
Description: Prismatic microcrystals richly disseminated, especially through the dark amphibole- and biotite-rich rock.
Reference: (Mid-Hudson Valley Gem & Mineral Society field trips, March 2006)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Chrysotile9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
var: Diallage9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Laumontite9.GB.10CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Axinite Group'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Scapolite'-
'var: Wernerite'-
'Stilbite subgroup'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Chrysotile71.1.5.1Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Laumontite77.1.1.4CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Axinite Group'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Diopside
var: Diallage
-CaMgSi2O6
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Scapolite'-
'var: Wernerite'-
'Stilbite subgroup'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
H ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O QuartzSiO2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O Diopside (var: Diallage)CaMgSi2O6
O LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O CalciteCaCO3
FFluorine
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
F FluoriteCaF2
MgMagnesium
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg Diopside (var: Diallage)CaMgSi2O6
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
SiSilicon
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si Diopside (var: Diallage)CaMgSi2O6
Si LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
ClChlorine
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
KPotassium
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
CaCalcium
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca Diopside (var: Diallage)CaMgSi2O6
Ca LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
TiTitanium
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
FeIron
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Bradbury & Guild (Publisher) (1851), Hudson River and the Hudson River Railroad
Bristow, W.H. (1861), Glossary of Mineralogy, London, 420 pg.
Kunz (1892), Gems & Precious Stones of North America: 133.
Valiant, W.S. (1900), The Lewis C. Beck Mineral Collection, The Mineral Collector, Vol. 7, no. 3, pg 37-40.
Manchester, J.G. (1931), The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bulletin: 3(1): 69.
Nightengale, S.L. and Wilson, W.E. (2016), The Tilly Foster iron mine, Southeast Township, Putnam County, New York, The Mineralogical Record: 47(6): 671-730.

Localities in this Region

Other Regions, Features and Areas containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

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