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Qarhan salt lake (Chaerhan salt lake), Golmud Co. (Ge'ermu Co.), Haixi, Qinghai, Chinai
Regional Level Types
Qarhan salt lake (Chaerhan salt lake)Lake
Golmud Co. (Ge'ermu Co.)County
HaixiPrefecture
QinghaiProvince
ChinaCountry

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Name(s) in local language(s):察尔汗盐湖, 格尔木市, 海西蒙古族藏族自治州, 青海省, 中国
Location is approximate, estimate based on other nearby localities.
 
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 37° 1' 23'' North , 91° 46' 14'' East (est.)
Margin of Error:~0km
Locality type:Lake
Köppen climate type:BWk : Cold desert climate


Qarhan salt lake (in standard Chinese phonetics given as Chaerhan) is a large playa surface in the Chaerhan sub-basin, which lies in the Qaidam (Chaidamu) basin of inland Qinghai. The Chaerhan Salt Lake playa has an area of 5856km2 and is one of the largest playa surfaces in the world, comprising nine salt lakes: Dabiele (Dabieletan), Xiaobiele (Xiaobieletan), Sheli (Suli), Dabuxun (Dabsan), Xidabuxun (West Dabsan), Tuanjie, Nanhuobuxun (South Hulsan), Beihuobuxun (North Hulsan), and Xiezuo. Dabuxun salt lake, which lies in the western part of the Chaerhan basin, is the largest of the lakes (184 km2). Their water depths vary from 20 cm to 1 m, their salt contents from 165 g/l to 360 g/l, and the pH values are ranging between 5.4 and 7.85. There is no outflow, but seven intermittent streams and six permanent streams bring water into the basin.

The Chaerhan basin originated through faulted structures in the Mesozoic. The underlying bedrock is formed from Proterozoic metamorphics, Palaeozoic sandstone and limestone, and Mesozoic granite. Lacustrine deposition within the Chaerhan Basin has been continuous since the late Cenozoic. There has been slow subsidence of the Chaerhan Basin throughout the Quaternary. As a result, Quaternary lacustrine deposits have a thickness of 2500m. However, there is no evidence for abrupt tectonic activity that might have disrupted the drainage network within the basin or otherwise affected the record of changes in relative lake depth. The climate in the catchment is cold (0.1°C annual mean temperature) and extremely arid with 28-40 mm total annual precipitation, but ca. 3000 mm total annual evaporation.

Located about 60 km north of Golmud.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

27 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Antarcticite
Formula: CaCl2 · 6H2O
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Bassanite
Formula: CaSO4 · 0.5H2O
Bischofite
Formula: MgCl2 · 6H2O
Reference: Dongsheng Hu (1990): Scientia Geologica Sinica 3(7), 259-268; Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Carnallite
Formula: KMgCl3 · 6H2O
Reference: Dongsheng Hu (1990): Scientia Geologica Sinica 3(7), 259-268; Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275; Dongsheng Hu (1995): Journal of Lake Sciences 7(4), 327-333
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Reference: Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes website
'Chlorite Group'
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: Dongsheng Hu (1990): Scientia Geologica Sinica 3(7), 259-268; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
'Feldspar Group'
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Dongsheng Hu (1990): Scientia Geologica Sinica 3(7), 259-268; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Reference: Dongsheng Hu (1990): Scientia Geologica Sinica 3(7), 259-268; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275; Dongsheng Hu (1995): Journal of Lake Sciences 7(4), 327-333
Hexahydrite
Formula: MgSO4 · 6H2O
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Hydrohalite
Formula: NaCl · 2H2O
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Dongsheng Hu (1995): Journal of Lake Sciences 7(4), 327-333
Koenenite
Formula: Na4Mg9Al4Cl12(OH)22
Reference: Dongsheng Hu (1995): Journal of Lake Sciences 7(4), 327-333
Langbeinite
Formula: K2Mg2(SO4)3
Reference: Anthony, J.W. et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Mirabilite
Formula: Na2SO4 · 10H2O
Reference: Dongsheng Hu (1990): Scientia Geologica Sinica 3(7), 259-268; Yingkai Xiao, Wiguo Liu, Yinmin Zhou, and Yunhui Wang (2000): Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 18(2), 169-177
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Picromerite
Formula: K2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Dongsheng Hu (1990): Scientia Geologica Sinica 3(7), 259-268; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Polyhalite
Formula: K2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
Reference: Dongsheng Hu (1990): Scientia Geologica Sinica 3(7), 259-268; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Sylvite
Formula: KCl
Reference: Dongsheng Hu (1990): Scientia Geologica Sinica 3(7), 259-268
Syngenite
Formula: K2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
Reference: Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Ulexite
Formula: NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Reference: Anthony, J.W. et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 3 - Halides
'Antarcticite'3.BB.30CaCl2 · 6H2O
'Bischofite'3.BB.15MgCl2 · 6H2O
'Carnallite'3.BA.10KMgCl3 · 6H2O
'Halite'3.AA.20NaCl
'Hydrohalite'3.BA.05NaCl · 2H2O
Koenenite3.BD.25Na4Mg9Al4Cl12(OH)22
Sylvite3.AA.20KCl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Aragonite'5.AB.15CaCO3
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
Magnesite5.AB.05MgCO3
Group 6 - Borates
Ulexite6.EA.25NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Anhydrite'7.AD.30CaSO4
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
'Bassanite'7.CD.45CaSO4 · 0.5H2O
'Celestine'7.AD.35SrSO4
'Epsomite'7.CB.40MgSO4 · 7H2O
'Gypsum'7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Hexahydrite'7.CB.25MgSO4 · 6H2O
Langbeinite7.AC.10K2Mg2(SO4)3
Mirabilite7.CD.10Na2SO4 · 10H2O
Picromerite7.CC.60K2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Polyhalite7.CC.65K2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
Syngenite7.CD.35K2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Halite9.1.1.1NaCl
Hydrohalite9.1.2.1NaCl · 2H2O
Sylvite9.1.1.2KCl
AX2
Antarcticite9.2.6.1CaCl2 · 6H2O
Bischofite9.2.9.1MgCl2 · 6H2O
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
AmBn(O,OH)pXq
Koenenite10.6.2.1Na4Mg9Al4Cl12(OH)22
Group 11 - HALIDE COMPLEXES
AmBX3
Carnallite11.1.2.1KMgCl3 · 6H2O
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Magnesite14.1.1.2MgCO3
Group 26 - HYDRATED BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Pentaborates
Ulexite26.5.11.1NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Celestine28.3.1.2SrSO4
Miscellaneous
Langbeinite28.4.4.1K2Mg2(SO4)3
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2XO4·xH2O
Mirabilite29.2.2.1Na2SO4 · 10H2O
A2B(XO4)2·xH2O
Picromerite29.3.6.1K2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Syngenite29.3.1.1K2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
AmBn(XO4)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p < 3:2 and > 1:1
Polyhalite29.4.5.1K2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
AXO4·xH2O
Bassanite29.6.1.1CaSO4 · 0.5H2O
Epsomite29.6.11.1MgSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hexahydrite29.6.8.1MgSO4 · 6H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Chlorite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AntarcticiteCaCl2 · 6H2O
H BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2O
H BischofiteMgCl2 · 6H2O
H CarnalliteKMgCl3 · 6H2O
H EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
H HydrohaliteNaCl · 2H2O
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H KoeneniteNa4Mg9Al4Cl12(OH)22
H MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2O
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H PicromeriteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
H PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
H SyngeniteK2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
H UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
BBoron
B UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
CCarbon
C AragoniteCaCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C MagnesiteMgCO3
OOxygen
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O AntarcticiteCaCl2 · 6H2O
O AragoniteCaCO3
O BaryteBaSO4
O BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2O
O BischofiteMgCl2 · 6H2O
O CalciteCaCO3
O CarnalliteKMgCl3 · 6H2O
O CelestineSrSO4
O EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
O HydrohaliteNaCl · 2H2O
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O KoeneniteNa4Mg9Al4Cl12(OH)22
O LangbeiniteK2Mg2(SO4)3
O MagnesiteMgCO3
O MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2O
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PicromeriteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
O PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O SyngeniteK2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
O UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
NaSodium
Na HaliteNaCl
Na HydrohaliteNaCl · 2H2O
Na KoeneniteNa4Mg9Al4Cl12(OH)22
Na MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2O
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg BischofiteMgCl2 · 6H2O
Mg CarnalliteKMgCl3 · 6H2O
Mg EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
Mg HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
Mg KoeneniteNa4Mg9Al4Cl12(OH)22
Mg LangbeiniteK2Mg2(SO4)3
Mg MagnesiteMgCO3
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg PicromeriteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Mg PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
AlAluminium
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al KoeneniteNa4Mg9Al4Cl12(OH)22
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
SSulfur
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S BaryteBaSO4
S BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2O
S CelestineSrSO4
S EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
S LangbeiniteK2Mg2(SO4)3
S MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2O
S PicromeriteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
S PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
S SyngeniteK2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
ClChlorine
Cl AntarcticiteCaCl2 · 6H2O
Cl BischofiteMgCl2 · 6H2O
Cl CarnalliteKMgCl3 · 6H2O
Cl HaliteNaCl
Cl HydrohaliteNaCl · 2H2O
Cl KoeneniteNa4Mg9Al4Cl12(OH)22
Cl SylviteKCl
KPotassium
K CarnalliteKMgCl3 · 6H2O
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K LangbeiniteK2Mg2(SO4)3
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K PicromeriteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
K PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
K SylviteKCl
K SyngeniteK2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
CaCalcium
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca AntarcticiteCaCl2 · 6H2O
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2O
Ca SyngeniteK2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
Ca UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
SrStrontium
Sr CelestineSrSO4
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Mili Wang and Lihe Guo (1988): Bassanite from the Chaerhan salt lake, Qinghai, and its genesis. Acta Geoscientica Sinica 10(1), 187-193.
Jianqi Yuan and Zhenhao Duan (1989): Mixing of natural waters and the application of HW model to its study. Earth Science, Journal of China University of Geosciences 14(5), 553-562.
Dongsheng Hu (1990): A rediscussion on the structural evolution of salt deposits in Qarhan salt lake. Scientia Geologica Sinica 3(7), 259-268 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Saline deposits and minerals of salt lakes in Qinghai-Xizang plateau. Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Xiyu Zheng (1994): Comprehensive utilization of salt lake resources over Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) plateau. Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Dongsheng Hu (1995): Brine chemistry and mineral sedimentary characteristics of undersand salt lakes in Qaidam basin: an example from the peripheral zone of Qarhan salt lake. Journal of Lake Sciences 7(4), 327-333 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Qingzhong Wang and Pengsheng Song (1999): Study on Saturation Degree of Halite in the Chaerhan Salt Lake. Journal of Salt Lake Research 7(2).
Yingkai Xiao, Weiguo Liu, Yinmin Zhou, and Yunhui Wang (2000): variations in isotopic compositions of chlorine in evaporation-controlled salt lake brines of Qaidam basin, China. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 18(2), 169-177.
Yu, G., Harrison, S.P., and Xue, B. (2001): Lake status records from China: Data Base Documentation. MPI-BGC Technology Report No. 4, pp. 191-195.

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