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Mingora mining district (Mingora Mine), Swat District (Swat Valley), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistani
Regional Level Types
Mingora mining district (Mingora Mine)Mining District
Swat District (Swat Valley)District
Khyber PakhtunkhwaProvince
PakistanCountry

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Location is approximate, estimate based on other nearby localities.
 
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 34° 49' 50'' North , 72° 35' 33'' East (est.)
Margin of Error:~0km
Locality type:Mining District
Köppen climate type:Cfa : Humid subtropical climate


Pakistan's largest emerald deposit, probably mined since ancient times. Talc-carbonate schist. Five small mines in area of 180 acres north of town.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

20 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]; Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]; Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028; Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Beryl var: Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]; Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028; Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]; Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]; Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028; Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
'Chromium-dravite'
Formula: Na(Mg3)Cr3+6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Description: Mentioned as inclusions in emeralds from this deposit. (extraLapis v.2, p.24)
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Reference: Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]; Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028; Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Enstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]
'Ferritchromit'
Reference: Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]; Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028
Mackinawite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)9S8
Reference: Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]; Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028; Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]; Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028; Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Muscovite var: Fuchsite
Formula: K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]; Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028; Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Reference: Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028; Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]; Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]; Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028; Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut); Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028; Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: [Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]; Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028; Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Violarite
Formula: Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Reference: Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Cobaltite2.EB.25CoAsS
Gersdorffite2.EB.25NiAsS
Mackinawite2.CC.25(Fe,Ni)9S8
Pentlandite2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Violarite2.DA.05Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Magnesite5.AB.05MgCO3
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Antigorite9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Emerald9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Chromium-dravite'9.CK.05Na(Mg3)Cr3+6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Enstatite9.DA.05MgSiO3
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Fuchsite9.EC.15K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Ferritchromit'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Mackinawite2.7.2.1(Fe,Ni)9S8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Violarite2.10.1.8Fe2+Ni3+2S4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Cobaltite2.12.3.1CoAsS
Gersdorffite2.12.3.2NiAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Magnesite14.1.1.2MgCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
'Chromium-dravite'61.3.1.11Na(Mg3)Cr3+6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Enstatite65.1.2.1MgSiO3
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Antigorite71.1.2a.1Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
Beryl
var: Emerald
-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Chlorite Group'-
'Ferritchromit'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Muscovite
var: Fuchsite
-K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
H Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
BeBeryllium
Be Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
CCarbon
C MagnesiteMgCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O EnstatiteMgSiO3
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O MagnesiteMgCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O QuartzSiO2
O Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O CalciteCaCO3
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
NaSodium
Na Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg EnstatiteMgSiO3
Mg MagnesiteMgCO3
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
AlAluminium
Al Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Si EnstatiteMgSiO3
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SSulfur
S GersdorffiteNiAsS
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S PyriteFeS2
S CobaltiteCoAsS
S Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
S ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
CrChromium
Cr Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Cr Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
FeIron
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
CoCobalt
Co CobaltiteCoAsS
NiNickel
Ni GersdorffiteNiAsS
Ni Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Ni ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
AsArsenic
As GersdorffiteNiAsS
As CobaltiteCoAsS

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028
Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482

Localities in this Region
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