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Byrud Emerald Mines, Minnesund, Eidsvoll, Akershus, Norwayi
Regional Level Types
Byrud Emerald MinesGroup of Mines
MinnesundVillage
EidsvollMunicipality
AkershusCounty
NorwayCountry

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Name in Norwegian:Byrud smaragdgruver, Minnesund, Eidsvoll, Akershus, Norge
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 60° 25' 28'' North , 11° 11' 42'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 60.42463,11.19502
GeoHash:G#: u4xzwxzzn
Locality type:Group of Mines
Köppen climate type:Dfb : Warm-summer humid continental climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Minnesund488 (2013)3.8km
Langset309 (2012)4.1km
Råholt8,593 (2013)16.6km
Sand946 (2010)19.3km
Sesvoll653 (2012)19.5km


Emerald deposit, worked in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Emeralds are coloured by vanadium (and minor chromium) and contain complex multiphase inclusions consisting of water, gaseous methane, halite, sylvite, calcite and a sulfide assemblage (pyrrhotite, galena, and sphalerite) (Rondeau et al., 2007).

Pegmatite lenses in dark grey, iron sulphide-bearing alum shale (several adits along a trail leading to the mine).

Presently, the local farm owner allows collecting on the mine area and its dumps for a small fee (100 NOK or about 12 EUR per day).



Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
Fennoscandian ShieldShield
ScandinaviaRegion

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


48 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
'Apatite'
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20; SEM-EDS MHM Oslo 23.10.2018
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O. (2015): Arsenkis (Arsenopyritt)- nytt mineral for smaragdgruvene på Byrud, Minnesund, Eidsvoll, Akershus. Stein. 42 (3), 22-23
Bavenite
Formula: Ca4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Description: Some laumontite has been misidentified as bavenite (Ellingsen 2003)
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Beryl var: Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Nordrum, F.S., Raade, G. (2006): The emerald deposit at Byrud, Eidsvoll, S. Norway. Norsk Bergverkmuseums Skrift. 33, 9-16
Brannerite ?
Formula: UTi2O6
Description: Analyzed by EDS
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Byrudite (TL)
Formula: (Be,☐)(V3+,Ti,Cr)3O6
Type Locality:
Colour: Black
Reference: Raade, G., Balić-Žunić, T. and Stanley, C.J. (2013) IMA 2013-045. CNMNC Newsletter No. 17, October 2013, page 3000; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2997-3005;Raade, G., Balić-Žunić, T. and Stanley, C.J. (2015): Byrudite, (Be,□)(V3+,Ti)3O6, a new mineral from the Byrud emerald mine, South Norway. Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 261-268
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Rondeau, B., Fritsch, E., Peucat, J.-J., Nordrum, F.S. & Groat, L. (2008): Characterization of Emeralds from a historical deposit: Byrud (Eidsvoll), Norway. Gems & Gemology, 44, 108-122
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Chlorite was found in a small aggregat together with muscovite (illite) and calcite. Identified at NHM, Oslo.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: SEM-EDS MHM Oslo 23.10.2018
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35 / Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Graphite
Formula: C
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Reference: Rondeau, B., Fritsch, E., Peucat, J.-J., Nordrum, F.S. & Groat, L. (2008): Characterization of Emeralds from a historical deposit: Byrud (Eidsvoll), Norway. Gems & Gemology, 44, 108-122
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Laumontite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Description: Laumontite samples from Byrud has been erronously labelled as bavenite (Ellingsne 2003)
Reference: Ellingsen, H.V. (2003): Bavenitt fra Byrud. STEIN 30 (2), 23
'Lepidolite'
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: EDS Naturhistorisk Museum, Oslo 2010
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Nordrum, F.S., Raade, G. (2006): The emerald deposit at Byrud, Eidsvoll, S. Norway. Bergverksmuseets skrifter nr. 33, 9-16
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
'Muscovite-1M'
Reference: Nordrum, F.S., Raade, G. (2006): The emerald deposit at Byrud, Eidsvoll, S. Norway. Norsk Bergverkmuseums Skrift. 33, 9-16
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Pretulite
Formula: Sc(PO4)
Reference: Rondeau, B., Fritsch, E., Peucat, J.-J., Nordrum, F.S. & Groat, L. (2008): Characterization of Emeralds from a historical deposit: Byrud (Eidsvoll), Norway. Gems & Gemology, 44, 108-122
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp 24-35 ; Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Nordrum, F.S., Raade, G. (2006): The emerald deposit at Byrud, Eidsvoll, S. Norway. Norsk Bergverkmuseums Skrift. 30, 9-16
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Rutile var: Ilmenorutile
Formula: Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Description: Erronously reported in Kvamsdal & Eldjarn 2006. (L.O.Kvamsdal info 16.03.2016)
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Sylvite
Formula: KCl
Reference: Rondeau, B., Fritsch, E., Peucat, J.-J., Nordrum, F.S. & Groat, L. (2008): Characterization of Emeralds from a historical deposit: Byrud (Eidsvoll), Norway. Gems & Gemology, 44, 108-122
Thorianite
Formula: ThO2
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Thorite
Formula: Th(SiO4)
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Colour: Green
Description: A XRD of a green mineral showed "tourmaline". Analysis done at NHM, Oslo (L.O.Kvamsdal info 16.03.2016).
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20.; Nordrum, F.S., Raade, G. (2006): The emerald deposit at Byrud, Eidsvoll, S. Norway. Norsk Bergverkmuseums Skrift. 33, 9-16
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20
Vesuvianite
Formula: (Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Reference: Eldjarn K., Kvamsdal L. O., Selbek R., Muller-Sigmünd H. (2005), "Norske vesuvianer og vesuvianforekomster" ("Norwegian vesuvianites and vesuvianite localities"), Norsk Bergverksmuseum, skrifter 30, pp. 30-40.
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Reference: Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Gersdorffite2.EB.25NiAsS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Halite3.AA.20NaCl
Sylvite3.AA.20KCl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Brannerite ?4.DH.05UTi2O6
Byrudite (TL)4.CA.(Be,☐)(V3+,Ti,Cr)3O6
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
var: Ilmenorutile4.DB.05Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Thorianite4.DL.05ThO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Monazite-(Ce)8.AD.50Ce(PO4)
Pretulite8.AD.35Sc(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Andalusite9.AF.10Al2(SiO4)O
Bavenite9.DF.25Ca4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Emerald9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Laumontite9.GB.10CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Schorl ?9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Thorite9.AD.30Th(SiO4)
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Vesuvianite9.BG.35(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Wollastonite9.DG.05CaSiO3
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Lepidolite'-
'Muscovite-1M'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Gersdorffite2.12.3.2NiAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
var: Ilmenorutile4.4.1.2Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Thorianite5.1.1.2ThO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
AB2O6
Brannerite ?8.3.4.1UTi2O6
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Halite9.1.1.1NaCl
Sylvite9.1.1.2KCl
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Monazite-(Ce)38.4.3.1Ce(PO4)
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Thorite51.5.2.3Th(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Andalusite52.2.2b.1Al2(SiO4)O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Schorl ?61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Wollastonite65.2.1.1cCaSiO3
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 70 - INOSILICATES Column or Tube Structures
Column or Tube Structures with chains linked by Be
Bavenite70.5.3.1Ca4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Laumontite77.1.1.4CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-
Beryl
var: Emerald
-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Byrudite (TL)-(Be,☐)(V3+,Ti,Cr)3O6
'Chlorite Group'-
'Lepidolite'-
'Muscovite-1M'-
Pretulite-Sc(PO4)
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
H LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
H Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
BeBeryllium
Be Byrudite(Be,☐)(V3+,Ti,Cr)3O6
Be Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
BBoron
B Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
CCarbon
C GraphiteC
C CalciteCaCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O Byrudite(Be,☐)(V3+,Ti,Cr)3O6
O Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O ThorianiteThO2
O ThoriteTh(SiO4)
O LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O CalciteCaCO3
O SideriteFeCO3
O AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O WollastoniteCaSiO3
O Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O PretuliteSc(PO4)
O CassiteriteSnO2
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O RutileTiO2
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O BranneriteUTi2O6
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
F Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na HaliteNaCl
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
AlAluminium
Al Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Al Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Al AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
SiSilicon
Si Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si ThoriteTh(SiO4)
Si LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si WollastoniteCaSiO3
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
PPhosphorus
P Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
P PretuliteSc(PO4)
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S GersdorffiteNiAsS
S SulphurS8
S GalenaPbS
S MarcasiteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
ClChlorine
Cl HaliteNaCl
Cl SylviteKCl
KPotassium
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K SylviteKCl
CaCalcium
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca BaveniteCa4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca WollastoniteCaSiO3
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
ScScandium
Sc PretuliteSc(PO4)
TiTitanium
Ti Byrudite(Be,☐)(V3+,Ti,Cr)3O6
Ti Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti BranneriteUTi2O6
VVanadium
V Byrudite(Be,☐)(V3+,Ti,Cr)3O6
CrChromium
Cr Byrudite(Be,☐)(V3+,Ti,Cr)3O6
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
Fe Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
NiNickel
Ni GersdorffiteNiAsS
CuCopper
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As GersdorffiteNiAsS
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
NbNiobium
Nb Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
CeCerium
Ce Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
TaTantalum
Ta Rutile (var: Ilmenorutile)Fex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
ThThorium
Th ThorianiteThO2
Th ThoriteTh(SiO4)
UUranium
U BranneriteUTi2O6

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Devonian - Cambrian
358.9 - 541 Ma



ID: 643824
Sedimentary; Carbonate

Age: Paleozoic (358.9 - 541 Ma)

Description: East European Platform, Ural Mountains, Fennoscandian Shield- Gulf of Bothnia-Oslo graben

Comments: Craton cover; Koistinen et al., 2001; Sigmond, 2002; Solli, unpublished compilation, 2007-08; Bergman et al., unpublished revisions, 2007-08

Lithology: Limestone, dolostone, shale, evaporites, chalk; carbonate reefs or metamorphosed equivalent

Reference: J.C. Harrison, M.R. St-Onge, O.V. Petrov, S.I. Strelnikov, B.G. Lopatin, F.H. Wilson, S. Tella, D. Paul, T. Lynds, S.P. Shokalsky, C.K. Hults, S. Bergman, H.F. Jepsen, and A. Solli. Geological map of the Arctic. doi:10.4095/287868. Geological Survey of Canada Map 2159A. [2]

Proterozoic
541 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3186372
Proterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: Proterozoic (541 - 2500 Ma)

Lithology: Granitoid gneiss; orthogneiss/paragneiss

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Mesoproterozoic - Paleoproterozoic
1000 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3148115
Proterozoic I granodiorite-diorite

Age: Proterozoic (1000 - 2500 Ma)

Description: undifferentiated metamorphic

Lithology: Major:{granodiorite-diorite group}, Minor{gneiss,meta-granodiorite-diorite group,meta-granite}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Cameron, E. A. (1963) Skattejaktminner fra Minnesund. Kvinner og Klær. 40 (2. okt. 1963): 33 + 54
Schäfer, W. (1977): Wo man die grünen Steine findet - Zwei europäische Smaragdvorkommen. Mineralien-Magazin, 1 (5), 207-216.
Wiik, G. H. (1995): Smaragdens historie og symbolikk. STEIN 22 (3), 155-157
Nordrum, F.S. (2002): Mineralogische Neuigkeiten aus Norwegen. Mineralien-Welt 13 (5), 56-59
Ellingsen, H.V. (2003): Bavenitt fra Byrud. STEIN 30 (2), 23
Imfeld, P. & Weiss, S. (2006): Smaragde selbstgesammelt: Die Fundstelle Minnesund in Norwegen. LAPIS 31 (5), 32-35
Nordrum, F.S., Raade, G. (2006): The emerald deposit at Byrud, Eidsvoll, S. Norway. Norsk Bergverkmuseums Skrift. 33, 9-16
Kvamsdal, L.O., Eldjarn, K. (2006): Mineralene i smaragdgruvene ved Byrud gård, Minnesund, Norge. STEIN 33 (4), 4-20.
Nordrum, F.S. & Raade, G. (2006): Das Smaragd-Vorkommen von Byrud (Eidsvoll) in Süd-Norwegen. Mineralien-Welt, 17 (4), 52-64 (in German).
Rondeau, B., Fritsch, E., Peucat, J.-J., Nordrum, F.S. & Groat, L. (2008): Characterization of Emeralds from a historical deposit: Byrud (Eidsvoll), Norway. Gems & Gemology, 44, 108-122.
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Emerald deposits and occurrences: A review. Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
Benjamin Rondeau, Emmanuel Fritsch, Jean-Jacques Peucat, Fred Steinar Nordrum, and Lee Groat (2008): Characterization of Emeralds from a Historical Deposit: Byrud (Eidsvoll), Norway.Gems and gemology, Vol 44, No. 2
Kvamsdal, L. O. (2009). Mineraler fra Byrud. Stein 36 (2), 32-33
Loughrey, L.E. (2013): Boiling as a mechanism for colour zonations observed at the Byrud emerald deposit, Eidsvoll, Norway. Thesis, Simon Fraser University, xx pp.
Raade, G., Balić-Žunić, T. and Stanley, C.J. (2015): Byrudite, (Be,□)(V3+,Ti)3O6, a new mineral from the Byrud emerald mine, South Norway. Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 261-268
Kvamsdal, L.O. (2015): Arsenkis (Arsenopyritt)- nytt mineral for smaragdgruvene på Byrud, Minnesund, Eidsvoll, Akershus. Stein. 42 (3), 22-23
Kvamsdal, L. O. (2016): Byruditt, (Be,☐)(V3+,Ti)3O6, et nytt mineral for verden. Stein, 43 (1): 20-23

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