New Jersey, USA
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|Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):||40° 21' 2'' North , 74° 33' 30'' West|
|Latitude & Longitude (decimal):||40.35068, -74.55828|
One of the thirteen original states of the USA. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state but the 11th-most populous and the most densely populated of the 50 United States. It's area is 8,722.58 square miles (22,591.38 km2). High Point, in Montague Township, Sussex County, is the highest elevation, at 1,803 feet (550 meters), and is in the Kittatinny Range. New Jersey was originally settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape (lennilenapeite) being dominant at the time of European contact.
Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa. The pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains, represented by the sub-range of the Kittatinny Mountains (kittatinnyite) in the NW part of the state. Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers that reached northern New Jersey. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers, swamps, and gorges and exposed the underlying Precambrian rocks in the NW portion of the state, including the Franklin Marble, host of the Famous zinc ore bodies at Franklin and Ogdensburg and the magnetite ore bodies.
Areas of principal mineralogical interest are the two zinc ore bodies at Franklin and Ogdensburg in Sussex County, the zeolite and copper occurrences in the traprock deposits (basalt & diabase) of the Watchung Mountains basalt and Palisades diabase, plus the numerous former iron mines in the highlands (of which there were over 300), and phosphate occurrences in the southern portion of the state. New Jersey was at one time the largest iron-producing state in the union, until discovery of the Mesabi Range deposits.
Thomas Edison, a New Jersey native, was famous for his invention of the electric light bulb; however, it is less known that he was intimately involved in mining and quarrying operations and the invention of related machinery. He was involved in copper mining at the Edison Mine in Menlo Park, New Jersey; iron mining in Sparta Township, just outside of Ogdensburg, New Jersey, where he invented a method of concentrating lower-grade magnetite ores into high-grade briquets; and limestone quarrying in Sussex County (Edison-Bodnar Quarries) for use in his little known Portland cement enterprise. Some engineering design documents in the files of the former New Jersey Zinc Company for proposed designs of mill ore beneficiation machinery bear his signature of review and concurrence. Edison almost went bankrupt when the Mesabi range discovery put his iron mining endeavors into financial distress.
New Jersey also has a belt of Cretaceous marl running SW-NE through the center of the state. The blue sand marl was mined for fertilizer all along the belt. These mining activities realized the discovery of the first dinosaur in the United States at Haddonfield. At Mullica Hill the marl belt is fossiliferous with many bivalves containing phosphates. The Quaternary sands of the Cohansy Formation in southern New Jersey produce clear quartz pebbles, weathered from crystals, at Cape May, and even petrified wood (cedar wood). The Cohansy Formation is also the host of black sand concentrates at several locations that were exploited for ilmenite (titanium), zircon (zirconium), corundum (abrasives) and monazite-Ce (waste product). Many sand pits operate in the Cohansy until today. The Cohansy also is responsible for the many miles of pristine white beaches in New Jersey (the Jersey shore) and the glass industry at Glassboro. The biologically derived bog iron ores in the swamps of the Jersey Pinelands, on the Cohansy Formation, gave rise to a thriving colonial iron industry, as preserved remains of the operations at Batsto testify to.
Yes, New Jersey is small - BUT - mineralogically very rich and famous with no less than 86 type locality minerals!!