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Brandy Gill Mine, Mungrisdale, Eden, Cumbria, England, UKi
Regional Level Types
Brandy Gill MineMine
MungrisdaleCivil Parish
EdenDistrict
CumbriaCounty
EnglandConstituent Country
UKCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
54° 41' 39'' North , 3° 3' 6'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
UK National Grid Reference:
NY322338
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Caldbeck311 (2018)6.0km
Bassenthwaite412 (2018)9.4km
Keswick4,281 (2018)11.8km
Greystoke654 (2018)11.9km
Portinscale560 (2018)12.6km
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
North and Western Region; Cumberland


Cooper & Stanley (1990):

"A remarkable variety of altered gabbro is exposed in Brandy Gill. Close to the southern margin of the complex, biotite extensively replaces the primary mafic minerals, and sericitization and albitization of plagioclase feldspar have occurred. Further away from the contact, actinolite is common as a replacement of the primary amphiboles and pyroxenes, chloritization of the feldspars is almost complete and ilmenite is altered to titanite."

Cooper & Stanley (1991):

"An east-west lead vein crosses Brandy Gill just over 500 meters upstream from the Carrock mine and has been tried from levels in both banks of the gill. The two levels in the west bank have been explored in this century and shown to be mostly barren, although the lower level does show some stoping. With no evidence to the contrary, this mine is assumed to be the working in Brandy Gill referred to below."

"Records for lead and copper mining in Brandy Gill date from the early 18th century, but thereafter there is no known record of mining before 1852. The mine was operated sporadically until about 1873 but only a few tons of lead and copper ore were raised."

"J.G. Goodchild, of the Scottish Geological Survey, found wulfenite here in 1875 but the locality only really became of interest to collectors in the 1950s following the report of a suite of rare supergene minerals including bayldonite, duftite, beudantite, carminite, lindgrenite, etc. (see Hartley, 1984). Stolzite was also found here, the first authenticated British occurrence."

Note on the mineral list:

Descloizite, 'grünlingite', lindgrenite, mottramite etc. supposedly collected here by Arthur Kingsbury (1906-68) are now considered "very doubtful" (the descloizite is probably from Arizona, USA). This is one of a number of likely or definitely falsified Kingsbury localities.

Regions containing this locality

Caldbeck Fells Mining Region, Cumbria, England, UKMining District
Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
British IslesGroup of Islands
Lake District National Park, Cumbria, England, UKNational Park
Carrock Fell, Cumbria, England, UKFell
Lake District National Park Authority - Caldbeck and Uldale Amber Zone, Cumbria, England, UKMineral Collecting Permit Zone

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


62 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

'Agardite'
Habit: minute sprays of needles
Colour: pale green
Description: Identified on a small specimen from the upper west level submitted to MPC by W. van den Berg. EPMA shows the presence of Ce, La, and Nd; Bi was not detected. Small grain size prevented quantitative results. [...] Agardite-mixite has subsequently been identified (BM(NH): XRD) on a specimen from the C.M. Leppington Collection.
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Agardite-(La)
Formula: LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 4, 2000
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Description: Associated with the wulfenite (Goodchild, 1875) that was shown by Russell (1936) to have originated here; listed by Hartley (1984).
Reference: Goodchild, J.G. (1875) "Wulfenite" at "Caldbeck Fell". Geological Magazine, 2(11), 565-566.; Russell, A. (1936) Notes on the occurrence of wulfenite at Brandy Gill, Cumberland, and of leadhillite at Drumruck Mine, Kirkcudbrightshire. Mineralogical Magazine, 24(153), 321-323.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (Referring to Goodchild, 1875, Russell, 1936, and Hartley, 1984).
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Claringbull, G.F. (1951) New occurrences of duftite. Mineralogical Magazine, 29, 609-614.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Claringbull, 1951 and Davidson & Thomson, 1951).
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Sowerby, J. (1804-1817) British Mineralogy, or Coloured Figures Intended to Elucidate the Mineralogy of Great Britain. 5 volumes, London. Volume 5 (1817), 279.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Sowerby, 1817).
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Habit: tapering
Colour: white to colourless
Description: In the 'ankerite vein' in small cavities in ferroan dolomite.
Reference: Goodchild, J.G. (1884) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 2]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 8 (for 1883-1184), 189-204.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Goodchild, 1884).
Arseniosiderite ?
Formula: Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Habit: minute scales and fibrous crusts
Colour: brown
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury and Hartley (1957): "in the outcrop of the east-west lead-copper vein, where it forms [...] crusts of minute brown scales, and fibrous aggregates.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of arseniosiderite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 499-500.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District, Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum, London. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1957 and Hartley, 1984).
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Sowerby, J. (1804-1817) British Mineralogy, or Coloured Figures Intended to Elucidate the Mineralogy of Great Britain. 5 volumes, London. Volume 5, 1817, 279.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Bayldonite
Formula: PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Description: occasionally as epimorphs/pseudomorphs after small mimetite crystals (Cooper & Stanley, 1990-1991)
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Beaverite-(Cu) ?
Formula: Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Habit: powdery aggregates in part pseudomorphous after galena; drusy crystalline crusts
Colour: bright canary-yellow, yellow to greenish- and brownish-yellow
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury & Hartley (1957): "first found here in 1949 and subsequently in considerable amounts in the outcrop of an east-west Cu-Pb-As vein on the west side of the gill a short way below its head, as bright canary-yellow powdery aggregates derived from direct alteration of galena and still showing its cubic cleavages (B.M. 1956, 83), also as small, yellow to greenish-yellow powdery masses in cavities in vein quartz originally occupied by sulphides, and as yellow, greenish-yellow, and brownish-yellow drusy, crystalline crusts, derived from alteration of beudantite (itself mainly derived from alteration of carminite, PbFe2(AsO4)2(OH)2), coating cavities and joints both in the vein-material and the wall-rock. The sequence carminite -> beudantite -> beaverite can be well seen on many specimens."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1956-1957, Hartley, 1984, and Young, 1987).
Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Habit: granular crusts; small acute rhombohedra; zoned hexagonal plates to 2 mm
Colour: yellow, yellow-green, olive green, greenish-brown, and brown
Description: occasionally as epimorphs/pseudomorphs after mimetite/carminite crystals (Cooper & Stanley, 1990-1991)
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121 (referring to Hartley, 1984).; BMS Collection.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of Mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. London, p. 380.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) Cosalite and other lead sulpho-salts at Grainsgill, Carrock Fell, Caldbeck, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 235, pp. 296-300.
Brochantite ?
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Description: Kingsbury reference?
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury and Hartley, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: P. Nicholson Collection
Caledonite ?
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Description: Kingsbury reference? Cooper & Stanley (1990): "From the upper west level dumps (Hartley, 1984); specimens in the Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH), show 1-2mm crystals with linarite."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Carminite
Formula: PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Colour: carmine-red
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Vein exposures near the mine, on the east side of Brandy Gill and in the dry tributary valley to the east [NY32403335] have yielded a few fairly rich specimens of carminite as minutes crystals and drusy crusts on quartz with beudantite (D.R. Middleton & M.P. Cooper Collections, det. University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST): IR)." Cooper & Stanley (1991): "occasionally as epimorphs after small mimetite crystals."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121 (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Habit: stellate macles, like six-rayed stars in the interiors of corroded galena (Goodchild, 1884)
Reference: Jenkinson, H.I. (1875) Practical guide to the English Lake District, 4th ed. Carlisle [a chapter on 'Mineralogy' (pp. lxxi-xcii) was contributed by Bryce M. Wright Jr and was reprinted in all subsequent editions].; Goodchild, J.G. (1884) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 2]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 8 (for 1883-1184), 189-204.; Russell, A. (1936) Notes on the occurrence of wulfenite at Brandy Gill, Cumberland, and of leadhillite at Drumruck Mine, Kirkcudbrightshire. Mineralogical Magazine, 24(153), 321-323.; Claringbull, G.F. (1951) New occurrences of duftite. Mineralogical Magazine, 29, 609-614.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Russell, A. (1936) Notes on the occurrence of wulfenite at Brandy Gill, Cumberland, and of leadhillite at Drumruck Mine, Kirkcudbrightshire. Mineralogical Magazine, 24(153), 321-323.; Claringbull, G.F. (1951) New occurrences of duftite. Mineralogical Magazine, 29, 609-614.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Chenevixite
Formula: Cu2Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Conichalcite
Formula: CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Habit: crystalline crust on quartz
Colour: dark green
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Specimens labelled conichalcite are preserved in the Russell and Kingsbury Collections, BM(NH), but Kingsbury seems later to have considered the mineral to be a calcian duftite ('calcioduftite') although the X-ray powder pattern was 'close to (but by no means identical with) that of conichalcite (Kingsbury & Hartley, MS). Conichalcite has been found intimately associated with bayldonite forming a dark green crystalline crust on quartz (det. BM(NH): XRD, B. Young, pers. comm.)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp. Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951 and Young, 1987).
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).; BMS Collection
Crocoite ?
Formula: PbCrO4
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "A specimen, formerly part of the R.C. Walsh Collection, now in the King Collection (National Museum of Wales, Cardiff) is said to have originated in the Brandy Gill area. It is almost certainly incorrectly provenanced (R.J. King, pers. comm.)."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Descloizite ?
Formula: PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Colour: greenish brown, brown, reddish brown
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1956 and Hartley, 1984).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121 (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1956).
Devilline ?
Formula: CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "The only record is that of Van Den Berg (1985) who cannot now substantiate the record by specimen or reference (pers. comm., 1988). Requires confirmation."
Reference: Van Den Berg, W. (1985) Mineralen zoeken in de Caldbeck Fells (Lake District). Gea (Driemaandelijks tijdschrift va de Stichting Geologische Aktiviteiten), 18, 39-48 (in Dutch).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Van Den Berg, 1985).
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Dolomite var: Ferroan Dolomite
Formula: Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Duftite
Formula: PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Habit: thin botryoidal coatings
Colour: pale emerald green to deep moss green
Description: occasionally as epimorphs/pseudomorphs after small mimetite crystals (Cooper & Stanley, 1990-1991)
Reference: Claringbull, G.F. (1951) New occurrences of duftite. Mineralogical Magazine, 29, 609-614.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Guillemin, C. (1956) Contribution à la minéralogie des arséniates, phosphates et vanadates de cuivre. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie et Crystallographie, 79, 7-95.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121 (referring to Hartley, 1984).; Clark, A.M. (1993) Hey's Mineral Index: mineral species, varieties and synonyms.
Duftite var: Calcio-duftite
Formula: (Pb,Ca)CuAsO4(OH)
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): Kingsbury & Hartley claimed that material they had collected resembled, but was not identical with duftite was actually an intermediate between duftite and conichalcite. They coined the term 'calcio-duftite' for this mineral on the basis of the intermediate nature of the x-ray powder spacings and a qualitative (spectrographic) analysis that showed significant calcium. Claringbull also mentioned the affinity of the x-ray pattern of Brandy Gill duftite with conichalcite and commented on the variation of refractive index within individual spherules of the mineral which, he suggested, resulted from a corresponding variation in composition with the core being richer in lead than the outer areas.
Reference: Claringbull, G.F. (1951) New occurrences of duftite. Mineralogical Magazine, 29, 609-614.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Duftite var: Duftite-β
Formula: PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Most duftite from Brandy Gill appears to be β-duftite as defined by Guillemin (1956: 70), who re-examined Claringbull's (1951) x-ray data. Infra-red absorption spectrophotometry readily distinguishes α- and β-duftite and also shows the predominance of the latter at this locality (R.S.W. Braithwaite, pers. comm.)."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
'Duftite-alpha'
Formula: PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Habit: globular masses
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "a few specimens recently examined appear to be α-duftite which, at Brandy Gill, forms small globular masses on quartz (M.P. Cooper Collection, det. P.J. Dunn, Smithsonian Institution: XRD) or minute crystals with agardite-mixite (det. BM(NH): XRD, C.M. Leppington, pers. comm.)"
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Ferrimolybdite ?
Formula: Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990) p. 66: "In 1820 Heuland sold a collection of minerals, that contained several fine scheelite crystals [...], apatite and molybdenite (one with 'acide molybdique jaune' - most likely ferrimolybdite), to Charles Hampden Turner of Godalming, Surrey."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Habit: massive
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Drusy quartz epimorphs after a cubic mineral (to 15mm on edge) occur in a vein exposure on the flank of Brandy Gill above the east level of the lead mine. The hollow 'boxes' are coated with small yellow-green mimetite crystals associated with rare stolzite tablets. The epimorphs probably represent original galena crystals. No euhedral galena crystals have been reported but the massive sulphide is common."
Reference: Jenkinson, H.I. (1875) Practical guide to the English Lake District, 4th ed. Carlisle [a chapter on 'Mineralogy' (pp. lxxi-xcii) was contributed by Bryce M. Wright Jr and was reprinted in all subsequent editions].; Goodchild, J.G. (1884) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 2]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 8 (for 1883-1184), 189-204.; Russell, A. (1936) Notes on the occurrence of wulfenite at Brandy Gill, Cumberland, and of leadhillite at Drumruck Mine, Kirkcudbrightshire. Mineralogical Magazine, 24(153), 321-323.; Claringbull, G.F. (1951) New occurrences of duftite. Mineralogical Magazine, 29, 609-614.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
'Grünlingite' ?
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury (1965): "For many years the bismuth telluride tetradymite (Bi2T2S) has been accepted as a British species, but this status has never been satisfactorily established. It was originally thought to occur in Brandy Gill, Carrock Fell, Cumberland, though in 1858 Greg and Lettsom had stated that the mineral appeared to differ much in composition from other tetradymites. The Carrock mineral was later regarded as a new species and was named grünlingite, but further investigations have shown that these specimens are not all identical and probably represent several varieties or phases of the allied mineral joséite, with compositions near Bi4TeS2: none of them, so far, have proved to be tetradymite."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1965) Tellurbismuth and meneghinite, two minerals new to Britain. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 35, n° 270, pp. 424-426.
Hedyphane
Formula: Ca2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
Habit: club-shaped aggregates of prismatic crystals
Colour: creamy
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "As club-shaped aggregates of creamy prismatic crystals to 2mm with duftite on quartz on a few specimens found in situ in the top west level in 1985 (det. BM(NH): XRD; R. Starkey, pers. comm., 1985). The first British record."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Hisingerite
Formula: Fe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Description: From the upper west level dump.
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Jarosite ?
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Colour: yellow-brown
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury & Hartley (1958): "small compact masses of glistening yellow-brown crystals in the outcrop of an east-west lead-copper vein near the head of the gill on the western side (B.M. 1958, 44); also in similar crystalline patches in vein-quartz derived from an old cross-cut on the eastern side." Hartley (1984): from the top western dump.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1958) Jarosite and natrojarosite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(240), 813-815.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1958 and Hartley, 1984).
Leadhillite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Habit: poorly crystalline aggregates
Colour: brownish
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Minute, poorly crystalline brownish aggregates on quartz have been identified (BM(NH): XRD) as leadhillite-susannite (B. Yates Collection)."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Claringbull, G.F. (1951) New occurrences of duftite. Mineralogical Magazine, 29, 609-614.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; BMS Database
Lindgrenite ?
Formula: Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
Habit: bladed
Colour: dark olive-green
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "The first (and only) British occurrence (Kingsbury & Hartley, 1955). The mineral was found in specimens from the dumps of the eastern level as small (< 1.5mm), dark olive-green bladed crystals on a yellowish-green crystalline mineral (which 'gives [an x-ray powder] pattern and spacings very close to those of the well-known pale blue Cumberland plumbogummite' op. cit.: 724.) It was found in cavities in granophyre presumed to be from the vein wall. Only a few specimens were obtained (Kingsbury and Russell Collections, BM(NH)) and, despite the exertions of a generation of collectors, none has been found since."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1955) On the occurrence of the rare copper molybdate, lindgrenite, at Brandy Gill, Carrock Fell. Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 30(230), 723-726.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121 (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Claringbull, G.F. (1951) New occurrences of duftite. Mineralogical Magazine, 29, 609-614.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Habit: massive; tabular to prismatic rarely above 5mm long
Colour: grey to pale green; greyish brown; yellow; colourless
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Small tapering colourless crystals with beudantite and carminite from a vein exposure in the dry gully to the east [NY32403385] have been shown by IR (University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST)) to be almost phosphate-free."
Reference: Claringbull, G.F. (1951) New occurrences of duftite. Mineralogical Magazine, 29, 609-614.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1987) Minerals of the Caldbeck Fells, 108-113.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'
Habit: hollow epimorphs after small sixling twins of cerussite
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Sowerby, J. (1804-1817) British Mineralogy, or Coloured Figures Intended to Elucidate the Mineralogy of Great Britain. 5 volumes, London. Volume 3 (1809) and Volume 5 (1817), 279.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Mottramite
Formula: PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Habit: minute globular patches and aggregates; well-formed but minute crystals; drusy botryoidal aggregates with fibrous structure.
Colour: yellowish green to dark olive green, greenish brown, brown, reddish brown to dark brown.
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Recently, in the form of minute sharp bipyramidal crystals of an unusually pale green colour on bayldonite (?) (P. Braithwaite Collection, det. BM(NH): XRD).
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous Mineral Localities: Pyromorphite Group Minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121 (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1956).
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Sowerby, J. (1804-1817) British Mineralogy, or Coloured Figures Intended to Elucidate the Mineralogy of Great Britain. 5 volumes, London. Volume 5, 1817, 279.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Sowerby, 1817 and Kingsbury, 1953).
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Pharmacosiderite
Formula: KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Habit: cubes
Colour: pale green
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "As minute pale green cubes on spongy quartz 'float' in the dry tributary gill to the east of Brandy Gill Lead mine [NY324338] (M.P. Cooper Collection)."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; BMS Database
Pitticite ?
Formula: (Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
Habit: resinous
Colour: dark reddish brown
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).
Plumbogummite ?
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Colour: pale yellowish green
Description: Based solely on a Kingsbury reference? Cooper & Stanley (1990): "A pale yellowish green crystalline mineral associated with lindgrenite from the east level gave an X-ray powder photograph close to that of the 'well-known pale blue Cumberland plumbogummite' (Kingsbury & Hartley, 1955: 724). Also recorded from the upper west level (Hartley, 1984)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1955) On the occurrence of the rare copper molybdate, lindgrenite, at Brandy Gill, Carrock Fell, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 30(230), 723-726.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1955 and Hartley, 1984).
Plumbojarosite
Formula: Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Young, 1987).
'Psilomelane'
Formula: Mn, O
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Sowerby, J. (1804-1817) British Mineralogy, or Coloured Figures Intended to Elucidate the Mineralogy of Great Britain. 5 volumes, London. Volume 5, 1817, 279.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Sowerby, 1817, Davidson & Thomson, 1951, and Hartley, 1984).; BMS Database
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Day, F.H. (1928) Some notes on the minerals of the Caldbeck Fells. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 4, 66-79.; Dunham, K.C. and Hollingworth, S.E. (1947) Excursion to Penrith and the north-west. Mineralogical Magazine, 28, 248-254.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Day, 1928 and Dunham & Hollingworth, 1947).
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Habit: tapering prisms
Colour: bright green to yellowish-green
Reference: Russell, A. (1936) Notes on the occurrence of wulfenite at Brandy Gill, Cumberland, and of leadhillite at Drumruck Mine, Kirkcudbrightshire. Mineralogical Magazine, 24(153), 321-323.; Claringbull, G.F. (1951) New occurrences of duftite. Mineralogical Magazine, 29, 609-614.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; BMS Database
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Habit: drusy; hollow epimorphs after small sixling twins of cerussite (Cooper & Stanley, 1990)
Colour: more or less iron-stained
Reference: Sowerby, J. (1804-1817) British Mineralogy, or Coloured Figures Intended to Elucidate the Mineralogy of Great Britain. 5 volumes, London. Volume 5 (1817), 279.; Russell, A. (1936) Notes on the occurrence of wulfenite at Brandy Gill, Cumberland, and of leadhillite at Drumruck Mine, Kirkcudbrightshire. Mineralogical Magazine, 24(153), 321-323.; Claringbull, G.F. (1951) New occurrences of duftite. Mineralogical Magazine, 29, 609-614.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1958) Jarosite and natrojarosite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(240), 813-815.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; BMS Database.
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Description: Young (1987: 91): "Massive fawn scheelite occurs in N-S quartz veins in Higher Brandy Gill." Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Small scheelite crystals collected by him [Adam Sedgewick] from this locality [i.e. "the Brandy Gill veins"] are in the collection of Cambridge University."
Reference: Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Description: From a quartz vein just downstream of the waterfall at the foot of Brandy Gill as an alteration product of arsenopyrite.
Reference: Day, F.H. (1928) Some notes on the minerals of the Caldbeck Fells. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 4, 66-79.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G., Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of arseniosiderite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 237, 499-500.; BMS Database.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990: "From an unspecified site ('the only locality in the Lake District') with galena and cerussite (Wright, in Jenkinson, 1875: lxxxi)."
Reference: Jenkinson, H.I. (1875) Practical guide to the English Lake District, 4th ed. Carlisle [a chapter on 'Mineralogy' (pp. lxxi-xcii) was contributed by Bryce M. Wright Jr and was reprinted in all subsequent editions].; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Wright in Jenkinson, 1875).
Sphalerite ?
Formula: ZnS
Description: Kingsbury reference?
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Stolzite
Formula: Pb(WO4)
Habit: tabular; platy; simple prisms
Description: The first authenticated British occurrence (Cooper & Stanley, 1991).
Reference: Claringbull, G.F. (1951) New occurrences of duftite. Mineralogical Magazine, 29, 609-614.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1955) On the occurrence of the rare copper molybdate, lindgrenite, at Brandy Gill, Carrock Fell, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 30(230), 723-726.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District, Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum, London.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Susannite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990) list it as "leadhillite-susannite" from the B. Yates Collection (det. BM(NH): XRD).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Habit: short-prismatic or barrel-shaped crystals or globular aggregates; radiating fibrous crystals
Colour: cream to grey; pale buff to reddish brown
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990 and 1991) mention (apart from the Kingsbury finds) a single specimen collected by T. Wolloxall from Brandy Gill Lead mine which has been identified by XRD at the BM(NH).
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous Mineral Localities: Pyromorphite-Group Minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. The Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Habit: small, thin, rounded plates flattened parallel to c(001) with a marked tendency to form rosettelike aggregates, and also as irregular outlined scales on tapering prisms of pyromorphite or on more or less iron-stained drusy quartz.
Colour: honey-yellow
Description: From "a small dump derived from a trial level, three-quarters of the way up Brandy Gill" (Russell, 1936).
Reference: Goodchild, J.G. (1875) "Wulfenite" at "Caldbeck Fell". Geological Magazine, 2(11), 565-566.; Russell, A. (1936) Notes on the occurrence of wulfenite at Brandy Gill, Cumberland, and of leadhillite at Drumruck Mine, Kirkcudbrightshire. Mineralogical Magazine, 24(153), 321-323.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1955) On the occurrence of the rare copper molybdate, lindgrenite, at Brandy Gill, Carrock Fell, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 30(230), 723-726.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1987) Minerals of the Caldbeck Fells, 132.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121 (referring to Goodchild, 1875).

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite ?2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
var: Ferroan Dolomite5.AB.10Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Leadhillite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Susannite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Beaverite-(Cu) ?7.BC.10Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Brochantite ?7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Caledonite ?7.BC.50Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Crocoite ?7.FA.20PbCrO4
Devilline ?7.DD.30CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Ferrimolybdite ?7.GB.30Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Jarosite ?7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Linarite7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Lindgrenite ?7.GB.05Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
Plumbojarosite7.BC.10Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Stolzite7.GA.05Pb(WO4)
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Agardite-(La)8.DL.15LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Arseniosiderite ?8.DH.30Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Bayldonite8.BH.45PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Beudantite8.BL.05PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Carminite8.BH.30PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Chenevixite8.DD.05Cu2Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)4
Conichalcite8.BH.35CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Descloizite ?8.BH.40PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Duftite8.BH.35PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
var: Calcio-duftite8.BH.35(Pb,Ca)CuAsO4(OH)
var: Duftite-β8.BH.35PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Hedyphane8.BN.05Ca2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Mottramite8.BH.40PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Pharmacosiderite8.DK.10KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Pitticite ?8.DB.05(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
Plumbogummite ?8.BL.10PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Scorodite8.CD.10Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Vanadinite8.BN.05Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Hisingerite9.ED.10Fe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Agardite'-
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Duftite-alpha'-PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
'Feldspar Group'-
'Grünlingite' ?-
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'-
'Psilomelane'-Mn, O
'Pyroxene Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite ?2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Leadhillite17.1.2.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Susannite17.1.3.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite ?30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Beaverite-(Cu) ?30.2.5.7Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite ?30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite30.2.5.6Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Devilline ?31.6.1.1CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Caledonite ?32.3.2.1Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Group 35 - ANHYDROUS CHROMATES
AXO4
Crocoite ?35.3.1.1PbCrO4
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Scorodite40.4.1.3Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Bayldonite41.5.14.1PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Conichalcite41.5.1.2CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Descloizite ?41.5.2.1PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Duftite41.5.1.4PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
'Duftite-alpha'41.5.2.5PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Mottramite41.5.2.2PbCu(VO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Hedyphane41.8.2.1Ca2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Vanadinite41.8.4.3Pb5(VO4)3Cl
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq
Carminite41.10.6.1PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Chenevixite42.7.10.1Cu2Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)4
Plumbogummite ?42.7.3.5PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Arseniosiderite ?42.8.4.3Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Pharmacosiderite42.8.1a.1KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Beudantite43.4.1.1PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Hydrated Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Pitticite ?43.5.3.1(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Stolzite48.1.3.2Pb(WO4)
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Basic Anhydrous Molybdates and Tungstates
Lindgrenite ?48.3.1.1Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
Group 49 - HYDRATED MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
Hydrated Normal Molybdates and Tungstates
Ferrimolybdite ?49.2.1.1Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Hisingerite71.1.5.2Fe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Agardite'-
Agardite-(La)-LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
Dolomite
var: Ferroan Dolomite
-Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Duftite
var: Calcio-duftite
-(Pb,Ca)CuAsO4(OH)
var: Duftite-β-PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
'Feldspar Group'-
'Grünlingite' ?-
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'-
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Psilomelane'-Mn, O
'Pyroxene Group'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
H BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H Duftite (var: Calcio-duftite)(Pb,Ca)CuAsO4(OH)
H CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
H ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
H DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H HisingeriteFe23+(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
H LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
H ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
H Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
H Duftite-alphaPbCu(AsO4)(OH)
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H Duftite (var: Duftite-β)PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
H Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
H DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
H DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H Pitticite(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
H PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
H LindgreniteCu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
H FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
CCarbon
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C AragoniteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
C Dolomite (var: Ferroan Dolomite)Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C SideriteFeCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
OOxygen
O AnglesitePbSO4
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O AragoniteCaCO3
O BaryteBaSO4
O BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
O BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O Duftite (var: Calcio-duftite)(Pb,Ca)CuAsO4(OH)
O CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
O CerussitePbCO3
O ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
O CupriteCu2O
O DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HedyphaneCa2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
O HematiteFe2O3
O HisingeriteFe23+(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
O LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O PsilomelaneMn, O
O StolzitePb(WO4)
O SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O QuartzSiO2
O ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
O Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
O Duftite-alphaPbCu(AsO4)(OH)
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O Duftite (var: Duftite-β)PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O Dolomite (var: Ferroan Dolomite)Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O SideriteFeCO3
O CalciteCaCO3
O ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
O Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
O DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
O DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O Pitticite(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
O PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
O LindgreniteCu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
O FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
O CrocoitePbCrO4
FFluorine
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg Dolomite (var: Ferroan Dolomite)Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
SiSilicon
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si HisingeriteFe23+(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
P PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
SSulfur
S AnglesitePbSO4
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BaryteBaSO4
S BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S ChalcociteCu2S
S CovelliteCuS
S GalenaPbS
S LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S PyriteFeS2
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
S DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S SphaleriteZnS
ClChlorine
Cl HedyphaneCa2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca Duftite (var: Calcio-duftite)(Pb,Ca)CuAsO4(OH)
Ca ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Ca HedyphaneCa2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca Dolomite (var: Ferroan Dolomite)Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Ca DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
TiTitanium
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
VVanadium
V MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
V VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
V DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
CrChromium
Cr CrocoitePbCrO4
MnManganese
Mn PsilomelaneMn, O
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
FeIron
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe HisingeriteFe23+(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Fe PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Dolomite (var: Ferroan Dolomite)Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Fe Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Pitticite(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
Fe FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
CuCopper
Cu BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Cu Duftite (var: Calcio-duftite)(Pb,Ca)CuAsO4(OH)
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu Duftite-alphaPbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu Duftite (var: Duftite-β)PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Cu DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu LindgreniteCu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
ZnZinc
Zn DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
As BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As Duftite (var: Calcio-duftite)(Pb,Ca)CuAsO4(OH)
As CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
As ChenevixiteCu2Fe23+(AsO4)2(OH)4
As ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
As DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
As HedyphaneCa2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
As ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
As Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
As Duftite-alphaPbCu(AsO4)(OH)
As Duftite (var: Duftite-β)PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
As ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
As Pitticite(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Mo LindgreniteCu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
Mo FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
LaLanthanum
La Agardite-(La)LaCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
WTungsten
W StolzitePb(WO4)
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Pb BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb Duftite (var: Calcio-duftite)(Pb,Ca)CuAsO4(OH)
Pb CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb HedyphaneCa2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
Pb LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Pb PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb StolzitePb(WO4)
Pb SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb Duftite-alphaPbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Pb Duftite (var: Duftite-β)PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Pb Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Pb DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
Pb PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Pb CrocoitePbCrO4
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3186080
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Silurian - Ordovician
419.2 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 2027717
Unnamed Igneous Intrusion, Ordovician To Silurian

Age: Paleozoic (419.2 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Mafic igneous-rock

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Early Ordovician
470 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 3157764
Early Ordovician limestone

Age: Early Ordovician (470 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{limestone}, Minor{sandstone,siltstone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Anonymous (1747) A journey to Caudebec Fells, with a map and description of the same. The Gentleman's Magazine, and Historical Chronicle, 17, 522-525 [as "Brandlegill Beck"].
Sowerby, J. (1804-1817) British Mineralogy, or Coloured Figures Intended to Elucidate the Mineralogy of Great Britain. 5 volumes, London.
Lévy, A. (1837) Description d'une collection de minéraux formée par M. Henri Heuland et appartenant à M. Ch. Hampden Turner... London. 3 volumes and atlas.
Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, ix, 483 pp. [facsimile reprint, with addenda, by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].
Whellan, W. (1860) The history and topography of the counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland. W. Whellan, Pontefract. viii, 896 pp.
Goodchild, J.G. (1875) "Wulfenite" at "Caldbeck Fell". Geological Magazine, 2(11), 565-566.
Jenkinson, H.I. (1875) Practical guide to the English Lake District, 4th ed. Carlisle [a chapter on 'Mineralogy' (pp. lxxi-xcii) was contributed by Bryce M. Wright Jr and was reprinted in all subsequent editions].
Goodchild, J.G. (1884) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 2]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 8 (for 1882-1883), 189-204.
Day, F.H. (1928) Some notes on the minerals of the Caldbeck Fells. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 4, 66-79.
Russell, A. (1936) Notes on the occurrence of wulfenite at Brandy Gill, Cumberland, and of leadhillite at Drumruck Mine, Kirkcudbrightshire. Mineralogical Magazine, 24(153), 321-323.
Dunham, K.C. and Hollingworth, S.E. (1947) Excursion to Penrith and the north-west. Mineralogical Magazine, 28, 248-254.
Claringbull, G.F. (1951) New occurrences of duftite. Mineralogical Magazine, 29, 609-614.
Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1 [An unpublished 39-page typescript of a paper given to the Mineralogical Society on 8 March 1951. Several of the species detailed here were to become the subject of separate papers published in later years. Many of the remaining species were not listed until Hartley's summary paper of 1984].
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-. [An unpublished hardback notebook containing lists of species by locality with occasional notes and descriptive detail].
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1955) On the occurrence of the rare copper molybdate, lindgrenite, at Brandy Gill, Carrock Fell, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 30(230), 723-726.
Guillemin, C. (1956) Contribution à la minéralogie des arséniates, phosphates et vanadates de cuivre. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie et Crystallographie, 79, 7-95 (definition of Duftite-β on p. 70).
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of arseniosiderite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 499-500.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1958) Jarosite and natrojarosite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(240), 813-815.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1965) Tellurbismuth and meneghinite, two minerals new to Britain. Mineralogical Magazine, 35(270), 424-426.
Burt, R., Waite, P., and Burnley, R. (1982) The Cumberland mineral statistics: metalliferous and associated minerals 1845-1913. Department of Economic History, University of Exeter with the Northern Mines Research Society and The Peak District Mines Historical Society, xxi, 156 pp.
Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.
Van Den Berg, W. (1985) Mineralen zoeken in de Caldbeck Fells (Lake District). Gea (Driemaandelijks tijdschrift va de Stichting Geologische Aktiviteiten), 18, 39-48 (in Dutch).
Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Ryback, G., Hart, A.D., and Stanley, C.J. (2001) A.W.G. Kingsbury's specimens of British minerals. Part 1: some examples of falsified localities. Journal of the Russell Society, 7(2), 51-69.


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