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Driggith Mine (Driggeth Mine), Caldbeck, Allerdale, Cumbria, England, UKi
Regional Level Types
Driggith Mine (Driggeth Mine)Mine
CaldbeckCivil Parish
AllerdaleDistrict
CumbriaCounty
EnglandConstituent Country
UKCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 54° 42' 29'' North , 3° 2' 35'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 54.70806,-3.04306
GeoHash:G#: gctz4z21e
UK National Grid Reference:NY328353
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Caldbeck311 (2018)4.5km
Bassenthwaite412 (2018)10.3km
Greystoke654 (2018)11.8km
Keswick4,281 (2018)13.4km
Portinscale560 (2018)14.1km


Cooper & Stanley (1991):

"This mine is little known to mineral collectors outside the United Kingdom but has produced some interesting and characteristic pyromorphite-mimetite as well as a suite of unusual rarities. It exploits a continuation of the Roughton Gill (South) lode from levels in the Driggith valley and from lower levels over the fell at Sandbeds.

Ore minerals in the Driggith-Sandbeds vein were predominantly galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite in a gangue of quartz and barite (Stanley and Vaughan, 1981). The intimate association of galena, sphalerite, and barite, especially in the deeper levels of the mine, caused insurmountable problems for the gravity separators used for ore-dressing in the Victorian workings and was a major cause of the failure of the mine.

The earliest records of mining at Driggith are in documents from the early 18th century but information is scanty until the turn of the 19th century. The mine was profitably worked in the first decades of the century but thereafter, despite brief profitability in the 1850's, the mine was worked at a loss by successive operators, most of whom ended up bankrupt. The mine was effectively finished by 1874. Several attempts to rework it in this century for lead or barite were defeated by the dilapidated state of the workings or the problems of ore separation. The last operation was in 1948. Production statistics are incomplete but the mine produced at least 3800 tons of lead and 40,000 ounces of silver. Small amounts of copper, zinc, and barite were also raised."

Notes on the mineral list:

1) Plancheite and other species supposedly collected here by Arthur W.G. Kingsbury (1906-68) are now considered "very doubtful" (the plancheite probably came from Zellerfeld, Germany). This is one of a number of likely or definitely falsified Kingsbury localities.

2) Bridges et al. (2008) referring to p. 35 in Green et al. (2006): "In a study of the mineralisation at the Driggith and Sandbed mines a poorly characterised lead-copper sulphate from Driggith Mine was described. Identical material, comprising radiating sprays of pale blue acicular to feathery crystals up to 0.1 mm in length, occurs with elyite from the top level at Red Gill Mine. It is worthwhile pointing out that although the mineral is described as a sulphate, it could be a sulphite or even possibly a thiosulphate."

Regions containing this locality

Caldbeck Fells Mining Region, Cumbria, England, UKMining District
Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
British IslesGroup of Islands
Lake District National Park, Cumbria, England, UKNational Park
Lake District National Park Authority - Caldbeck and Uldale Green Zone, Cumbria, England, UKMineral Collecting Permit Zone

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


78 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Adamite
Formula: Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Description: D.R. Middleton Collection (det. BM(NH): XRD, 1987).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Adamite var: Cuprian Adamite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
Habit: prismatic to bladed crystals (< 0.2mm) on gossany matrix
Colour: pale to dark green zoned
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "A cuprian variety was identified at the BM(NH) (XRD) on a specimen from the D.R. Middleton Collection."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
'Agardite'
Reference: No reference listed
Allophane
Formula: (Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Description: Recorded from the 12 fm level dumps (Hartley, 1984).
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Description: In small crystals from the Driggith levels and from the Driggith-Sandbeds outcrop workings (Hartley, 1984). Steep bipyramidal crystals to 20mm were found at the latter location in 1951 (Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH)); Davidson & Thomson (1951: 141) record 'numerous vugs of small, brilliant crystals...around decomposing galena' revealed during exploratory work in 1950.
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1957) New occurrences of phosgenite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 500-501.; Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native Antimony and Bournonite Intergrowths in Galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006; Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Antimony
Formula: Sb
Description: Minute grains, generally less than 1 µm and rarely larger than 5 µm, are associated with bournonite inclusions in galena (Stanley & Vaughan, 1981).
Reference: Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Stanley & Vaughan, 1981).
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Stanley & Vaughan, 1981).
Aurichalcite ?
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Description: Kingsbury reference. In vein material from the 12fm and 30fm level dumps.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Thimmaiah, T. (1956) Mineralisation of the Caldbeck Fells area, Cumberland. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of London.; Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Thimmaiah, 1956 and Stanley & Vaughan, 1981).
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Description: Massive baryte occurred here in some quantity and was worked from both the Driggith and Sandbed levels (Shaw, 1970).
Reference: Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Dunham, K.C. and Dines, H.G. (1945) Barium minerals of England and Wales. Wartime Pamphlet no. 46, Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39. Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Bayldonite ?
Formula: PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Found in 1949 by Kingsbury and H. Neumann on the dumps from the 12, 30 and 60fm levels, and in situ in open-cast workings between Driggith and Sandbeds where it was more abundant. Associated minerals include malachite, cerussite, 'psilomelane', mimetite, linarite, and baryte (Kingsbury & Hartley, MS; Hartley, 1984)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).
Beaverite-(Cu) ?
Formula: Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Habit: powdery aggregates
Colour: yellow to golden-yellow and golden-brown
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury & Hartley (1957): "yellow to golden-yellow and golden-brown powdery aggregates on cerussite and altered galena in the outcrop of the vein, associated with other minerals beudantite -> beaverite and beudantite -> plumbojarosite."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951-1957 and Hartley, 1984).
Bechererite
Formula: Zn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
Reference: UKJMM.23.2003
Beudantite ?
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Habit: powdery aggregates
Colour: yellowish to brown
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1957-1960 and Hartley, 1984).
'Bindheimite'
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "From the 30fm level dumps (Kingsbury, MS1). J. Hartley (pers. comm., 1987) confirmed the find as 'yellow earthy... in cavities in quartz with malachite."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Replacing chalcopyrite (Thimmaiah, 1956); also mentioned from 'Driggith-Sandbeds' by Eastwood (1921)."
Reference: Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Thimmaiah, T. (1956) Mineralisation of the Caldbeck Fells area, Cumberland. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Eastwood, 1921 and Thimmaiah, 1956).
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Description: Stanley & Vaughan (1981: 258-259): "in three forms: (i) as relatively large grains (< 100µm) commonly enclosed in argentian tetrahedrite; (ii) along cleavages in galena, with chalcopyrite and minor tetrahedrite, possibly the result of post-cleavage remobilization; (iii) as intergrowths in galena, either as platelets or rods, usually no more than a few microns in width and clearly oriented along structural planes of the galena, or as rounded blebs (< 5-10 µm) arranged in irregular curved strings, possibly along galena grain boundaries. Irregular grains of bournonite (20-30µm) also occur either associated with native antimony or as somewhat smaller grains at chalcopyrite/galena grain boundaries."
Reference: Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Stanley & Vaughan, 1981).; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28. (referring to Stanley & Vaughan, 1981).
Brianyoungite
Formula: Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006; Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "From the 12fm and 30fm levels (Kingsbury and Hartley, MS; Hartley, 1984). Specimens in the Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH) and in the Hartley Collection (Leeds University) show small (< 2mm) striated brochantite crystals on microcrystalline linarite. Also found as a powder (Davidson & Thomson, 1951)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Thimmaiah, T. (1956) Mineralisation of the Caldbeck Fells area, Cumberland. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.; Stanley, C.J. (1979) Mineralogical studies of copper, lead, zinc, and cobalt mineralization in the English Lake District. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Aston, Birmingham.; Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Thimmaiah, 1956 and Stanley, 1979).;
Caledonite ?
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "From the 30fm level dumps, with linarite (Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH))."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS4) (xxxx).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Carminite ?
Formula: PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Habit: crystalline aggregates
Colour: carmine to brownish red
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "'From the outcrop of the main vein' (Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960: 428; also MS."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951-1960 and Hartley, 1984).
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Colour: small greenish crystals (enclosing malachite?) occur with pyromorphite on quartz (Oxford University Museum)
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, ix, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977]. Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanton, London, 168 pp.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native Antimony and Bournonite Intergrowths in Galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44, 257-260.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Chalcanthite ?
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Specimens labelled chalcanthite, showing thin bluish crusts on quartz-sulphide matrix, are preserved in the Kingsbury Collection (BM(NH)). Kingsbury (unpublished manuscript) comments on the occurrence: 'x-ray photo has since shown it to be an 'unidentified' sulphate'. The persistence of chalcanthite in an area of such high rainfall is doubtful."
Reference: Kingsbury (xxxx) Unpublished manuscript.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Description: Replaces bornite (Thimmaiah, 1956). Noted from the 12fm and 30fm level dumps by Hartley (1984).
Reference: Thimmaiah, T. (1956) Mineralisation of the Caldbeck Fells area, Cumberland. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Thimmaiah, 1956, Shaw, 1970, and Hartley, 1984).
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Dewey, H. and Eastwood, T. (1925) Copper ores of the Midlands, Wales, the Lake District and the Isle of Man. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain, No. 30. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Dunham, K.C. and Hollingworth, S.E. (1947) Excursion to Penrith and the north-west. Mineralogical Magazine, 28, 248-254.; Thimmaiah, T. (1956) Mineralisation of the Caldbeck Fells area, Cumberland. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Serpierite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(238), 604-605.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Chenite
Formula: Pb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Habit: Equant, prismatic
Colour: Sky Blue
Reference: UKJMM 16; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Chlorargyrite ?
Formula: AgCl
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "In the vein outcrop workings (Hartley, 1984); 'traces' according to Kingsbury (MS1)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury and Hartley, 153 and Hartley, 1984).
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006; Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Conichalcite
Formula: CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): Found in situ [in the Driggith-Sandbeds outcrop workings] by Kingsbury & Hartley (MS) in 'one of the old open-cast workings' in a form 'similar to that at Potts Gill mine' with iron-stained sugary quartz and 'psilomelane'. Listed by Hartley (1984). 'With wulfenite, pyromorphite, mimetite and anglesite (BM(NH)' (Young, 1987: 39)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Connellite
Formula: Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Reference: Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., Bridges, T.F., Tindle, A.G., and Ixer, R.A. (2006) A review of the mineralisation at the Sandbed and Driggith mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 9, 4-38.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Stanley & Vaughan, 1981).
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Description: Replacing bornite (Thimmaiah, 1956) and galena (Stanley & Vaughan, 1981). Listed from the Driggith-Sandbeds outcrop workings by Hartley (1984).
Reference: Thimmaiah, T. (1956) Mineralisation of the Caldbeck Fells area, Cumberland. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.; Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Thimmaiah, 1956, Stanley & Vaughan, 1981, and Hartley, 1984).
Cuprite ?
Formula: Cu2O
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "From the Driggith-Sandbeds outcrop workings (Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH))."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1953).
Devilline
Formula: CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Description: From the 30fm level (Hartley, 1984).
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Djurleite
Formula: Cu31S16
Description: In small amounts replacing galena (Stanley & Vaughan, 1981).
Reference: Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Stanley & Vaughan, 1981).
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006; Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Duftite ?
Formula: PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "In small amounts with 'malachite, cerussite, chrysocolla, pyromorphite and other secondary minerals in material that apparently comes from a small copper-bearing vein near [Driggith] beck on the west side, a little way below the 30fm level. Old records and information obtained from the mine manager, Mr W.H.P. Parkinson, suggest that this vein had been tried at one time but that the level was now collapsed and buried under debris from later workings' (Kingsbury & Hartley, MS). (Hartley, 1984)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).
Elyite
Formula: Pb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006; Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006; Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Dunham, K.C. and Hollingworth, S.E. (1947) Excursion to Penrith and the north-west. Mineralogical Magazine, 28, 248-254.. Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1957) New occurrences of phosgenite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 500-501.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Stanley & Vaughan, 1981 and Hartley, 1984).
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Description: From the 12fm and 30fm level dumps (Hartley, 1984).
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Hydrocerussite ?
Formula: Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Description: Kingsbury reference. From the 12fm and 30fm level dumps.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006; Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Ianbruceite
Formula: [Zn2(OH)(H2O)(AsO4)](H2O)2
Reference: Neall, T., Leppington, C. M., Green, D., Rumsey, M. S. (2013): The First British Occurrences of Ianbruceite from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals 34, 8-12.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Lanarkite
Formula: Pb2(SO4)O
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006; Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006; Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Leadhillite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Description: From the 30fm level dumps (Hartley, 1984).
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Chris J. Stanley and David J. Vaughan (1981) Native Antimony and Bournonite Intergrowths in Galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine 44:257-260.
Linarite ?
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "As bladed crystals (< 10mm) with brochantite, malachite and aurichalcite (Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH); Hartley, 1984)."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Day, F.H. (1928) Some notes on the minerals of the Caldbeck Fells. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 4, 66-79.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Habit: rounded
Colour: milky green to khaki
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1991): "small, rounded, greenish to khaki crystals encrusting quartz. The mineral frequently contains a high proportion of phosphate and passes insensibly into pyromorphite. Many specimens are of intermediate composition."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Cooper and Stanley (1987) Minerals of the Caldbeck Fells, 108-113.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Ineson, P.R. and Mitchell, J.G. (1974) K-Ar isotopic age determinations from some Lake District mineral localities. Geological Magazine, 111, 521-537.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Ineson & Mitchell, 1974).
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: Ineson, P.R. and Mitchell, J.G. (1974) K-Ar isotopic age determinations from some Lake District mineral localities. Geological Magazine, 111, 521-537.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Ineson & Mitchell, 1974).
Philipsburgite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Reference: No reference listed
Phosgenite ?
Formula: Pb2CO3Cl2
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury (1957): "From the outcrop of the main Driggith-Sandbed vein near Caldbeck, in an old opencast between the two mines: here colourless phosgenite has been found with anglesite in somewhat decomposed, massive granular galena."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1957) New occurrences of phosgenite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 500-501.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury, 1957).
Plancheite ?
Formula: Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Known only from two small specimens from the 30fm level dump (Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH); as a radiating fibrous mineral with chrysocolla. The first British occurrence. Listed by Kingsbury (MS1) but otherwise unpublished."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1953 and Young, 1987).
Plumbojarosite ?
Formula: Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1957 and Hartley, 1984).
Posnjakite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006; Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Description: From the 30fm level dumps (Hartley, 1984).
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
'Psilomelane'
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Stanley & Vaughan, 1981).
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Stanley, C.J. (1979) Mineralogical studies of copper, lead, zinc, and cobalt mineralization in the English Lake District. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Aston, Birmingham.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Habit: rounded, prismatic, or seed-like; coarsely fibrous with pitted sub-reniform surfaces
Colour: milky green to khaki; indistinctly colour-zoned in shades of greenish yellow to green
Description: The arsenic content is often high and grades into mimetite.
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, ix, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Postlethwaite, J. (1913) Mines and Mining in the (English) Lake District. 3rd edition, Moss and Sons, Whitehaven, 164pp.; Dunham, K.C. and Hollingworth, S.E. (1947) Excursion to Penrith and the north-west. Mineralogical Magazine, 28, 248-254.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (xxxx) Unpublished manuscript.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Chris J. Stanley and David J. Vaughan (1981) Native Antimony and Bournonite Intergrowths in Galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine 44:257-260.
Ramsbeckite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006; Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Redgillite
Formula: Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Romanèchite
Formula: (Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006; Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Rosasite ?
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury & Hartley (1957): "[in the] 12- and 30-fathom levels."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G., Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of rosasite in Britain. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 501-502.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1957).
Schulenbergite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Serpierite ?
Formula: Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Habit: lath-like
Colour: pale blue
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury and Hartley (1957): "in some massive, intergrown chalcopyrite and blende, derived from the 30-fathom level, serpierite occurs in narrow veinlets or coating surfaces of joints; it forms aggregates of tiny, pale blue, lath-like crystals, with a pearly lustre, and at first sight could be confused with aurichalcite. Its identity was confirmed by powder photographs which exactly match that of authenticated serpierite from Laurium. On some of the specimens from Driggith mine, the serpierite is intimately associated with another pale-blue, pearly mineral, in minute hexagonal plates, which gives an entirely different but well-defined powder-pattern but has so far remained unidentified."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Serpierite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(238), 604-605.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury and Hartley, 1957 and Hartley, 1984).
Silver
Formula: Ag
Habit: minute dendrites in cerussite (D.R. Middleton Collection)
Description: D.R. Middleton Collection (pers. comm., 1986).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.; Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britain and Ireland. Terra Publications, Harpenden.
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Habit: coatings
Colour: pale blue
Description: From the 12fm and 30fm level dumps.
Reference: Day, F.H. (1928) Some notes on the minerals of the Caldbeck Fells. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 4, 66-79.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Day, 1928 and Hartley, 1984).
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Dunham, K.C. and Hollingworth, S.E. (1947) Excursion to Penrith and the north-west. Mineralogical Magazine, 28, 248-254.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Serpierite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(238), 604-605.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Tennantite ?
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Description: Kingsbury reference. From the 12fm dumps.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury and Hartley, 1953).
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series' ?
Description: Kingsbury reference. From the 30fm dumps and the Driggith-Sandbeds vein outcrop workings.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1953 and Hartley, 1984).
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Stanley & Vaughan, 1981).; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Tetrahedrite var: Argentian Tetrahedrite
Formula: (Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Description: Argentian tetrahedrite (10-12 wt% Ag) occurs as minute grains (< 200µm) on quartz or included in galena (Stanley & Vaughan, 1984).
Reference: Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Stanley & Vaughan, 1981).
Turquoise
Formula: Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Wroewolfeite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006; Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Habit: plates (0.5-2mm) showing the forms c(001), n(011) and e(112)
Colour: yellow
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Zálesíite
Formula: CaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006; Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Antimony1.CA.05Sb
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Bournonite2.GA.50PbCuSbS3
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cinnabar2.CD.15aHgS
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Djurleite2.BA.05Cu31S16
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Tennantite ?2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
var: Argentian Tetrahedrite2.GB.05(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 3 - Halides
Chlorargyrite ?3.AA.15AgCl
Connellite3.DA.25Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Bindheimite'4.DH.20Pb2Sb2O6O
Cuprite ?4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
Romanèchite4.DK.10(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Aurichalcite ?5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Brianyoungite5.BF.30Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Hydrocerussite ?5.BE.10Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Leadhillite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Phosgenite ?5.BE.20Pb2CO3Cl2
Rosasite ?5.BA.10(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Beaverite-(Cu) ?7.BC.10Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Bechererite7.DD.55Zn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Caledonite ?7.BC.50Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Chalcanthite ?7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Chenite7.BC.70Pb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Devilline7.DD.30CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Elyite7.DF.65Pb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Lanarkite7.BD.40Pb2(SO4)O
Langite7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Linarite ?7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite ?7.BC.10Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Posnjakite7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
Ramsbeckite7.DD.60(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
Redgillite7.DD.70Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Schulenbergite7.DD.80(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Serpierite ?7.DD.30Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Wroewolfeite7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Adamite8.BB.30Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
var: Cuprian Adamite8.BB.30(Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
Bayldonite ?8.BH.45PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Beudantite ?8.BL.05PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Carminite ?8.BH.30PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Conichalcite8.BH.35CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Duftite ?8.BH.35PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Erythrite8.CE.40Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Ianbruceite8.DA.50[Zn2(OH)(H2O)(AsO4)](H2O)2
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Philipsburgite8.DA.35(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Pseudomalachite8.BD.05Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Turquoise8.DD.15Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Zálesíite8.DL.15CaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Allophane9.ED.20(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Plancheite ?9.DB.35Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Agardite'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'-
'Psilomelane'-
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series' ?-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Semi-metals and non-metals
Antimony1.3.1.2Sb
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Djurleite2.4.7.2Cu31S16
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tennantite ?3.3.6.2Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ø = 3
Bournonite3.4.3.2PbCuSbS3
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite ?4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB8X16
Romanèchite7.9.2.1(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Chlorargyrite ?9.1.4.1AgCl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Hydrocerussite ?16a.2.2.1Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Phosgenite ?16a.3.4.1Pb2CO3Cl2
Rosasite ?16a.3.1.2(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite ?16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Leadhillite17.1.2.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite ?29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Chenite30.1.16.1Pb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Elyite30.1.2.1Pb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Beaverite-(Cu) ?30.2.5.7Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Lanarkite30.2.1.1Pb2(SO4)O
Linarite ?30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite ?30.2.5.6Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Connellite31.1.1.1Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Schulenbergite31.1.6.1(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Langite31.4.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Posnjakite31.4.1.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
Ramsbeckite31.4.9.1(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
Wroewolfeite31.4.2.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Devilline31.6.1.1CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Serpierite ?31.6.2.1Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Caledonite ?32.3.2.1Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Erythrite40.3.6.3Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Pseudomalachite41.4.3.1Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Bayldonite ?41.5.14.1PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Conichalcite41.5.1.2CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Duftite ?41.5.1.4PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
A2(XO4)Zq
Adamite41.6.6.3Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq
Carminite ?41.10.6.1PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)3(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Philipsburgite42.2.4.2(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
(AB)7(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Zálesíite42.5.1.7CaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
A2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Ianbruceite42.6.11.[Zn2(OH)(H2O)(AsO4)](H2O)2
(AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
Turquoise42.9.3.1Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Beudantite ?43.4.1.1PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Group 44 - ANTIMONATES
A2X2O6(O,OH,F)
'Bindheimite'44.1.1.2Pb2Sb2O6O
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Ca subgroup
Plancheite ?66.2.1.1Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Allophane71.1.5.1(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Adamite
var: Cuprian Adamite
-(Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
'Agardite'-
Bechererite-Zn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
Brianyoungite-Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'-
'Psilomelane'-
Quartz
var: Chalcedony
-SiO2
Redgillite-Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series' ?-
Tetrahedrite
var: Argentian Tetrahedrite
-(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
H AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
H Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
H DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
H TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
H BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
H RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
H Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
H BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
H ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
H ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
H ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
H Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
H Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
H WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H ZálesíiteCaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H Ianbruceite[Zn2(OH)(H2O)(AsO4)](H2O)2
H Adamite (var: Cuprian Adamite)(Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
H Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
H BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
H CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
H DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
H HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
H PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
H SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
C HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
C PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
C Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
OOxygen
O ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
O AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
O Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
O AnglesitePbSO4
O BaryteBaSO4
O BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
O CalciteCaCO3
O CerussitePbCO3
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
O DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
O RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
O Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
O ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
O ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
O LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
O Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
O Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
O WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O ZálesíiteCaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
O Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O Ianbruceite[Zn2(OH)(H2O)(AsO4)](H2O)2
O Adamite (var: Cuprian Adamite)(Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
O Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
O BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
O CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
O CupriteCu2O
O DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
O HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
O PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
O PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
O SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
Si Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
PPhosphorus
P PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
P TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
P Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
SSulfur
S ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BaryteBaSO4
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S BournonitePbCuSbS3
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S ChalcociteCu2S
S CovelliteCuS
S DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
S DjurleiteCu31S16
S GalenaPbS
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
S RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
S Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
S BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
S CinnabarHgS
S ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
S ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
S LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
S LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
S Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
S WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S Tetrahedrite (var: Argentian Tetrahedrite)(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
S Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
S BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
S TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
ClChlorine
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Cl ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Cl ChlorargyriteAgCl
Cl PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
KPotassium
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Ca DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca ZálesíiteCaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
Ca SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
MnManganese
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
FeIron
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Fe TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe Tetrahedrite (var: Argentian Tetrahedrite)(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Fe Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Fe PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
CoCobalt
Co ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
CuCopper
Cu ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu BournonitePbCuSbS3
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CopperCu
Cu DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu DjurleiteCu31S16
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Cu TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Cu BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
Cu RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Cu Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Cu ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Cu ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
Cu LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
Cu Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
Cu WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu ZálesíiteCaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu Adamite (var: Cuprian Adamite)(Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
Cu Tetrahedrite (var: Argentian Tetrahedrite)(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Cu BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Cu Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Cu CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Cu Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
ZnZinc
Zn AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Zn Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Zn BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
Zn Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Zn BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
Zn Ianbruceite[Zn2(OH)(H2O)(AsO4)](H2O)2
Zn Adamite (var: Cuprian Adamite)(Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
Zn Tetrahedrite (var: Argentian Tetrahedrite)(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Zn Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Zn SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
AsArsenic
As AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
As ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
As ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
As ZálesíiteCaCu6(AsO4)2(AsO3OH)(OH)6 · 3H2O
As Ianbruceite[Zn2(OH)(H2O)(AsO4)](H2O)2
As Adamite (var: Cuprian Adamite)(Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
As BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
As BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
As DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
As TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
Ag Tetrahedrite (var: Argentian Tetrahedrite)(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Ag ChlorargyriteAgCl
SbAntimony
Sb AntimonySb
Sb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
Sb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Sb Tetrahedrite (var: Argentian Tetrahedrite)(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
HgMercury
Hg CinnabarHgS
PbLead
Pb ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
Pb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
Pb LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
Pb BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Pb Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Pb CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Pb DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Pb HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
Pb PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6

Geochronology

Mineralization age: Triassic : 239 Ma to 236 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Mesozoic
  Triassic
   Late Triassic
ⓘ Illite (youngest age)236 Ma
   Middle Triassic
ⓘ Illite (oldest age)239 Ma

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3132076
Early Carboniferous limestone

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{limestone}, Minor{claystone,siltstone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3186080
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Ordovician
443.8 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 2033368
Unnamed Extrusive Rocks, Ordovician

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Mafic lava

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Parson, W. and White, W. (1829) History, directory, and gazeteer of the counties of Cumberland and Westmorland... xxxiv, 732 pp. [facsimile reprint by Michael Moon, Beckermet, Cumbria, 1976].
Mannix, ... and Whellan, W. (1847) History, gazeteer and directory of Cumberland. Printed for the authors by W.B. Johnson, Beverley, 647 pp. [facsimile reprint by Michael Moon, Beckermet, 1974].
Sowerby, H. (1850) Popular mineralogy; comprising a familiar account of minerals and their uses. Reeve and Benham, London [Collecting minerals, by B.M. Wright, 14-23].
Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, ix, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].
Whellan, W. (1860) The history and topography of the counties of Cumberland and Westmoreland. W. Whellan, Pontefract. viii, 896 pp.
Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanton, London, 168 pp.
Postlethwaite, J. (1913) Mines and Mining in the (English) Lake District. 3rd edition, Moss and Sons, Whitehaven, 164 pp.
Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.
Dewey, H. and Eastwood, T. (1925) Copper ores of the Midlands, Wales, the Lake District and the Isle of Man. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain, No. 30. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.
Day, F.H. (1928) Some notes on the minerals of the Caldbeck Fells. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 4, 66-79.
Dunham, K.C. and Dines, H.G. (1945) Barium minerals of England and Wales. Wartime Pamphlet no. 46, Geological Survey of Great Britain.
Dunham, K.C. and Hollingworth, S.E. (1947) Excursion to Penrith and the north-west. Mineralogical Magazine, 28, 248-254.
Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1 [An unpublished 39-page typescript of a paper given to the Mineralogical Society on 8 March 1951. Several of the species detailed here were to become the subject of separate papers published in later years. Many of the remaining species were not listed until Hartley's summary paper of 1984].
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-. [A hardback notebook containing lists of species by locality with occasional notes and descriptive detail].
Thimmaiah, T. (1956) Mineralisation of the Caldbeck Fells area, Cumberland. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1957) New occurrences of phosgenite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 500-501.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of rosasite in Britain. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 501-502.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Serpierite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(238), 604-605.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.
Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].
Ineson, P.R. and Mitchell, J.G. (1974) K-Ar isotopic age determinations from some Lake District mineral localities. Geological Magazine, 111, 521-537.
Stanley, C.J. (1979) Mineralogical studies of copper, lead, zinc, and cobalt mineralization in the English Lake District. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Aston, Birmingham.
Stanley, C.J. and Vaughan, D.J. (1981) Native antimony and bournonite intergrowths in galena from the English Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 44(335), 257-260.
Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.
Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Green, D.I. and Hubbard, N. (1996) Chenite from Driggith mine, Cumbria. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 16, 15.
Ryback, G., Hart, A.D., and Stanley, C.J. (2001) A.W.G. Kingsbury's specimens of British minerals. Part 1: some examples of falsified localities. Journal of the Russell Society, 7(2).
Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., Bridges, T.F., Tindle, A.G., and Ixer, R.A. (2006) A review of the mineralisation at the Sandbed and Driggith mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 9, 4-38.
Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britain and Ireland. Terra Publications, Harpenden.
Neall, T., Leppington, C.M., Green, D., and Rumsey, M.S. (2013) The First British Occurrences of Ianbruceite from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 34, 8-12.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS4) (xxxx) [A 6 in to 1 mile Ordnance Survey map of the Caldbeck Fells with copious handwritten annotations by Kingsbury listing and localizing many of his finds].

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