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Dry Gill Mine, Caldbeck, Allerdale, Cumbria, England, UKi
Regional Level Types
Dry Gill MineMine
CaldbeckCivil Parish
AllerdaleDistrict
CumbriaCounty
EnglandConstituent Country
UKCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
54° 42' 5'' North , 3° 3' 2'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
UK National Grid Reference:
NY324345
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Caldbeck311 (2018)5.2km
Bassenthwaite412 (2018)9.6km
Greystoke654 (2018)12.0km
Keswick4,281 (2018)12.5km
Portinscale560 (2018)13.3km


Cooper & Stanley (1991):

"Of little commercial significance, this mine is one of the most famous mineral localities in the world. Lead minerals consisting predominantly of phosphatian mimetite (campylite) in a gangue of quartz, barite and manganese oxides were deposited in an east-west vein. Other minerals occur rarely, the most well-known being plumbogummite.

Although mimetite specimens from Dry Gill are recorded from at least 1830 there is no record of commercial ore mining here until a lease was taken by Hugh Lee Pattinson, inventor of a cupellation process for the desilvering of lead. Pattinson began work in 1846, driving an adit on the vein where it crosses Dry Gill beck near the foot of the gill. He raised a few hundred tons of "colored lead ore" but gave up the work in the 1850's. The property was subsequently tried by various operators, none of whom had much success. The mine was last worked in 1869.

The finest mimetite specimens were collected in the 19th century but, although increasingly hard to find, some fine material has been obtained since, particularly in the 1970's. However, the mine is notoriously unstable, cold and wet, and there have been a number of accidents involving collectors. No one has been critically injured but the incidents have highlighted the dangers of the old workings in the Caldbeck Fells."

Note: Cooper & Stanley (1990) mention a "Deep or Pattinson Level [NY325346]".

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


22 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Description: associated with campylite (Young, 1987).
Reference: Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp. (p.12).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Young, 1987).
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: [Cooper & Stanley, 1990, 80 - "Minerals of the English Lake district"]
Azurite ?
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Description: Kingsbury reference. Recorded from the "lower day level" (Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960) or "bottom level" (Hartley, 1984) with beudantite, baryte and "psilomelane".
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960 and Hartley, 1984).
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Habit: tabular
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "First recorded by Greg & Lettsom (1858), baryte occurs here with mimetite and psilomelane. Tabular crystals are not uncommon and may reach 50mm or more on edge, but are generally dull and stained with manganese oxides. [...] Deep scars, presumably from baryte plates, may sometimes be seen in mimetite crystals."
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, ix, 483 pp. [facsimile reprint, with addenda, by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Beudantite ?
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Habit: powdery, crystalline and fine-grained aggregates
Colour: greenish-yellow; yellow; brown
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury & Hartley (1960: 428): "in material from the middle cross-cut about halfway up the gill [NY32053450], as greenish yellow powdery aggregates associated with olivenite, and in material from the lower day-level [NY325346] as yellow crystalline and brown fine-grained aggregates, with baryte, azurite, and 'psilomelane'.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960 and Hartley, 1984).; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28 (referring to Kingsbury).
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford, London, 168 pp.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hall, 1868 and Hartley, 1984).
Carminite ?
Formula: PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Kingsbury & Stanley (1960) claimed that some of the beudantite they found here appeared to have been derived from carminite but they found no traces of the latter."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Coronadite
Formula: Pb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Habit: massive to fibrous; botryoidal
Colour: silver-white inclining to steel-grey metallic when fresh, tarnishing to dull black
Description: Green et al. (2008): "Coronadite is rare in the Caldbeck Fells. It was reported by Hartley (1959) from Dry Gill Mine and is sometimes assumed to be fairly common there, but recent research has shown that almost all of the black manganese oxide that accompanies Dry Gill campylite is romanèchite."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1959) Coronadite from Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(247), 343-344.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, 42(322), 169-177.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1959 and Hartley, 1984).; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Eastwood, 1921 and Shaw, 1970).
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 48-50.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 48-50.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
'Manganese Oxides'
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Habit: tabular; long to short prismatic; acicular
Colour: pale to dark orange-brown, (greenish) yellow, lime to olive green
Reference: Phillips, W. (1837) An elementary introduction to mineralogy. [4th edition, considerably augmented by Robert Allan]. Longman, Reese, Orme, Brown, Green and Longman, London, 425 pp.; Breithaupt, J.F.A. (1841) Vollständiges Handbuch der Mineralogie, vol. 2. Arnoldische, Dresden and Leipzig, 406 pp.; Dana, J.D. (1850) System of mineralogy. 3rd ed. Putnam, New York and London, 711 pp.; Sowerby, H. (1850) Popular mineralogy; comprising a familiar account of minerals and their uses. Reeve and Benham, London [Collecting minerals, by B.M. Wright, 14-23].; Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, ix, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford, London, 168 pp.; Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.; Rudler, F.W. (1905) A handbook to a collection of the minerals of the British Islands ... in the Museum of Practical Geology ... London. H.M.S.O. London, x, 241 pp.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 831, 893.; Newby, H.P. (1981) Rare earth elements in pyromorphite group minerals. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.; Hochleitner, R. (1984) Kampylite von Cumberland. Lapis, 9, 27.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1987) Minerals of the Caldbeck Fells, 108-113.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Mimetite var: Campylite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Habit: rounded barrel-shaped crystals to globular aggregates
Colour: orange-yellow; shades of brown; green (19th-century specimens)
Description: May contain sufficient phosphorus to grade into an arsenatian pyromorphite.
Reference: Phillips, W. (1837) An elementary introduction to mineralogy. [4th edition, considerably augmented by Robert Allan]. Longman, Reese, Orme, Brown, Green and Longman, London, 425 pp.; Breithaupt, J.F.A. (1841) Vollständiges Handbuch der Mineralogie, vol. 2. Arnoldische, Dresden and Leipzig, 406 pp.; Von Kurr, J.G. (1858) Das Mineralreich in Bildern. Schreiber and Schill, Stuttgart.; Russell, A. (1936) Notes on the occurrence of wulfenite at Brandy Gill, Cumberland, and of leadhillite at Drumruck Mine, Kirkcudbrightshire. Mineralogical Magazine, 24(153), 321-323.; Hartley, J. (1959) Coronadite from Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 32, 343-344.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, 42(322), 169-177.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'
Habit: prismatic; tapering
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Olivenite ?
Formula: Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Colour: dark green
Description: Kingsbury reference. "From the middle cross-cut dumps halfway up the gill."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951-1960 and Hartley, 1984).; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28. (referring to Kingsbury).
Pharmacosiderite
Formula: KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951).
Plumbogummite
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Habit: drusy encrustation
Colour: dark turquoise blue; very pale blue to colourless; brown
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 831.; Van Den Berg, W. (1985) Mineralen zoeken in de Caldbeck Fells (Lake District). Gea (Driemaandelijks tijdschrift van de Stichting Geologische Aktiviteiten), 18, 39-48 (in Dutch).; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
'Psilomelane'
Formula: Mn, O
Habit: occasionally botryoidal
Description: Probably either coronadite or romanèchite. Sometimes as epimorphs after an unknown mineral, strongly resembling sheafy hemimorphite crystals (M. Leppington Collection) (Cooper & Stanley, 1990). Green et al. (2008): "Coronadite is rare in the Caldbeck Fells. It was reported by Hartley (1959) from Dry Gill Mine and is sometimes assumed to be fairly common there, but recent research has shown that almost all of the black manganese oxide that accompanies Dry Gill campylite is romanèchite."
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, ix, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford, London, 168 pp.; Goodchild, J.G. (1882) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 1]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 7 (for 1881-1882), 101-126.; Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Hartley, J. (1959) Coronadite from Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 32, 343-344.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, 42(322), 169-177.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Habit: powdery and earthy coatings
Reference: Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Goodchild, 1885).
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Habit: acicular; tapering prisms
Colour: bright canary yellow; similar colours to mimetite
Reference: Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 831.; El Shazly, E.M., Webb, J.S., and Williams, D. (1957) Trace elements in sphalerite, galena and associated minerals from the British Isles. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 66, 241-271.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Habit: massive
Reference: Hartley, J. (1959) Coronadite from Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 32, 343-344.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, 42(322), 169-177.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Romanèchite
Formula: (Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "The majority of records for 'psilomelane' from Caldbeck would probably now be referred to [as] romanèchite. A check of X-ray records in the BM(NH) shows that romanèchite has been confirmed from Dry Gill." Green et al. (2008): "Coronadite is rare in the Caldbeck Fells. It was reported by Hartley (1959) from Dry Gill Mine and is sometimes assumed to be fairly common there, but recent research has shown that almost all of the black manganese oxide that accompanies Dry Gill campylite is romanèchite."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Wilson, G.V., Eastwood, T., Pocock, R.W., Wray, D.A., and Robertson, T. (1922) Barytes and witherite. Special Report of the Mineral Resources of Great Britain no. 2, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Eastwood, 1921 and Wilson et al., 1922).
'Wad'
Reference: Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 48-50.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Cinnabar2.CD.15aHgS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Coronadite4.DK.05aPb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Romanèchite4.DK.10(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aurichalcite5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Azurite ?5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Beudantite ?8.BL.05PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Carminite ?8.BH.30PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
var: Campylite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Olivenite ?8.BB.30Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Pharmacosiderite8.DK.10KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Plumbogummite8.BL.10PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Manganese Oxides'-
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'-
'Psilomelane'-Mn, O
'Wad'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB8X16
Coronadite7.9.1.4Pb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Romanèchite7.9.2.1(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite ?16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A2(XO4)Zq
Olivenite ?41.6.6.1Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq
Carminite ?41.10.6.1PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Plumbogummite42.7.3.5PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Pharmacosiderite42.8.1a.1KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Beudantite ?43.4.1.1PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Manganese Oxides'-
Mimetite
var: Campylite
-Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'-
'Psilomelane'-Mn, O
'Wad'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
H PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
H Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
H CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
CCarbon
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C CalciteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
OOxygen
O AnglesitePbSO4
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O BaryteBaSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O CerussitePbCO3
O CoronaditePb(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
O PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
O PsilomelaneMn, O
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
O QuartzSiO2
O Mimetite (var: Campylite)Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
O CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
PPhosphorus
P PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
SSulfur
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BaryteBaSO4
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
S CinnabarHgS
S BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
ClChlorine
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Cl Mimetite (var: Campylite)Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
KPotassium
K PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
MnManganese
Mn CoronaditePb(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
Mn PsilomelaneMn, O
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
FeIron
Fe PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
CuCopper
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
ZnZinc
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
As Mimetite (var: Campylite)Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
As BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
As CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
HgMercury
Hg CinnabarHgS
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb CoronaditePb(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb Mimetite (var: Campylite)Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Phillips, W. (1837) An elementary introduction to mineralogy. [4th edition, considerably augmented by Robert Allan]. Longman, Reese, Orme, Brown, Green and Longman, London, 425 pp. [p. 364 on mimetite/campylite from 'Caldbeck Fell'].
Thomson, T. (1839) Notice respecting the native diarseniate of lead. Report of the eighth meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1838, transactions of the sections 46-48 [on mimetite].
Breithaupt, J.F.A. (1841) Vollständiges Handbuch der Mineralogie, vol. 2. Arnoldische, Dresden and Leipzig, 406 pp. [contains a description on p. 293 of "Kampylite = phosphatian mimetite" from 'Alston More [sic], Cumberland, an error for Dry Gill].
Dana, J.D. (1850) System of mineralogy. 3rd ed. Putnam, New York and London, 711 pp.
Sowerby, H. (1850) Popular mineralogy; comprising a familiar account of minerals and their uses. Reeve and Benham, London [Collecting minerals, by B.M. Wright, 14-23].
Ellis, R. (1851) Official descriptive and illustrated catalogue of the Great Exhibition of the works of industry of all nations. Spicer Bros, London, 3 volumes. [volume 1, p. 174]. [https://www.e-rara.ch/zut/content/pageview/6727206]
Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, ix, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].
Von Kurr, J.G. (1858) Das Mineralreich in Bildern. Schreiber and Schill, Stuttgart ['kampylite' figured in Table XX. An English translation published as 'The Mineral Kingdom' by Edmonston and Douglas, Edinburgh, 1859].
Simons, W.V. (1866) A catalogue of foreign minerals in the possession of the Mining Department, Melbourne, Victoria. John Ferres, Melbourne, 74 pp. [includes a specimen of 'campellite - diarseniate of lead'].
Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford, London, 168 pp.
Goodchild, J.G. (1882) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 1]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 7 (for 1881-1882), 101-126.
Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.
Rudler, F.W. (1905) A handbook to a collection of the minerals of the British Islands ... in the Museum of Practical Geology ... London. H.M.S.O. London, x, 241 pp.
Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.
Wilson, G.V., Eastwood, T., Pocock, R.W., Wray, D.A., and Robertson, T. (1922) Barytes and witherite. Special Report of the Mineral Resources of Great Britain no. 2, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.
Russell, A. (1936) Notes on the occurrence of wulfenite at Brandy Gill, Cumberland, and of leadhillite at Drumruck Mine, Kirkcudbrightshire. Mineralogical Magazine, 24(153), 321-323 (referring to campylite from Dry Gill).
Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1 [An unpublished 39-page typescript of a paper given to the Mineralogical Society on 8 March 1951. Several of the species detailed here were to become the subject of separate papers published in later years. Many of the remaining species were not listed until Hartley's summary paper of 1984].
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 831.
El Shazly, E.M., Webb, J.S., and Williams, D. (1957) Trace elements in sphalerite, galena and associated minerals from the British Isles. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 66, 241-271.
Hartley, J. (1959) Coronadite from Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(247), 343-344.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.
Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].
Newby, H.P. (1981) Rare earth elements in pyromorphite group minerals. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.
Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.
Hochleitner, R. (1984) Kampylite von Cumberland. Lapis, 9, 27 [history and status of name; colour plate] (in German).
Van Den Berg, W. (1985) Mineralen zoeken in de Caldbeck Fells (Lake District). Gea (Driemaandelijks tijdschrift van de Stichting Geologische Aktiviteiten), 18, 39-48 (in Dutch).
Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.
Adams, J. (1988) Mines of the Lake District Fells. Dalesman Books, Clapham, Lancaster, 160 pp.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Neall, T. and Leppington, M. (1994) Cinnabar from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 5(2), 123-124.
Adams, J. (1995) Mines of the Lake District Fells. Dalesman Books, 82–83.
Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Tyler, I. (2009) Roughton Gill and the mines of the Caldbeck Fells. Blue Rock Publishing, 156–159.

Other Regions, Features and Areas containg this locality

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