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Low Pike north slopes, Caldbeck, Allerdale, Cumbria, England, UK

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 54° 42' 45'' North , 3° 3' 20'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 54.71250,-3.05561
GeoHash:G#: gctz62ngr
UK National Grid Reference:NY320358
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate


Cooper & Stanley (1990):

"A quartz vein, apparently the continuation of the Silver Gill lode, trends NE-SW across the northern slopes of High Pike and is here known as the Low Pike vein.

A short level was driven on it to the east of Potts Gill and several small trials were dug at an outcrop on Low Pike.

All these workings contained quartz and some low-grade baryte (Dunham & Dines, 1945).

In 1986, specimens from one small trial [NY320358] brought to the attention of MPC proved to contain the rare copper arsenate, cornwallite.

Subsequent examination of the small site has revealed an assemblage of unusual copper and lead arsenate-phosphates including philipsburgite, which also occurs at Old Potts Gill mine."

Regions containing this locality

Caldbeck Fells Mining Region, Cumbria, England, UK

Mining District - 307 mineral species & varietal names listed

Lake District National Park, Cumbria, England, UK

National Park - 403 mineral species & varietal names listed

Lake District National Park Authority - Caldbeck and Uldale Green Zone, Cumbria, England, UK

Mineral Collecting Permit Zone - 183 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


15 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

'Apatite Group'
Reference: No reference listed
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Habit: tabular up to 2mm long
Description: As solid masses to 30cm and as small, complex, water-clear crystals on cornwallite, from an old trial on the Low Pike vein [NY320358].
Reference: Dunham, K.C. and Dines, H.G. (1945) Barium minerals of England and Wales. Wartime Pamphlet n° 46, Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Dunham & Dines, 1945).; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Bayldonite
Formula: PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Habit: thin crusts on quartz; pseudomorphs after mimetite with cornwallite, beudantite etc.
Colour: light green
Description: From an old trial on the Low Pike vein [NY320358]. Identified by infra-red spectrophotometry at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Habit: rhombohedra; crusts
Colour: yellow; golden yellow, slightly iridescent
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "On one recently collected specimen, beudantite occurs as minute, golden yellow, slightly iridescent rhombohedra on iron-stained quartz with mimetite, bayldonite, and cornwallite from an old trial on the Low Pike vein above Potts Gill [NY320358] (M.P. Cooper Collection, det. BM(NH): XRD). Also as a minutely crystalline yellow crust (B. Young, pers. comm., det. British Geological Survey (BGS): XRD)."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; BMS Database
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "a rare associate of cornwallite, malachite etc. from an old trial on the Low Pike vein [NY320358] (det. Leeds Univ.: XRD; D.I. Green, pers. comm.)."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Description: M.P. Cooper Collection.
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Cornwallite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Habit: thin, drusy crusts
Colour: bright turquoise
Description: First identified by Cooper & Stanley (1990) on a few specimens collected by D.R. Middleton, cornwallite is fairly common in small amounts on dump material from an old trial on the Low Pike vein above Potts Gill [NY320358]. It forms thin, drusy, crusts of a bright turquoise colour in fractures in vein quartz with mimetite, bayldonite, philipsburgite, beudantite, and baryte (det. BM(NH): XRD). A similar, but darker green mineral has been identified as a phosphatian variety (M.P. Cooper Collection, det. University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST): IR).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Duftite
Formula: PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Habit: crusts
Colour: yellow
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "very rarely, as a yellow crust with bayldonite from a small trial on the Low Pike vein [NY320358] (det. British Geological Survey (BGS): XRD, B. Young, pers. comm.)."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Kipushite ?
Formula: (Cu,Zn)5Zn(PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990) p. 100: "An old trial on the Low Pike vein above Potts Gill [320358] yielded small amounts of minutely crystalline philipsburgite containing considerable phosphate substituting for arsenate. The IR spectra of some samples (M.P. Cooper Collection) suggested that the substitution proportion might be sufficient to render the mineral kipushite [Braithwaite & Ryback, 1988]. However, specimens analysed by XRD (BM(NH)) are closer to philipsburgite and a well-crystallized sample, from the D. Hacker Collection, analysed semi-quantitatively by EPMA shows a somewhat higher arsenate: phosphate ratio than type philipsburgite. (det. Leicester Univ.)." Cooper & Stanley (1990) p. 115: "Although the high phosphate content of one specimen analysed by IR led Braithwaite & Ryback (1988) to suggest that it may, in fact, be a highly arsenatian kipushite this species has not so far been identified by XRD from Low Pike. Moreover, a semi-quantitative analysis of a well-crystallized sample shows an As/AS+P ratio slightly higher than type philipsburgite (det. J. Faithfull, Leicester Univ.: EPMA."
Reference: Braithwaite, R.S.W. and Ryback, G. (1988) Philipsburgite from the Caldbeck Fells and kipushite from Montana, and their infrared spectra. Mineralogical Magazine, 53, 529-533.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Braithwaite & Ryback, 1988).
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Habit: radiating fibrous masses
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "In small quantities as radiating fibrous masses with cornwallite, philipsburgite etc. from an old trial on the Low Pike vein at [NY320358] (det. Leeds Univ.: XRD)."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: BMS Database
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Habit: crystalline crust
Colour: yellow
Description: From an old trial on the Low Pike vein [NY320358]. Det. British Geological Survey (BGS): XRD (B. Young, pers. comm.)
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'
Description: An intermediate mimetite-pyromorphite (c. 1:1 phosphate:arsenate) phase, occurring as small olive green crystals on baryte from an old trial on the Low Pike vein [NY320358], has been identified by IR (M.P. Cooper Collection, det. University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST)).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Mottramite
Formula: PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Habit: thin encrustations
Colour: greenish brown
Description: With bayldonite from an old trial on the Low Pike vein [NY320358] (N. Thomson Collection, det. BM(NH): XRD).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Philipsburgite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Habit: tabular; fibrous aggregates; botryoidal crusts with a radiating foliated structure
Colour: apple green; pale turquoise; pale green to white
Reference: Braithwaite, R.S.W. and Ryback, G. (1988) Philipsburgite from the Caldbeck Fells and kipushite from Montana, and their infrared spectra. Mineralogical Magazine, 53, 529-533.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Braithwaite & Ryback, 1988).; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Habit: thin porcellanous crusts
Colour: turquoise-blue
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "From an old trial on the Low Pike vein [NY320358] as thin porcellanous pale turquoise-blue crusts on quartz with bayldonite; significant arsenic substitutes for phosphorus in these specimens (M.P. Cooper Collection, det. University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST): IR). Several specimens have also been identified by XRD at the British Geological Survey (BGS) (B. Young, pers. comm.)."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Braithwaite, R.S.W. and Ryback, G. (1994) Reichenbachite from Cornwall and Portugal. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(392), 449-454.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Dunham, K.C. and Dines, H.G. (1945) Barium minerals of England and Wales. Wartime Pamphlet n° 46, Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Dunham & Dines, 1945).; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.; BMS Database

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Manganite'4.FD.15Mn3+O(OH)
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Malachite'5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
'Brochantite'7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Bayldonite'8.BH.45PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
'Beudantite'8.BL.05PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
'Cornwallite'8.BD.05Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
'Duftite'8.BH.35PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
'Kipushite' ?8.DA.35(Cu,Zn)5Zn(PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
'Mimetite'8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
'Mottramite'8.BH.40PbCu(VO4)(OH)
'Philipsburgite'8.DA.35(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
'Pseudomalachite'8.BD.05Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite Group'-
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Manganite6.1.3.1Mn3+O(OH)
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Cornwallite41.4.2.2Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Pseudomalachite41.4.3.1Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Bayldonite41.5.14.1PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Duftite41.5.1.4PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Mottramite41.5.2.2PbCu(VO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)3(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Kipushite ?42.2.4.1(Cu,Zn)5Zn(PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Philipsburgite42.2.4.2(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Beudantite43.4.1.1PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite Group'-
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
H BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
H DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
H Kipushite(Cu,Zn)5Zn(PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
H MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
H Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
H PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
CCarbon
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O BaryteBaSO4
O BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
O BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
O DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
O Kipushite(Cu,Zn)5Zn(PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
O Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
O PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
O QuartzSiO2
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
PPhosphorus
P Kipushite(Cu,Zn)5Zn(PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
P Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
P PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
S BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ClChlorine
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
VVanadium
V MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
MnManganese
Mn ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
FeIron
Fe BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
CuCopper
Cu BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cu DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu Kipushite(Cu,Zn)5Zn(PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Cu Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Cu PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
ZnZinc
Zn Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
AsArsenic
As BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
As BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
As DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
PbLead
Pb BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Pb BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3132076
Early Carboniferous limestone

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{limestone}, Minor{claystone,siltstone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3186080
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Ordovician
443.8 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 2033368
Unnamed Extrusive Rocks, Ordovician

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Mafic lava

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Dunham, K.C. and Dines, H.G. (1945) Barium minerals of England and Wales. Wartime Pamphlet n° 46, Geological Survey of Great Britain.
Braithwaite, R.S.W. and Ryback, G. (1988) Philipsburgite from the Caldbeck Fells and kipushite from Montana, and their infrared spectra. Mineralogical Magazine, 53, 529-533.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Young, B., Cooper, M.P., Green, D.I., and Nancarrow, P. (1990) Supergene minerals from Low Pike, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 2, 25-28.
Braithwaite, R.S.W. and Ryback, G. (1994) Reichenbachite from Cornwall and Portugal. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(392), 449-454.
Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.


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