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Old Potts Gill Mine, Potts Gill, Caldbeck, Allerdale, Cumbria, England, UKi
Regional Level Types
Old Potts Gill MineMine
Potts GillGill
CaldbeckCivil Parish
AllerdaleDistrict
CumbriaCounty
EnglandConstituent Country
UKCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
54° 43' 6'' North , 3° 3' 25'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
UK National Grid Reference:
NY319365
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Caldbeck311 (2018)3.4km
Bassenthwaite412 (2018)9.9km
Greystoke654 (2018)13.1km
Wigton5,831 (2018)13.6km
Thursby846 (2018)13.8km
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
North and Western Region; Cumberland


OS NGR is for the Endeavour level, the site of the deepest workings.

Cooper & Stanley, 1991:

"Workings in the head of Potts Gill date from about 1870 when attempts were made to work the outcrop of the prominent east-west veins for lead. Very little lead ore was found in the predominantly barite-filled vein but the latter mineral was worked from the outbreak of World War I. The mine was closed in 1947.
The barite mined was almost all massive and very little material of specimen quality was found."

Note on the mineral list:

The deposit is of interest primarily for a suite of rare copper and lead minerals reported from the dumps of the "Old No. 1 level" workings by Kingsbury and Hartley (Hartley, 1984). These minerals, which included vanadinite and many rare supergene copper minerals, may have originated from crosscutting copper veins encountered in the barite workings. Unfortunately, there is no detailed record of the source in situ and the origin of Kingsbury's specimens must remain conjectural.

Although a number of unusual copper minerals have been reported, the suite of minerals recorded by Kingsbury and Hartley in the 1950s are considered suspect, given that Kingsbury has since been shown to have falsified a number of occurrences.

Kingsbury's minerals were said to have come from the Old number 1 cross-cut dumps at the head of the Gill (NY 320362). However, Cooper and Stanley (1990) note that Kingsbury's suite of minerals, which include chalcophyllite, conichalcite, devilline, dioptase, serpierite, and tyrolite is unique in the district. Although cornwallite has been found by subsequent collectors, the other rarities have not.

Cooper and Stanley (1990) also note that the newly described species philipsburgite has since been identified on material collected over 20 years previously.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


73 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

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Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Adamite ?
Formula: Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Habit: globular
Colour: green
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Globular green adamite occurs with serpierite or malachite on specimens from the 'old No. 1 cross cut'."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Braithwaite, R.S.W. (1988) Cuproadamite and tennantite from Higher Longrigg mine, Hartley Birkett, Cumbria. Mineralogical Magazine, 52, 552-553 (referring to Kingsbury, 1958 and Spencer, 1958).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Allophane ?
Formula: (Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Description: Kingsbury reference. Noted from the No. 1 level dumps by Kingsbury (MS1).
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury, 1953).
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Description: 'Light and dark coloured varieties' (Shaw, 1970: 65).
Reference: Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Shaw, 1970 and Hartley, 1984).
Antlerite
Formula: Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Habit: powdery aggregates in malachite (Kingsbury & Hartley); on quartz veinfilling (W.F. Davidson (BM(NH)).
Colour: bright emerald green
Description: On quartz veinfilling (W.F. Davidson (BM(NH)).
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).
'Apatite Group'
Reference: No reference listed
Arseniosiderite ?
Formula: Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Habit: tufts of minute, glistening scales
Colour: brown
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of arseniosiderite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 237, 499-500.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Description: As 'fan-shaped aggregates of bladelike crystals' with chrysocolla, malachite, brochantite, and tenorite from 'a small copper vein above the present workings' (Davidson & Thomson, 1951: 140). Found in small amounts on the dump from the old No. 1 level (Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960). Shaw (1970: 67) records 'a small "lead" vein in the Endeavour level containing arsenopyrite, 'marmatite', and 'a very little galena'.
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of arseniosiderite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 499-500.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951, Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960, Shaw, 1970, and Hartley, 1984).
Atacamite ?
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Description: Kingsbury reference. The published note (1956) gave the locality as 'a small copper vein near Potts Gill' but unpublished manuscripts in the BM(NH) make it clear that the specimens originated from dumps of the 'Old No. 1 level', a source of many rare species (see also Hartley, 1984). Aggregates of indistinct crystals either with malachite and iron oxides or alone on a compact reddish matrix. This latter material is very similar to a specimen in the BM(NH) labelled 'Roughton Gill' and was compared directly with it by Kingsbury & Hartley who concluded that 'it would hardly seem possible for them all not to have come from the same provenance'.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) Atacamite from Cumberland and Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 31, 349-350.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1956 and Hartley, 1984).
Aurichalcite ?
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Description: Kingsbury reference. From the 'old No. 2 [No. 1?] cross-cut'.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Serpierite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(238), 604-605.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951-1957 and Hartley, 1984).
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Description: A small specimen in the Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH) shows small azurite crystals embedded in matted cyanotrichite fibres. Listed from here by Hartley (1984).
Reference: Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Shaw, 1970, Hartley, 1984, and Young, 1987).
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Occurs in large lenses up to 3m across (averaging 0.5m) separated by barren ground. [...] Unremarkable white cockscomb aggregates have been found in the Endeavour level (King Collection, National Museum of Wales, Cardiff)."
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, ix, 483 pp. [facsimile reprint, with addenda, by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Wilson, G.V., Eastwood, T., Pocock, R.W., Wray, D.A., and Robertson, T. (1922) Special Report of the Mineral Resources of Great Britain no. 2, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Dunham, K.C. and Dines, H.G. (1945) Barium minerals of England and Wales. Wartime Pamphlet no. 46, Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Bayldonite ?
Formula: PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Found on several specimens forming botryoidal aggregates in quartz, associated with baryte and pseudomalachite or cornwallite from the 'old No. 2 [No. 1?] cross-cut' (Kingsbury & Hartley, MS; Hartley, 1984."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951, Hartley, 1984, and Young, 1987).
Beaverite-(Cu) ?
Formula: Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Habit: powdery aggregates; rhombohedra.
Colour: light canary yellow; yellow
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury & Hartley (1957): "in oxidized vein-material from a small Cu-Pb-Zn-As vein cut by the old No. 1 cross-cut (of the barytes mine) near the head of the Gill Beck, beaverite has been found as light canary yellow powdery aggregates with small brilliant crystals of brochantite (B.M. 1956, 82), and as small (0.5 mm.) brilliant, well-formed yellow rhombohedra in the same matrix. This appears to be the first reported occurrence of beaverite in this habit."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1957 and Hartley, 1984).
Beudantite ?
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Habit: acute rhombohedra; powdery coatings on altered galena
Colour: yellow to yellow-brown
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of arseniosiderite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 499-500.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960 and Hartley, 1984).
Bornite ?
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "'traces' from the 'old No. 1 cross-cut dumps (Kingsbury, MS1); listed by Hartley, (1984)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury, 1953 and Hartley, 1984).
Breithauptite ?
Formula: NiSb
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Specimens in the Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH) show breithauptite with galena and sphalerite in calcite. Kingsbury (MS1) suggests the specimens came from the 'old No. 1 cross-cut dumps', however, the occurrence was not known to his one-time colleague, J. Hartley (pers. comm., 1987).
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury, 1953).
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951, Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951-1957, and Hartley, 1984).
Calcite ?
Formula: CaCO3
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1956 and Hartley, 1984).
Carminite ?
Formula: PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Habit: tufts of minute, tapering acicular crystals
Colour: brick-red
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of arseniosiderite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 499-500.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960 and Hartley, 1984).
Chalcocite ?
Formula: Cu2S
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951-1957 and Hartley, 1984).
Chalcophyllite ?
Formula: Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Habit: hexagonal
Colour: milky green
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Specimens from the 'old No. 1 cross-cut dumps' are preserved in the Kingsbury Collection (BM(NH)), and show typical small hexagonal milky green crystals encrusting small pieces of matrix."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to specimens in the Kingsbury Collection and Hartley, 1984).
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1957-1960, Shaw, 1970, and Hartley, 1984).
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951, Shaw, 1970, and Hartley, 1984).
Conichalcite ?
Formula: CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Habit: globules and botryoidal aggregates
Colour: bright grass-green
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "From the 'old No. 2 [No. 1?] cross-cut' as 'small, characteristic bright grass-green globules and botryoidal aggregates in cavities in iron-stained quartz: in one case it is associated with olivenite' (Kingsbury & Hartley, MS). Specimens matching this description are preserved in the Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).
Connellite ?
Formula: Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Listed from the 'No. 1 cross-cut dumps' (Kingsbury, MS1)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury, 1953).
Cornubite ?
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Habit: botryoidal
Colour: light to dark green
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "During the characterization of cornubite as a new species (Claringbull et al., 1959: 2) two specimens from Potts Gill were examined. They were both collected by Kingsbury and showed 'light and dark green botryoidal cornubite, with on the latter specimen a bluish skin of cornwallite'. Although visually different, the two cornubite varieties yielded identical x-ray powder photographs, the data for which was tabulated by Claringbull et al. (op. cit.)."
Reference: Claringbull, G.F., Hey, M.H., and Davis, R.J. (1959) Cornubite, a new mineral dimorphous with cornwallite. Mineralogical Magazine, 32, 1-5.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Claringbull et al., 1959).; Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (xxxx) Handbook of Mineralogy.
Cornwallite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Habit: sub-botryoidal encrustations on quartz (Kingsbury & Hartley)
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Claringbull, G.F., Hey, M.H., and Davis, R.J. (1959) Cornubite, a new mineral dimorphous with cornwallite. Mineralogical Magazine, 32, 1-5.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951, Claringbull, 1959, Shaw, 1970, and Hartley, 1984).; Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (xxxx) Handbook of Mineralogy.
Covellite ?
Formula: CuS
Description: Kingsbury reference. From the "old No. 1 level dumps."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury, 1953).
Cuprite ?
Formula: Cu2O
Habit: poorly crystalline masses
Colour: red
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "As small red poorly crystalline masses with malachite etc. (Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH)); Hartley, 1984)."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Cyanotrichite ?
Formula: Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Habit: fibrous
Colour: pale blue
Description: Kingsbury reference. A small specimen in the Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH) shows small azurite crystals associated with ?jarosite and malachite embedded in pale blue matted cyanotrichite fibres from the "old No. 1 cross-cut dumps. Listed from here by Hartley (1984).
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Descloizite
Formula: PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Description: From the foot of an air shaft on Deer Hills (det. BM(NH); XRD, 1989, N. Thomson, pers. comm.).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Devilline ?
Formula: CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley).
Dioptase ?
Formula: CuSiO3 · H2O
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "The first British record of dioptase. Specimens in the Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH), collected in 1953 from the 'old No. 1 cross-cut' dumps show attractive prismatic crystals (< a millimetre or so) on small pieces of matrix."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to specimens in the Kingsbury Collection and Hartley, 1984).
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Duftite
Formula: PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Description: With descloizite on a specimen from the foot of an air shaft on Deer Hills (det. BM(NH): XRD, 1989, N. Thomson, pers. comm.).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Description: Shaw (1970: 67) records 'a small "lead" vein in the Endeavour level containing arsenopyrite, 'marmatite', and 'a very little galena'.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of arseniosiderite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 499-500.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960, Shaw, 1970, and Hartley, 1984).
Goethite ?
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960 and Hartley, 1984).
Hematite ?
Formula: Fe2O3
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1957 and Hartley, 1984).
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: David Clayton
Hinsdalite ?
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Habit: massive
Colour: grey
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury, 1953 and Hartley, 1984).
Hydrozincite ?
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Listed by Kingsbury (MS1) but not known to his one-time colleague J. Hartley (pers. comm.)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury, 1953).
'Iron oxide'
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Jarosite ?
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Habit: fine-grained crystalline aggregates
Colour: golden yellow to brown
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury and Hartley (1958): "occurs as golden-yellow to brown fine-grained crystalline aggregates in oxidized vein-material from a small copper vein cut by the old no. I cross- cut; it is associated with various secondary arsenates."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1958) Jarosite and natrojarosite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(240), 813-815.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1958).
Libethenite ?
Formula: Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Habit: pseudo-octahedral to short prismatic
Colour: dark olive-green
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Very rare, known only from the dumps of the 'old No. 1 cross-cut' on specimens collected about 1949-1950 by Kingsbury and Hartley. Specimens in the Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH), show pseudo-octahedral to short prismatic, sparkling, dark olive-green crystals encrusting pseudomalachite. Listed by Hartley (1984).".
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951, Hartley, 1984, and Young, 1987).
Linarite ?
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "As sprays of incomplete, bladed, crystals (< 10mm) in joints in a gossany matrix (Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH)); listed by Hartley (1984)."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984 and Young, 1987).
Liroconite ?
Formula: Cu2Al(AsO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "From the 'No. 1 cross-cut' and 'new to Cumb[erland]' (Kingsbury, MS1). The occurrence is not mentioned in other Kingsbury MSS and is not known to his one-time colleague J. Hartley (pers. comm.). Requires confirmation."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury, 1953).
Löllingite ?
Formula: FeAs2
Description: Kingsbury reference. "in... small veins and strings carrying galena, pyrite and arsenopyrite" from the 'No. 1 cross-cut' dumps (Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960: 429).
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960 and Hartley, 1984).
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Found as attractive masses of acicular crystals and as unique (for the district) thick botryoidal crusts (Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH)). Specimens collected recently show only traces."
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951, Kingsbury & Hartley, 1957, Shaw, 1970, and Hartley, 1984).
'Manganese Oxides'
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951).
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Reference: David Clayton
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Ineson, P.R. and Mitchell, J.G. (1974) K-Ar isotopic age determinations from some Lake District mineral localities. Geological Magazine, 111, 521-537.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Ineson & Mitchell, 1974).
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: Ineson, P.R. and Mitchell, J.G. (1974) K-Ar isotopic age determinations from some Lake District mineral localities. Geological Magazine, 111, 521-537.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Ineson & Mitchell, 1974).
Olivenite ?
Formula: Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Habit: crusts to 4cm across
Colour: dark green
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).
Palygorskite
Formula: (Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Shaw, 1970).
Pharmacosiderite ?
Formula: KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960 and Hartley, 1984).
Philipsburgite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Description: Minutely crystalline encrustations on or with malachite in vuggy quartz on specimens collected in 1965. The first British occurrence (Braithwaite & Ryback, 1988).
Reference: Braithwaite, R.S.W. and Ryback, G. (1988) Philipsburgite from the Caldbeck Fells and kipushite from Montana, and their infrared spectra. Mineralogical Magazine, 52(367), 529-533.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Braithwaite & Ryback, 1988).
Plumbogummite ?
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Description: Kingsbury reference. From the 'old No. 1 cross-cut dumps'.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-. Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury, 1953 and Hartley, 1984).
Posnjakite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
Reference: David Clayton
Prehnite ?
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Habit: botryoidal
Colour: white
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "A specimen of white, botryoidal prehnite labelled Potts Gill is in the Kingsbury Collection (BM(NH)) (Young, 1987). The label is not in Kingsbury's hand and there is no record of the occurrence in any of his unpublished MSS in the BM(NH), nor is this occurrence known to Kingsbury's one-time colleague J. Hartley (pers. comm.)."
Reference: Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Young, 1987).
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Habit: crusts and masses up to 100mm across
Colour: dark emerald green
Description: Confirmed by IR by Braithwaite & Ryback (1994).
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Braithwaite, R.S.W. and Ryback, G. (1994) Reichenbachite from Cornwall and Portugal. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(392), 449-454.
'Psilomelane'
Formula: Mn, O
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951, Shaw, 1970, and Hartley, 1984).
Pyrite ?
Formula: FeS2
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960).
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Shaw, 1970).
Pyromorphite ?
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "An indistinctly crystallized mineral found by Kingsbury is a calcian pyromorphite (R.S.W Braithwaite; G. Ryback, pers. comm.)."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Quartz ?
Formula: SiO2
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1957-1960).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121 (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1956).
Rosasite ?
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury & Hartley (1957): "A copper vein near Potts Gill, Caldbeck." Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Although Kingsbury & Hartley (1957) give the locality as 'a copper vein near Potts Gill', unpublished MS notes by Kingsbury make it clear that the locality was the old No. 1 level dump of Old Potts Gill mine (see also Hartley, 1984)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G., Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of rosasite in Britain. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 501-502.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1957 and Hartley, 1984).
Scorodite ?
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of arseniosiderite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 499-500.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960).
Serpierite ?
Formula: Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Habit: tufts of minute needles
Colour: pale blue
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury & Hartley (1957): "At this locality the serpierite forms tufts of minute, pale-blue needles and resembles the Ross Island and some of the Laurium material; it is associated with smithsonite, malachite, aurichalcite, and other secondary copper minerals."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Serpierite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(238), 604-605.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1953-1957 and Hartley, 1984).
Smithsonite ?
Formula: ZnCO3
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G., Hartley, J. (1957) Serpierite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(238), 604-605.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1957, Hartley, 1984, and Young, 1987).
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of arseniosiderite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 499-500.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960, Shaw, 1970, and Hartley, 1984).
Sphalerite var: Marmatite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Description: Shaw (1970: 67) records 'a small "lead" vein in the Endeavour level containing arsenopyrite, 'marmatite', and 'a very little galena'.
Reference: Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Shaw, 1970).
Strontianite ?
Formula: SrCO3
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Young (1987) cites a manuscript note of A.W.G. Kingsbury in the BM(NH)."
Reference: Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Young, 1987).
Tennantite
Formula: Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Description: An associate of chalcopyrite, malachite, and cornwallite, from a small copper vein intersected by the South lode (Shaw, 1970).
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951 and Shaw, 1970).
Tyrolite ?
Formula: Ca2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
Habit: platy
Colour: blue-green
Description: Kingsbury reference. Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Known only on specimens from the 'old No. 1 cross-cut' in the Kingsbury Collection (BM(NH)) which have blue-green small platy crystals of tyrolite encrusting matrix. Kingsbury (MS1) noted this occurrence as new to Britain but it was not published until 1984 (Hartley)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury, 1953, Hartley, 1984, and Young, 1987).
Vanadinite ?
Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Habit: small prismatic crystals on quartz
Colour: brown
Description: Kingsbury reference. From the old No. 1 cross-cut.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39. Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1956 and Hartley, 1984).; Stanley, C.J. and Cooper, M.P. (1991) Famous Mineral Localities: Pyromorphite-Group Minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121 (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1956).
Witherite
Formula: BaCO3
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Shaw (1970: 65) noted the presence of up to 0.5 wt% BaCO3 in assays of baryte from Potts Gill, but although fluorescent spots assumed to be witherite could be seen in situ by UV light the mineral 'could not be discerned with the naked eye in ordinary light'. Listed by Hartley (1984). Young (1987: 102) quoted the label of a specimen in the BM(NH): 'Cream-coloured massive. From the old No. 2 cross-cut.'"
Reference: Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Shaw, 1970, Hartley, 1984, and Young, 1987).

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bornite ?2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Breithauptite ?2.CC.05NiSb
Chalcocite ?2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite ?2.CA.05aCuS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Löllingite ?2.EB.15aFeAs2
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite ?2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
var: Marmatite2.CB.05a(Zn,Fe)S
Tennantite2.GB.05Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Group 3 - Halides
Atacamite ?3.DA.10aCu2(OH)3Cl
Connellite ?3.DA.25Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cuprite ?4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite ?4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite ?4.CB.05Fe2O3
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz ?4.DA.05SiO2
Tenorite4.AB.10CuO
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Aurichalcite ?5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite ?5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Hydrozincite ?5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite ?5.BA.10(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Smithsonite ?5.AB.05ZnCO3
Strontianite ?5.AB.15SrCO3
Witherite5.AB.15BaCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Antlerite7.BB.15Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Beaverite-(Cu) ?7.BC.10Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cyanotrichite ?7.DE.10Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Devilline ?7.DD.30CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Jarosite ?7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Linarite ?7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Posnjakite7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
Serpierite ?7.DD.30Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Adamite ?8.BB.30Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Arseniosiderite ?8.DH.30Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Bayldonite ?8.BH.45PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Beudantite ?8.BL.05PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Carminite ?8.BH.30PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Chalcophyllite ?8.DF.30Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Conichalcite ?8.BH.35CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cornubite ?8.BD.30Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cornwallite8.BD.05Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Descloizite8.BH.40PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Duftite8.BH.35PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Hinsdalite ?8.BL.05PbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Libethenite ?8.BB.30Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Liroconite ?8.DF.20Cu2Al(AsO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Olivenite ?8.BB.30Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Pharmacosiderite ?8.DK.10KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Philipsburgite8.DA.35(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Plumbogummite ?8.BL.10PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Pseudomalachite8.BD.05Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Pyromorphite ?8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Scorodite ?8.CD.10Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Tyrolite ?8.DM.10Ca2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
Vanadinite ?8.BN.05Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Allophane ?9.ED.20(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Dioptase ?9.CJ.30CuSiO3 · H2O
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Palygorskite9.EE.20(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Prehnite ?9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite Group'-
'Iron oxide'-
'Manganese Oxides'-
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'-
'Psilomelane'-Mn, O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite ?2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite ?2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Breithauptite ?2.8.11.2NiSb
Covellite ?2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Löllingite ?2.12.2.9FeAs2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite ?2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tennantite3.3.6.2Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite ?4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX
Tenorite4.2.3.1CuO
A2X3
Hematite ?4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite ?6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A2(O,OH)3Xq
Atacamite ?10.1.1.1Cu2(OH)3Cl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite ?14.1.1.1CaCO3
Smithsonite ?14.1.1.6ZnCO3
Strontianite ?14.1.3.3SrCO3
Witherite14.1.3.2BaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite ?16a.3.1.2(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite ?16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Hydrozincite ?16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Antlerite30.1.12.1Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Beaverite-(Cu) ?30.2.5.7Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite ?30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Linarite ?30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Connellite ?31.1.1.1Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
(AB)6(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Cyanotrichite ?31.2.1.1Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Posnjakite31.4.1.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Devilline ?31.6.1.1CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Serpierite ?31.6.2.1Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Scorodite ?40.4.1.3Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Cornubite ?41.4.2.1Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cornwallite41.4.2.2Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Pseudomalachite41.4.3.1Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Bayldonite ?41.5.14.1PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Conichalcite ?41.5.1.2CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Descloizite41.5.2.1PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Duftite41.5.1.4PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
A2(XO4)Zq
Adamite ?41.6.6.3Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Libethenite ?41.6.6.2Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Olivenite ?41.6.6.1Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite ?41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Vanadinite ?41.8.4.3Pb5(VO4)3Cl
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq
Carminite ?41.10.6.1PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)3(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Liroconite ?42.2.1.1Cu2Al(AsO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O
Philipsburgite42.2.4.2(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Tyrolite ?42.4.3.1Ca2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Plumbogummite ?42.7.3.5PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Arseniosiderite ?42.8.4.3Ca2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Pharmacosiderite ?42.8.1a.1KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Beudantite ?43.4.1.1PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Hinsdalite ?43.4.1.5PbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Hydrated Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Chalcophyllite ?43.5.14.1Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Dioptase ?61.1.3.1CuSiO3 · H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Allophane ?71.1.5.1(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite ?72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Palygorskite74.3.1a.1(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz ?75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite Group'-
'Iron oxide'-
'Manganese Oxides'-
'Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series'-
'Psilomelane'-Mn, O
Sphalerite
var: Marmatite
-(Zn,Fe)S

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
H DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
H DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
H Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
H Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
H PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
H AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
H CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
H AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
H Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
H BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
H ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
H ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
H CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H LiroconiteCu2Al(AsO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O
H OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
H PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
H PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
H ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
H SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
H ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
H DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H DioptaseCuSiO3 · H2O
H ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
CCarbon
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C WitheriteBaCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C CalciteCaCO3
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C StrontianiteSrCO3
C TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
OOxygen
O AnglesitePbSO4
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
O BaryteBaSO4
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
O DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
O Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
O Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
O PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O PsilomelaneMn, O
O TenoriteCuO
O WitheriteBaCO3
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
O AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
O CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
O VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
O AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
O Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
O BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O CalciteCaCO3
O CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
O ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
O ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
O CupriteCu2O
O CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O LiroconiteCu2Al(AsO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O
O OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
O PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
O PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
O ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
O SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O StrontianiteSrCO3
O TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
O ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
O DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O DioptaseCuSiO3 · H2O
O ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
AlAluminium
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Al ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Al CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Al HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Al LiroconiteCu2Al(AsO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O
Al PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si DioptaseCuSiO3 · H2O
PPhosphorus
P Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
P PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
P HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
P LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
P PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
SSulfur
S AnglesitePbSO4
S AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BaryteBaSO4
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S MarcasiteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
S PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
S Sphalerite (var: Marmatite)(Zn,Fe)S
S Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
S BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
S CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
S CovelliteCuS
S ChalcociteCu2S
S HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
S ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
ClChlorine
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cl VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Cl ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
CaCalcium
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Ca TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
Ca ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Ca DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
VVanadium
V DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
V VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
MnManganese
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn PsilomelaneMn, O
FeIron
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Fe Sphalerite (var: Marmatite)(Zn,Fe)S
Fe Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Fe ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Fe ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe LöllingiteFeAs2
NiNickel
Ni BreithauptiteNiSb
CuCopper
Cu AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cu DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Cu PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Cu TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Cu TenoriteCuO
Cu PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Cu CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cu Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Cu ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu LiroconiteCu2Al(AsO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O
Cu OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
Cu Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
Cu DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu DioptaseCuSiO3 · H2O
Cu ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
ZnZinc
Zn DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
Zn Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn Sphalerite (var: Marmatite)(Zn,Fe)S
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Zn SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
As DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
As Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
As TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
As CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
As AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
As BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
As ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
As ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
As LiroconiteCu2Al(AsO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O
As OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
As PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
As ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
As TyroliteCa2Cu9(AsO4)4(CO3)(OH)8 · 11H2O
As ArseniosideriteCa2Fe33+(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
As LöllingiteFeAs2
SrStrontium
Sr StrontianiteSrCO3
SbAntimony
Sb BreithauptiteNiSb
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba WitheriteBaCO3
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
Pb DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Pb VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Pb Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Pb HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, ix, 483 pp. [facsimile reprint, with addenda, by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].
Wilson, G.V., Eastwood, T., Pocock, R.W., Wray, D.A., and Robertson, T. (1922) Special Report of the Mineral Resources of Great Britain no. 2, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.
Dunham, K.C. and Dines, H.G. (1945) Barium minerals of England and Wales. Wartime Pamphlet no. 46, Geological Survey of Great Britain.
Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1. [An unpublished 39-page typescript of a paper given to the Mineralogical Society on 8 March 1951. Several of the species detailed here were to become the subject of separate papers published in later years. Many of the remaining species were not listed until Hartley's summary paper of 1984.]
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (MS1) (1953 or later) Investigation of the minerals of the Lake District, especially the Caldbeck area, in collaboration with J. Hartley. List of minerals found by us at many localities examined 1947-. [An unpublished hardback notebook containing lists of species by locality with occasional notes and descriptive detail].
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of arseniosiderite. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 499-500.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of rosasite in Britain. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 501-502.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Serpierite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(238), 604-605.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.
Kingsbury, A. W. G. (1958) Mineralogical Society Notice, no. 100, xliv.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1958) Jarosite and natrojarosite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(240), 813-815.
Spencer, L.J. (1958) Third Supplementary List of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(240), 787-810 (referring to Kingsbury, 1958).
Claringbull, G.F., Hey, M.H., and Davis, R.J. (1959) Cornubite, a new mineral dimorphous with cornwallite. Mineralogical Magazine, 32, 1-5.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.
Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].
Ineson, P.R. and Mitchell, J.G. (1974) K-Ar isotopic age determinations from some Lake District mineral localities. Geological Magazine, 111, 521-537.
Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.
Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.
Braithwaite, R.S.W. and Ryback, G. (1988) Philipsburgite from the Caldbeck Fells and kipushite from Montana, and their infrared spectra. Mineralogical Magazine, 52(367), 529-533.
Braithwaite, R.S.W. (1988) Cuproadamite and tennantite from Higher Longrigg mine, Hartley Birkett, Cumbria. Mineralogical Magazine, 52, 552-553 (referring to Kingsbury, 1958 and Spencer, 1958).
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Braithwaite, R.S.W. and Ryback, G. (1994) Reichenbachite from Cornwall and Portugal. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(392), 449-454.

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