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Red Gill Mine, Roughton Gill, Caldbeck, Allerdale, Cumbria, England, UKi
Regional Level Types
Red Gill MineMine
Roughton GillGroup of Mines (Abandoned)
CaldbeckCivil Parish
AllerdaleDistrict
CumbriaCounty
EnglandConstituent Country
UKCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 54° 42' 8'' North , 3° 5' 38'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 54.70227,-3.09415
GeoHash:G#: gctz1w4zv
UK National Grid Reference:NY295347
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Caldbeck311 (2018)5.8km
Bassenthwaite412 (2018)7.0km
Keswick4,281 (2018)11.7km
Portinscale560 (2018)12.1km
Bothel483 (2018)12.2km
Other/historical names associated with this locality:North and Western Region; Cumberland


The Red Gill Mine workings are situated in Swinburn Gill, a minor tributary to the Dale Beck valley in the northern Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. The mine exploited an approximately WNW-ESE trending quartz-baryte-chalcopyrite-galena vein, mainly on the west side of the gill. The primary minerals have been altered by a period of supergene enrichment, followed by lengthy intense oxidation. The vein is deficient in carbonates and as a result, the oxidation has given rise to a suite of rare minerals including excellent specimens of caledonite, leadhillite and especially linarite, which could be collected into fairly recent times.

Notes on the mineral list:

1) The type locality of redgillite is Silver Gill, Caldbeck Fells.

2) Acanthite is a post-collection growth almost certainly due to the oxidation of tiny masses of supergene silver. It has not been found in situ (Green et al., 2008).

3) Bridges et al. (2008) referring to p. 35 in Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., Bridges, T.F., Tindle, A.G., and Ixer, R.A. (2006) A review of the mineralisation at the Sandbed and Driggith mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 9, 4-38:
"In a study of the mineralisation at the Driggith and Sandbed mines, a poorly characterised lead-copper sulphate from Driggith Mine was described. Identical material, comprising radiating sprays of pale blue acicular to feathery crystals up to 0.1 mm in length, occurs with elyite from the top level at Red Gill Mine. It is worthwhile pointing out that although the mineral is described as a sulphate, it could be a sulphite or even possibly a thiosulphate."

4) Bridges et al. (2008): "A pale brown frothy cellular box work overgrowing mattheddleite was examined by EDS, which showed it to be a copper-lead silicate with a composition similar to the material which has been identified in almost identical parageneses from the Leadhills district in southern Scotland. Some specimens from Leadhills have been identified as creaseyite and others are described as creaseyite-like phases (Steve Rust, personal communication). There is insufficient material from Red Gill for more complete analytical work."

5) Bridges et al. (2008): "[...] it really is most probable that all the early classic linarite specimens labelled Cumberland and Roughton Gill actually came from Red Gill Mine."

Regions containing this locality

Caldbeck Fells Mining Region, Cumbria, England, UKMining District
Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
British IslesGroup of Islands
Lake District National Park, Cumbria, England, UKNational Park
Lake District National Park Authority - Caldbeck and Uldale Amber Zone, Cumbria, England, UKMineral Collecting Permit Zone

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


51 valid minerals.

* - Minerals that have never been found, but their existence is inferred in some way (e.g. from pseudomorphs)

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Description: Post collection growth on a silver specimen. Size to 0.4 mm, habit black needles (not dendrites).
Reference: M. Wirth collection; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Habit: elongated blades to equant rhombic crystals (the latter easily confused with baryte); fibrous.
Colour: colourless, cloudy white.
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.; Rudler, F.W. (1905) A handbook to a collection of the minerals of the British Islands ... in the Museum of Practical Geology ... London. H.M.S.O., London. x, 241 pp.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.; Max Wirth collection.
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Antlerite
Formula: Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Description: Bridges et al. (2008): "Bridges et al. (2005) suggest that the earthy form of brochantite may often result from the decomposition of this mineral. This could explain the fact that earthy brochantite is relatively common at the site."
Reference: Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I. and Rumsey, M.S. (2005) A review of the occurrence of antlerite in the British Isles. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 8, 81-84.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Colour: greenish-blue.
Description: Aggregates of feathery crystals a few tenths of a millimetre in size in iron stained quartz, sometimes associated with hemimorphite.
Reference: Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Habit: compact bladed masses with spear-shaped terminations on crystals; rhombic or diamond-shaped tablets associated with cerussite, malachite and/or caledonite.
Colour: colourless to white, pinkish
Reference: Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Wilson, G.V., Eastwood, T., Pocock, R.W., Wray, D.A., and Robertson, T. (1922) Barytes and witherite. Special Report of the Mineral Resources of Great Britain no. 2, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London. (referring to Eastwood, 1921 and Wilson et al., 1922).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
'Bindheimite'
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
Habit: earthy coatings in cavities generated by the oxidation of galena
Colour: pale yellow
Reference: Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Habit: earthy; microcrystalline crusts; blocky crystals
Colour: emerald green
Description: Also very rarely as pseudomorphs (sometimes associated with anglesite) after bladed crystals of linarite (Cooper & Stanley, 1990).
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Habit: small deeply etched lenticular crystals from a small dump by Swinburn Gill a few meters south of the Red Gill deep level; Quartz epimorphs with scalenohedral morphology, possibly after calcite from the No. 2 level.
Description: M.P. Cooper Collection.
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Habit: short to long prismatic; tabular; blocky; flat bladed; needles
Colour: greenish blue; dark blue; sky blue; turquoise to green
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John van Voorst, London, ix, 483 pp. [facsimile reprint, with addenda, by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Hessenberg, F. (1870) Caledonit von Red Gill, Cumberland. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main, 7, 304-308.; Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 631.; Sweet, J.M. (1960) British Gold from the Bouglise collection. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(248), 420-421.; Giacovazzo, C., Menchetti, S., and Scordari, F. (1973) The crystal structure of caledonite. Acta Crystallographica, B29, 1986-1990 [determined on Red Gill material]. Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Jackson, B. (1990) Queitite, a first Scottish occurrence. Scottish Journal of Geology, 26(1), 57-58.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Habit: prismatic; 'jackstraw' needles; blocky; striated blades; pseudohexagonal (twinned); thin tabular
Colour: colourless, sometimes coated with a thin skin of malachite
Description: Goethite and chrysocolla epimorphs of cerussite also occur (Cooper & Stanley, 1990).
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Sweet, J.M. (1960) British Gold from the Bouglise collection. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(248), 420-421.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Jackson, B. (1990) Queitite, a first Scottish occurrence. Scottish Journal of Geology, 26(1), 57-58.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Chalcocite ?
Formula: Cu2S
Description: Bridges et al. (2008): "Cooper and Stanley (1990) note that chalcocite and digenite have been reported from Red Gill Mine, but early identifications of chalcocite have to be regarded with suspicion, since only relatively recently has it become possible to distinguish the grey copper sulphides from each other and even then only with some difficulty."
Reference: Kendall, J.D. (1884) The mineral veins of the Lake District. Transactions of the Manchester Geological Society, 17, 292-341. [Early theory of vein formation. Mineral lists derived from previous authors.]; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London. (referring to Kendall, 1884).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Habit: small blebs in quartz, often associated with galena; frequently replaced by goethite and copper sulphides
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (xxxx) (MS2) Notes on the occurrence of gold in the Lake District.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Chenite
Formula: Pb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Habit: blades up to 1mm
Colour: pale blue
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Chrysocolla ?
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Habit: (botryoidal) crusts and coatings; pseudomorphs after radiating sprays of malachite and as epimorphs after acicular cerussite
Colour: blue to green
Description: Bridges et al. (2008): "two specimens of typical material were analysed by XRD in this study. One was a pale turquoise blue specimen with occasional desiccation cracks and the second was pale green with a conchoidal fracture and waxy lustre. Long, high-resolution XRD scans were performed on relatively thick powder specimens of both. The blue specimen produced no crystalline peaks whatever, while the green specimen produced a faint malachite pattern on a broad amorphous background. EDS showed copper and silicon to be the only heavy metal elements present and in variable amounts. 'Chrysocolla' has been reported from numerous localities in the Caldbeck Fells, but we are not aware of specimens that have been confirmed by XRD. Furthermore, the XRD patterns that are supposed to be characteristic of chrysocolla (published in the JCPDS index) are widely variable. Moreton (2007) investigated soft copper bearing gels from Tankardstown Mine, Co. Waterford in some detail and made comparisons with similar deposits from elsewhere and with material similar to the 'mineral' often called chrysocolla from the Caldbeck Fells. He concluded that these deposits are best referred to as 'copper-bearing silica gel'."
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Greg & Lettsom, 1858 and Davidson & Thomson, 1951).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Habit: earthy coatings
Colour: red
Reference: Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Habit: metallic crystalline masses and (sometimes iridescent) rims around other sulphides, particularly galena; masses of post-collecting thin metallic hexagonal plates on specimens containing copper sulphides.
Colour: purple
Reference: Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Habit: small specks associated with grey copper sulphides, cerussite, leadhillite, and pyromorphite.
Colour: bright red
Reference: Van Den Berg, W. (1985) Mineralen zoeken in de Caldbeck Fells (Lake District), Gea (Driemaandelijks tijdschrift van de Stichting Geologische Aktiviteiten), 18, 39-48 (in Dutch).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Van Den Berg, 1985).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Habit: powder
Colour: blue-black
Description: Collected in an unsuccessful search for tenorite (Davidson & Thomson, 1951).
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Djurleite
Formula: Cu31S16
Reference: Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Habit: vein filling in milky quartz, where occasional cavities contained typical saddle shaped crystals.
Reference: Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Elyite
Formula: Pb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
Habit: minute lath-like crystals in a galena-chalcopyrite matrix associated with chenite and hydrocerussite; as a pale purple coating on galena in a specimen collected by P. Briscoe from waste near the old stamps at the Red Gill-Swinburn Gill confluence (det. BM(NH): XRD). Probably dump-formed (Brisco, 1986).
Colour: pale purple
Reference: Briscoe, P. (1986) Red Gill mine. UK Journal of Mines and Minerals, 1, 2-4.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Briscoe, 1986).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Description: Often partly oxidised or replaced by grey copper sulphides. Rarely as small lustrous crystals in cavities in quartz.
Reference: Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's Directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Habit: limonitic ochreous deposits and botryoidal crusts up to 1mm thick in and on quartz.
Colour: (dark) brown
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Gold ?
Formula: Au
Description: Kingsbury reference. Considered fraudulent by Bridges et al. (2008).
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (xxxx) (MS2) Notes on the occurrence of gold in the Lake District.; Sweet, J.M. (1960) British Gold from the Bouglise collection. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(248) 420-421.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey. Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury, Sweet, 1960, and Young, 1987).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Habit: thin bladed crystals up to 1mm forming radiating aggregates and compact spheres up to 0.8mm;
Colour: colourless to white
Reference: Sweet, J.M. (1960) British Gold from the Bouglise collection. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(248), 420-421.; Van Den Berg, W. (1985) Mineralen zoeken in de Caldbeck Fells (Lake District). Gea (Driemaandelijks tijdschrift van de Stichting Geologische Aktiviteiten), 18, 39-48 (in Dutch).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Hydrocerussite
Formula: Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Habit: Extremely thin flat plates with an irregular hexagonal cross-section and usually with a pearly lustre. Individual plates reach 1.5mm.; white masses up to 5mm across, superficially resembling cerussite but with a distinct cleavage and often surrounded by cerussite.; Euhedral translucent rhombs up to 0.5mm on edge on mattheddleite and closely associated with caledonite.
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "[From the] upper and middle levels. Also recently identified (BM(NH): XRD) as minute lenticular crystals with mattheddleite, susannite, silver et. (M. Wirth, pers. comm.)."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Habit: encrustations a few mm across associated with hemimorphite.
Colour: white
Reference: Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Lanarkite
Formula: Pb2(SO4)O
Habit: minute tapering bladed crystals on altered galena
Colour: pale blue
Description: D. Middleton; J. Wolters Collection, det. Leeds Univ. & BM(NH): XRD.
Reference: Cooper, M.P., Green, D.I., and Braithwaite, R.S.W. (1988) The occurrence of mattheddleite in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: a preliminary note. UK Journal of Mines and Minerals, 5, 21.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous Mineral Localities: Pyromorphite Group Minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Habit: pseudohexagonal crystals and anhedral flakes
Colour: deep royal blue
Description: Associated with caledonite, brochantite and/or covellite on fractured surfaces of a grey copper sulphide. (Det. Leeds Univ.: XRD, D.I. Green, pers. comm.)
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Leadhillite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Habit: usually as (crusts of) thin tabular or equant hexagons, but also as elongated prisms up to 35mm across but generally much smaller; anything in excess of 15mm is very rare.
Colour: colourless
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 297.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Jackson, B. (1990) Queitite, a first Scottish occurrence. Scottish Journal of Geology, 26(1), 57-58.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Habit: bladed crystals up to 6mm; coatings of small crystals on copper sulphides (probably post-mining in origin).
Colour: deep azure blue
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hessenberg, F. (1864) Linarit (Bleilasur) aus Cumberland. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main, 7, 304-308.; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Koksharov, N.I. (1869) Ueber Linaritkristalle. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Petersbourg, 13(3).; Koksharov, N.I. (1869) Notiz über Linaritkristalle. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Petersbourg, 8, 472-476.; Cesàro, G. (1905) Formes nouvelles dans la Linarite et dans la Mélinose. Bulletin de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique (for 1905), 328-333.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 555.; Sweet, J.M. (1960) British Gold from the Bouglise collection. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(248), 420-421.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Macphersonite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Habit: complex crystalline mass, 4mm across, in a cavity in quartz veinstone; prismatic with triangular cross-section
Colour: grey
Reference: Cooper, M.P., Green, D.I., and Braithwaite, R.S.W (1988) The occurrence of mattheddleite in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: a preliminary note. UK Journal of Mines and Minerals, 5, 21.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Cooper et al., 1988).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Habit: sprays or spherical aggregates of acicular crystals up to 5mm long
Colour: emerald green
Description: Commonly pseudomorphed by 'chrysocolla'. Miers (1897) reported it as pseudomorphing linarite.
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Miers, H.A. (1897) On some British pseudomorphs. Mineralogical Magazine, 11(53), 263-285.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. (xxxx) (MS2) Notes on the occurrence of gold in the Lake District.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Mattheddleite
Formula: Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Habit: radiating sprays of minute (0.25-0.5mm) hexagonal crystals terminated by a sharp 'pencil point' or drusy crusts commonly associated with caledonite, leadhillite, susannite, lanarkite, anglesite and bindheimite.
Colour: colourless to white
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Identified on a surprising number of specimens collected recently from the No. 2 or 'Old Dutch' level dumps (D.R. Middleton, D.I. Green Collections det. BM(NH), Leicester Univ., Leeds Univ.: XRD)."
Reference: Cooper, M.P., Green, D.I., and Braithwaite, R.S.W. (1988) The occurrence of mattheddleite in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: a preliminary note. UK Journal of Mines and Minerals, 5, 21.; Wirth, M. (1989) Native silver from Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 2, 49.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; UK Journal of Mines & Minerals (1996) 16, 15.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Mimetite ?
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Description: Bridges et al. (2008) "Mimetite was reported from Red Gill Mine by Cooper and Stanley (1990) on the basis of a specimen supplied by Mick Cooper and confirmed by XRD at Leeds University. Since mimetite was found at the neighbouring workings in Silver Gill (Green, et al., 2005a) and at Brae Fell Mine (Bridges et al., 2006) a further detailed search for it was conducted at Red Gill Mine. Twenty-five specimens were examined by EDS but no arsenic was found."
Reference: Kendall, J.D. (1884) The mineral veins of the Lake District. Transactions of the Manchester Geological Society, 17, 292-341.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London. (referring to Kendall, 1884).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Mottramite
Formula: PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Habit: encrustations on pyromorphite
Colour: yellow brown
Reference: Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Plumbogummite ?
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Description: Van Den Berg (1985) based the ID only on visual identification. Cooper and Stanley (1990) express the opinion that it is probably 'chrysocolla' but the small amount of material precludes definite characterization. Bridges et al. (2008) did not find it in their study.
Reference: Van Den Berg, W. (1985) Mineralen zoeken in de Caldbeck Fells (Lake District). Gea (Driemaandelijks tijdschrift van de Stichting Geologische Aktiviteiten), 18, 39-48 (in Dutch).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London. (referring to Van Den Berg, 1985).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
'Psilomelane'
Description: Bridges et al. (2008): "earthy black barium-manganese deposits proving to be amorphous by XRD."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Description: Bridges et al. (2008): "Pyrite has not been found in the present study but since this mineral is readily oxidised, the abundant presence of limonitic ochre suggests it may have been present in reasonable quantity at one time, although the oxidation of chalcopyrite also produces limonite."
Reference: Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Habit: crusts of prismatic to blocky hexagonal crystals
Colour: yellow to green
Reference: Kendall, J.D. (1884) The mineral veins of the Lake District. Transactions of the Manchester Geological Society, 17, 292-341.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10, 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kendall, 1884, Davidson & Thomson, 1951, and Hartley, 1984).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Colour: white
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (xxxx) (MS2) Notes on the occurrence of gold in the Lake District.; Sweet, J.M. (1960) British Gold from the Bouglise collection. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(248), 420-421.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Jackson, B. (1990) Queitite, a first Scottish occurrence. Scottish Journal of Geology, 26(1), 57-58.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Quartz var: Milky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Queitite
Formula: Pb4Zn2(SO4)(SiO4)(Si2O7)
Colour: white
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): This exceedingly rare mineral, previously reported only from Tsumeb, Namibia, was found on one small specimen collected from the No. 2 (Old Dutch) level dumps in 1987 by M. Rothwell. It forms thin, white, radiating-fibrous crusts with a minutely botryoidal surface on small susannite crystals in massive cerussite, associated with a scattering of later caledonite. Queitite was identified by XRD (BM(NH) and IR (UMIST). The habit is completely different from type material (Braithwaite et al., 1989)."
Reference: Braithwaite, R.S.W., Cooper, M.P., and Hart, A.D. (1989) Queitite, a mineral new to Britain, from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Mineralogical Magazine, 53(372), 508-509.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Braithwaite et al., 1989).; Jackson, B. (1990) Queitite, a first Scottish occurrence. Scottish Journal of Geology, 26(1), 57-58.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Redgillite
Formula: Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Habit: radiating sprays of acicular to long prismatic crystals usually less than 1mm in length.
Colour: pale to grass green
Description: It typically occurs in thin fractures in sulphide-rich matrix associated with other copper sulphate minerals, notably langite and is probably post-mining in origin.
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Pluth, J.J., Steele, I.M., Kampf, A.R., and Green, D.I. (2005) Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)·H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England, UK: Description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Romanèchite
Formula: (Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 11, 2008
Scotlandite
Formula: PbSO3
Habit: minute (<0.3mm) thin prismatic crystals in a quartz and highly oxidised galena matrix and in association with mattheddleite and leadhillite and in one case is overgrown by caledonite.
Reference: Neall, T., Green, D.I., and Bridges, T.F. (2006) Scotlandite in the British Isles; Its occurrence, morphology and paragenesis. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 9, 83-89.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Serpierite
Formula: Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Habit: soft micaceous aggregates on cerussite
Colour: pale blue
Description: Bridges et al. (2008): "This extremely rare mineral at Red Gill was reported by Cooper and Stanley (1990) as soft, pale blue micaceous aggregates on cerussite, identified by XRD (NHM) on a specimen in the Peter Braithwaite Collection. It is probably a dump formed mineral."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47 (referring to Cooper & Stanley, 1990).
Silver
Formula: Ag
Description: Minute arborescent crystals generating acanthite in storage.
Reference: Wirth, M. (1989) Native silver from Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 2, 49.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Habit: as small blebs with typical cleavage associated with galena and chalcopyrite in quartz matrix and as small (ca. 3 mm) crystals in quartz.
Colour: brown
Reference: Van Den Berg, W. (1985) Mineralen zoeken in de Caldbeck Fells (Lake District). Gea (Driemaandelijks tijdschrift van de Stichting Geologische Aktiviteiten). 18, 39-48. (in Dutch).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London. (referring to Van Den Berg, 1985).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Habit: crystalline crusts usually associated with oxidised galena and often also with covellite. Individual crystals reach 1mm but are generally smaller.
Colour: pale yellow
Reference: Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Susannite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Habit: thin hexagonal prisms c. 0.2 mm across and up to 2 mm long, usually with a tapering pyramidal termination are the commonest form. Larger crystals are often tapering pyramids, up to 1 mm across, and usually no more than 3 mm long. Small crystals are often colourless and opaque, but larger crystals are usually pale blue and translucent. Rarely doubly terminated pyramidal crystals occur and, even more rarely, crystals can be glass clear. Common associates are cerussite, caledonite, leadhillite, mattheddleite and linarite.
Colour: colourless opaque; pale aquamarine blue translucent
Description: M. Wirth pers. comm. (det. BM(NH): XRD, 1987).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Jackson, B. (1990) Queitite, a first Scottish occurrence. Scottish Journal of Geology, 26(1), 57-58.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous Mineral Localities: Pyromorphite Group Minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Reference: Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Wroewolfeite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Habit: blades up to 0.2mm long and crusts in a cavity in altered chalcopyrite-galena matrix.
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Specimen in the D.I. Green collection, identified by the collector at Leeds University (XRD, 1987). Almost certainly dump-formed."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47 (referring to Cooper & Stanley, 1990).

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold ?1.AA.05Au
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Acanthite2.BA.35Ag2S
Chalcocite ?2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cinnabar2.CD.15aHgS
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Digenite2.BA.10Cu9S5
Djurleite2.BA.05Cu31S16
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite ?2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Bindheimite'4.DH.20Pb2Sb2O6O
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Milky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Romanèchite4.DK.10(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Scotlandite4.JE.20PbSO3
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Aurichalcite5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Hydrocerussite5.BE.10Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Leadhillite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Macphersonite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Susannite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Antlerite ?7.BB.15Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Caledonite7.BC.50Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Chenite7.BC.70Pb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Elyite7.DF.65Pb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
Lanarkite7.BD.40Pb2(SO4)O
Langite7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Linarite7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Redgillite7.DD.70Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Serpierite7.DD.30Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Wroewolfeite7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Mimetite ?8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Mottramite8.BH.40PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Plumbogummite ?8.BL.10PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Vanadinite8.BN.05Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Chrysocolla ?9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Mattheddleite9.AH.25Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Queitite9.BF.20Pb4Zn2(SO4)(SiO4)(Si2O7)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Psilomelane'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold ?1.1.1.1Au
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
Chalcocite ?2.4.7.1Cu2S
Digenite2.4.7.3Cu9S5
Djurleite2.4.7.2Cu31S16
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite ?2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB8X16
Romanèchite7.9.2.1(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Hydrocerussite16a.2.2.1Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Leadhillite17.1.2.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Macphersonite17.1.4.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Susannite17.1.3.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Antlerite ?30.1.12.1Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Chenite30.1.16.1Pb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Elyite30.1.2.1Pb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Lanarkite30.2.1.1Pb2(SO4)O
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Langite31.4.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Wroewolfeite31.4.2.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Serpierite31.6.2.1Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Caledonite32.3.2.1Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Group 34 - SELENITES, TELLURITES AND SULFITES
A(XO3)
Scotlandite34.1.1.2PbSO3
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Mottramite41.5.2.2PbCu(VO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite ?41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Vanadinite41.8.4.3Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Plumbogummite ?42.7.3.5PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Group 44 - ANTIMONATES
A2X2O6(O,OH,F)
'Bindheimite'44.1.1.2Pb2Sb2O6O
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Mattheddleite52.4.9.6Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [4] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n=1, 2)
Queitite58.1.3.1Pb4Zn2(SO4)(SiO4)(Si2O7)
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla ?74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Psilomelane'-
Quartz
var: Milky Quartz
-SiO2
Redgillite-Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
H WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
H LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H MacphersonitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
H ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
H MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
H AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
CCarbon
C CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
C CalciteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
C LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
C MacphersonitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
C SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
OOxygen
O AnglesitePbSO4
O BaryteBaSO4
O CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
O WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O CalciteCaCO3
O CerussitePbCO3
O CupriteCu2O
O ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
O LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
O LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O MacphersonitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O QueititePb4Zn2(SO4)(SiO4)(Si2O7)
O QuartzSiO2
O SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
O BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
O ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
O ScotlanditePbSO3
O MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
O VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O Quartz (var: Milky Quartz)SiO2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
O AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
SiSilicon
Si MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si QueititePb4Zn2(SO4)(SiO4)(Si2O7)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Quartz (var: Milky Quartz)SiO2
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
P PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
SSulfur
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BaryteBaSO4
S CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
S WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S DigeniteCu9S5
S ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
S GalenaPbS
S LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
S LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S MacphersonitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S QueititePb4Zn2(SO4)(SiO4)(Si2O7)
S SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
S SphaleriteZnS
S SulphurS8
S SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S AcanthiteAg2S
S RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
S ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
S CinnabarHgS
S CovelliteCuS
S DjurleiteCu31S16
S ScotlanditePbSO3
S ChalcociteCu2S
S PyriteFeS2
S AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
ClChlorine
Cl MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Cl VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
VVanadium
V MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
V VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
MnManganese
Mn Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe PyriteFeS2
CuCopper
Cu CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu DigeniteCu9S5
Cu ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
Cu LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Cu ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu DjurleiteCu31S16
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
ZnZinc
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn QueititePb4Zn2(SO4)(SiO4)(Si2O7)
Zn SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
AsArsenic
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
SbAntimony
Sb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
AuGold
Au GoldAu
HgMercury
Hg CinnabarHgS
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2O
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Pb LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
Pb LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb MacphersonitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb QueititePb4Zn2(SO4)(SiO4)(Si2O7)
Pb SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
Pb ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb ScotlanditePbSO3
Pb MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Pb VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3132076
Early Carboniferous limestone

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{limestone}, Minor{claystone,siltstone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3186080
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Ordovician
443.8 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 2033368
Unnamed Extrusive Rocks, Ordovician

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Mafic lava

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].
Hessenberg, F. (1864) Linarit (Bleilasur) aus Cumberland. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main, 7, 304-308.
Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.
Koksharov, N.I. (1869) Ueber Linaritkristalle. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Petersbourg, 13(3).
Koksharov, N.I. (1869) Notiz über Linaritkristalle. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Petersbourg, 8, 472-476 [a short summary of Koksharov's previous work on Linarite].
Hessenberg, F. (1870) Caledonit von Red Gill, Cumberland. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main, 7, 304-308.
Kendall, J.D. (1884) The mineral veins of the Lake District. Transactions of the Manchester Geological Society, 17, 292-341. [Early theory of vein formation. Mineral lists derived from previous authors.]
Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.
Miers, H.A. (1897) On some British pseudomorphs. Mineralogical Magazine, 11(53), 263-285.
Cesàro, G. (1905) Formes nouvelles dans la Linarite et dans la Mélinose. Bulletin de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique (for 1905), 328-333.
Rudler, F.W. (1905) A handbook to a collection of the minerals of the British Islands ... in the Museum of Practical Geology ... London. H.M.S.O., London. x, 241 pp.
Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.
Wilson, G.V., Eastwood, T., Pocock, R.W., Wray, D.A., and Robertson, T. (1922) Barytes and witherite. Special Report of the Mineral Resources of Great Britain no. 2, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.
Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1 [An unpublished 39-page typescript of a paper given to the Mineralogical Society on 8 March 1951. Several of the species detailed here were to become the subject of separate papers published in later years. Many of the remaining species were not listed until Hartley's summary paper of 1984].
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 631.
Rocks & Minerals, 60, 285.
Mineralogical Record, 20(5), 395.
Sweet, J.M. (1960) British Gold from the Bouglise collection. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(248), 420-421.
Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal. [2nd edition 1975 incorporating minor changes].
Giacovazzo, C., Menchetti, S., and Scordari, F. (1973) The crystal structure of caledonite. Acta Crystallographica, B29, 1986-1990 [determined on Red Gill material].
Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.
Van Den Berg, W. (1985) Mineralen zoeken in de Caldbeck Fells (Lake District). Gea (Driemaandelijks tijdschrift van de Stichting Geologische Aktiviteiten), 18, 39-48 (in Dutch).
Briscoe, P. (1986) Red Gill mine. UK Journal of Mines and Minerals, 1, 2-4.
Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey.
Adams, J. (1988) Mines of the Lake District Fells. Dalesman Books, Clapham, Lancaster, 160 pp.
Cooper, M.P., Green, D.I., and Braithwaite, R.S.W. (1988) The occurrence of mattheddleite in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: a preliminary note. UK Journal of Mines and Minerals, 5, 21.
Braithwaite, R.S.W., Cooper, M.P., and Hart, A.D. (1989) Queitite, a mineral new to Britain, from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Mineralogical Magazine, 53(372), 508-509.
Wirth, M. (1989) Native silver from Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 2, 49.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Ryback, G., Clark, A.M., and Stanley, C.J. (1998) Reexamination of the A.W.G. Kingsbury collection of British minerals at the Natural History Museum, London. The Geological Curator, 6(9), 317-322.
Ryback, G., Hart, A.D., and Stanley, C.J. (2001) A.W.G. Kingsbury's specimens of British minerals. Part 1: some examples of falsified localities. Journal of the Russell Society, 7(2), 51-69.
Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F. and Neall, T. (2005) The occurrence and formation of galena in supergene environments. Journal of the Russell Society, 8(2), 66-70.
Neall, T., Green, D.I., and Bridges, T.F. (2006) Scotlandite in the British Isles; Its occurrence, morphology and paragenesis. Journal of the Russell Society, 9, 83-89.
Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (xxxx) (MS2) Notes on the occurrence of gold in the Lake District. [A spiral bound notebook containing what appears to be the manuscript for a proposed paper, with a historical introduction followed by detailed descriptions of Kingsbury's own discoveries].


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