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Roughton Gill Mine, Roughton Gill, Caldbeck, Allerdale, Cumbria, England, UKi
Regional Level Types
Roughton Gill MineMine
Roughton GillGroup of Mines (Abandoned)
CaldbeckCivil Parish
AllerdaleDistrict
CumbriaCounty
EnglandConstituent Country
UKCountry
Roughton Gill Mine, Roughton Gill, Caldbeck Fells Mining Region, Cumbria, England, UK

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
54° 41' 58'' North , 3° 4' 59'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
UK National Grid Reference:
NY302344
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Caldbeck311 (2018)5.8km
Bassenthwaite412 (2018)7.5km
Keswick4,281 (2018)11.6km
Portinscale560 (2018)12.1km
Braithwaite342 (2018)12.9km
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
North and Western Region; Cumberland


Bridges et al. (2008): "[...] it really is most probable that all the early classic linarite specimens labelled Cumberland and Roughton Gill actually came from Red Gill Mine."

Regions containing this locality

Caldbeck Fells Mining Region, Cumbria, England, UKMining District
Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
British IslesGroup of Islands
Lake District National Park, Cumbria, England, UKNational Park
Lake District National Park Authority - Caldbeck and Uldale Amber Zone, Cumbria, England, UKMineral Collecting Permit Zone

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


70 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Reference: Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Description: Crystals to 25mm were found in the nineteenth-century workings (BM(NH)) but very little has been found since the mine closed. Specimens in old collections are often dull and opaque and rarely approach the quality of Red Gill crystals.
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.; Day, F.H. (1928) Some notes on the minerals of the Caldbeck Fells. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 4, 66-79.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S. and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Goodchild, J.G. (1884) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 2]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 8 (for 1882-1883), 189-204.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Goodchild, 1884 and Davidson & Thomson, 1951).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Arsentsumebite
Formula: Pb2Cu(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)
Reference: Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
Atacamite ?
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Description: A single specimen in the BM(NH) Collection, namely B.M. 31622a, bought of Mr. D. Lowry, 1860 (Bannister et al., 1950 and Kingsbury & Hartley, 1956). Bridges et al. (2011): "A specimen of this mineral in the NHM is labelled from ‘Roughtongill’. Kingsbury and Hartley (1956) consider the specimen actually originated from Potts Gill Mine, where Kingsbury claimed to have found further similar specimens. It has not been found in this study and is very unlikely to occur in the geochemical environment of Roughton Gill. It should not be included in a list of Roughton Gill minerals."
Reference: Bannister, F.A., Hey, M.H., and Claringbull, G.F. (1950) Connellite, buttgenbachite and tallingite. Mineralogical Magazine, 29(211), 280-286.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) Atacamite from Cumberland and Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 349-350 (referring to Bannister et al., 1950).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Bannister et al., 1950 and Kingsbury & Hartley, 1956).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Found here about 1852 by Bryce Wright (Allan-Greg Collection Catalogue, BM(NH)) and reported by Greg & Lettsom in 1858. This has been the most prolific locality (Davidson & Thomson, 1951) and it is likely that most specimens labelled simply 'Caldbeck Fells' originated here. Acicular tufted caledonite has been confused with aurichalcite in the past."
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Rudler, F.W. (1905) A handbook to a collection of the minerals of the British Islands... in the Museum of Practical Geology... London. H.M.S.O., London, x, 241 pp.; Day, F.H. (1928) Some notes on the minerals of the Caldbeck Fells. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 4, 66-79.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "From the 30fm and 90fm level dumps (Hartley, 1984). A specimen in the King Collection (National Museum of Wales, Cardiff), obtained from an old collection by W.F. Davidson, and reputed to come from Thief Gills [i.e. probably the ancient outcrop workings in higher Roughton Gill] in 1912 is, if authentic, easily the best azurite from the area. It shows a striated crystal 15mm in diameter with fibrous malachite on 'copper pitch'."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Description: Bridges et al. (2008): "Extremely thin blades of baryte occur encrusting ochres of limonite and wad. Individual crystals reach 5 mm long, but are less than 1 mm in height. The crystals are usually transparent and rosasite is in association on two of the specimens examined."
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Carruthers, R.G., Eastwood, T., Wilson, G.V., Pocock, R.W., and Wray, D.A. (1915) Baryets and witherite. Special Report of the Mineral Resources of Great Britain vol. 2, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Wilson, G.V., Eastwood, T., Pocock, R.W., Wray, D.A., and Robertson, T. (1922) Barytes and witherite. Special Report of the Mineral Resources of Great Britain no. 2, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Beaverite-(Cu) ?
Formula: Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Thin earthy to micro-crystalline crusts of yellow-brown material in cavities in quartz, resembling some forms of beaverite, were checked by EDS and found to contain lead, copper and iron. The copper peaks were quite significant, but detailed microprobe (WDS/EPM) analysis would be necessary to be sure the mineral was not plumbojarosite."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951-1957 and Hartley, 1984).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Beudantite ?
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1958) Jarosite and natrojarosite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(240), 813-815.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951-1960 and Hartley, 1984).
'Bindheimite'
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
Habit: powdery crusts
Colour: pale yellow
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "This mineral has recently been re-named as part of the reclassification of the pyrochlore group of minerals (Atencio et al., 2010). It occurs rarely as pale yellow powdery crusts in cavities with cerussite, anglesite and in one case with leadhillite and linarite."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Bornite ?
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Young (1987) notes that there is a specimen of this mineral in the Keswick Museum labelled ‘Roughton Gill’. However, the specimen consists of a small dark brown ochrous looking mass with white streaks. No bornite is visible from outside the cabinet and the matrix does not look typical of Roughton Gill Mine. It has not been found in the current study and it is considered that this mineral should not be included in the list of Roughton Gill Mine species."
Reference: Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Young, 1987).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Bournonite ?
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951).
'Brewsterite' ?
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "The 'brewsterite' recorded by Hall (1868) as an associate of tenorite and chalcopyrite is unlikely to be the zeolitic brewsterite (of Brooke) as assumed by Young (1987). It is more likely to be the 'brewsterite' listed by Branston (1910) and Postlethwaite (1913) as 'protoxide of copper'. Although the latter is a synonym of cuprite, the name brewsterite in this context does not appear in any standard mineralogy or synonymy known to the authors and the precise definition of the term appears to be lost."
Reference: Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford, London, 168 pp.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Habit: earthy
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Greg & Lettsom (1858: 327) described brochantite from Roughton Gill: 'lately in small but very perfect and brilliant crystals ... on a white quartzose rock, associated with fibrous malachite.' Specimens fitting this description may still be found on the extensive dumps below the 90fm level. An occasional associated species is tsumebite."
Reference: Sowerby, H. (1850) Popular mineralogy; comprising a familiar account of minerals and their uses. Reeve and Benham, London [Collecting minerals, by B.M. Wright, 14-23].; Dana, J.D. (1854) System of mineralogy 4th ed. Vol 1. (of 2). Putnam and Co., New York, 534 pp.; Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford, London, 168 pp.; Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.; Rudler, F.W. (1905) A handbook to a collection of the minerals of the British Islands... in the Museum of Practical Geology... London. H.M.S.O., London, x, 241 pp.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. (xxxx) (MS2) Notes on the occurrence of gold in the Lake District.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47. Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Habit: 'nail head' crystals (Davidson & Thomson, 1951); massive (Dewey & Eastwood, 1925); scalenohedral moulds in quartz from the 90fm level dump may be pseudomorphs after calcite
Reference: Melmore, S. (1920) The metamorphism of the Carrock Fell gabbro; with a note on the origin of the sulphide veins of the Caldbeck Fells. Geological Magazine, 57, 266-268.; Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Dewey, H. and Eastwood, T. (1925) Copper ores of the Midlands, Wales, the Lake District and the Isle of Man. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain, No. 30. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. (xxxx) (MS2) Notes on the occurrence of gold in the Lake District.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Melmore, 1920, Eastwood, 1921, Dewey & Eastwood, 1925, Davidson & Thomson, 1951, and Young, 1987).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Habit: fibrous, velvet-like encrustation; acicular
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "it is found, principally, in the old workings on the South vein in higher Roughton Gill where it occurs with leadhillite, susannite, lanarkite, mattheddleite, and, very rarely, scotlandite."
Reference: Sowerby, H. (1850) Popular mineralogy; comprising a familiar account of minerals and their uses. Reeve and Benham, London [Collecting minerals, by B.M. Wright, 14-23].; Bristow, H.W. (1861) A glossary of mineralogy. Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts, London, xlvii, 420 pp.; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford, London, 168 pp.; Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47. Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Carminite ?
Formula: PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951-1960 and Hartley, 1984).
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Habit: sprays (<10mm); tabular (10-20mm); acicular
Colour: white
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.; Rudler, F.W. (1905) A handbook to a collection of the minerals of the British Islands... in the Museum of Practical Geology... London. H.M.S.O., London, x, 241 pp.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Cesàrolite
Formula: Pb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
Reference: Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Kendall (1884) reported chalcocite from Roughton Gill, but at that time it would not have been possible to differentiate it from related copper sulphides. An attempt to positively identify the sulphides on two samples by XRD was only partially successful. One was clearly a bad sample, but chalcocite seemed to be the dominant component of the other."
Reference: Kendall, J.D. (1884) The mineral veins of the Lake District. Transactions of the Manchester Geological Society, 17, 292-341. [Early theory of vein formation. Mineral lists derived from previous authors.]; Kingsbury, A.W.G. (xxxx) (MS2) Notes on the occurrence of gold in the Lake District.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kendall, 1884).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Chalcopyrite was one of the principal ores in the veins and is common on the 90-fathom level dumps, mainly as blebs reaching no more than a few centimetres across in quartz. Oxidation to brown ‘limonite’ is common and alteration to grey copper(I) sulphides is apparent on a few specimens."
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford, London, 168 pp.; Dewey, H. and Eastwood, T. (1925) Copper ores of the Midlands, Wales, the Lake District and the Isle of Man. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain, No. 30. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford, London, 168 pp.; Miers, H.A. (1897) On some British pseudomorphs. Mineralogical Magazine, 11, 263-285.; Rudler, F.W. (1905) A handbook to a collection of the minerals of the British Islands... in the Museum of Practical Geology... London. H.M.S.O., London, x, 241 pp.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Greg & Lettsom, 1858, Miers, 1897, Rudler, 1905, Davidson & Thomson, 1951, and Hartley, 1984).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Reference: Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
'Copper Pitch Ore'
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Coronadite
Formula: Pb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Reference: Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Iridescent purple coatings on chalcopyrite have been confirmed as covelline by XRD. Similar coatings occur on several specimens of sphalerite and galena."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Cuprite is rare, but has been found as bright red encrustations, generally of the order of 2 mm across, associated with grey copper(I) sulphides and malachite on a small number of specimens."
Reference: Branston, J.W. (1910) The minerals of Cumberland. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 2, 14-29.; Postlethwaite, J. (1913) Mines and Mining in the (English) Lake District. 3rd edition, Moss and Sons, Whitehaven, 1964 pp. [also facsimile reprints by Michael Moon, Beckermet 1976 and later].; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Branston, 1910 and Postlethwaite, 1913).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Habit: massive
Colour: brown to dark brown
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Day (1928) and Davidson and Thomson (1951) reported dolomite from the dumps. Certainly dolomitic material is common on the 90-fathom dumps as quite large blocks, cavity infills in quartz and as veinlets in weathered rocks. The surface is always oxidised to a light brown colour, indicating the presence of iron, but analysis shows the iron content to be no more than 2 to 3%. The material is, therefore, dolomite with a minor iron content."
Reference: Day, F.H. (1928) Some notes on the minerals of the Caldbeck Fells. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 4, 66-79.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Day, 1928 and Davidson & Thomson, 1951).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Habit: encrustations
Colour: pink
Description: From the 90fm level dumps. Probably formed on the dumps. Bridges et al. (2011): "Cooper and Stanley (1990) and Young (1987) report erythrite as pale pink coatings on quartz and calcite. Small amounts have been found in the course of this study as minute balls up to 0.5 mm in diameter, with a radiating structure, and encrusting fractured quartz surfaces."
Reference: Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Young, 1987).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "The only notable galena specimen seen in this study is purported to come from here: it is a Bryce M. Wright specimen, in the Russell Collection, BM(NH), and comprises an almost solid mass of cube-octahedra to 9mm with 'hacked quartz'." Bridges et al. (2011): "Galena was the main ore from the mine and worked from all the levels. Shaw (1970) notes that it was the main ore in the central part of the ‘Great Bunch’ opened up from the 60-fathom level, occurring as ‘cubical galena’. Good crystalline specimens appear to be rare and Cooper and Stanley (1990, p. 96) are doubtful that an excellent specimen of cubo-octahedral galena in the Russell Collection in the NHM actually originated from the mine. In this study, it is surprisingly uncommon in specimen material but occurs as cleavage fragments on some specimens, mainly in quartz, and as small cubo-octahedral crystals to 2 mm in cavities in quartz with sphalerite in one case."
Reference: Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal, 128 pp. [2nd ed. 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23 (referring to Shaw, 1970).
Galena var: Argentiferous Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Eastwood (1921) notes that the pigment umber was worked at Roughton Gill Mine from the dumps, although there is some doubt about this since the main dumps seem to be undisturbed. Cooper and Stanley (1990) note the presence of ‘limonite’. Brown stains and crusts of limonitic ochres are very abundant on dump material and are probably mostly goethite. Rarely it is found as pseudomorphs of small pyrite crystals and saddle-shaped crystals of dolomite up to 0.5 mm long. Less common are very dark brown to black botryoidal crusts which can reach 3 mm in thickness."
Reference: Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23 (referring to Eastwood, 1921 and Cooper & Stanley, 1990).
Gold ?
Formula: Au
Description: Kingsbury reference. Bridges et al. (2011): "The Kingsbury Collection in the NHM contains a single specimen of gold labelled from the 90-fathom level dumps of Roughton Gill Mine and claimed to have been collected in 1960. It consists of a small area of hackly gold in a brown quartz matrix with grey copper sulphide oxidising to malachite. The specimen has obviously been broken into at least two parts, but there is no sign of the remainder of the specimen in the collection. Grey copper sulphides are rare at Roughton Gill, the specimen does not look typical of the site and no other collector has found gold here. This specimen must be considered fraudulent."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. (xxxx) (MS2) Notes on the occurrence of gold in the Lake District.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury, and Young, 1987).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
Hematite ?
Formula: Fe2O3
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Davidson and Thomson (1951) note the presence on the dumps of a ‘red massive substance’ that they considered to be hematite. In this study, it has been noticed that some of the goethite encrustations have dehydrated to give a red colour and streak. However, these seem to be X-ray amorphous and to consist of an iron-rich silica gel and it is safest not to include hematite in the list of minerals for the site."
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23 (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951).
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Habit: botryoidal; euhedral crystals
Colour: colourless, pale to sky blue, blue-grey, and green
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Hidalgoite ?
Formula: PbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Description: Embrey (1978): "A specimen of bluish-grey plumbogummite from Roughton Gill, Cumberland, appeared to be a mixcrystal of hinsdalite, plumbogummite, and hidalgoite. E. B. Förtsch (1967), Mineral. Mag. 36, 530." Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Supposedly a component of 'plumbogummite' (Förtsch 1967). However, the analysis of plumbogummite by Hartley (1900) - used by Förtsch - shows no sulphate and only trace amounts of arsenic."
Reference: Förtsch, E.B. (1967) ‘Plumbogummite’ from Roughten Gill, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 36(280), 530-538.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, 42(322), 169-177.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Förtsch, 1967 and Embrey, 1978).
Hinsdalite ?
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Description: Embrey (1978): "A specimen of bluish-grey plumbogummite from Roughton Gill, Cumberland, appeared to be a mixcrystal of hinsdalite, plumbogummite, and hidalgoite. E. B. Förtsch (1967), Mineral. Mag. 36, 530." Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Förtsch (1967) suggested that hinsdalite was a constituent of 'plumbogummite' with hidalgoite."
Reference: Förtsch, E.B. (1967) ‘Plumbogummite’ from Roughten Gill, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 36(280), 530-538.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, 42(322), 169-177.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Förtsch, 1967 and Embrey, 1978).
Hydrocerussite
Formula: Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "From the 30fm level dumps (Kingsbury & Hartley, MS); from the 60fm and 90fm level dumps (Hartley, 1984)." Bridges et al. (2011): "Hartley (1984) notes the presence of hydrocerussite on specimen material collected by Kingsbury from all three levels, but no specimens could be found in Kingsbury’s collection in the NHM. It is very rare, but has been found on a few specimens from the 90 fathom dumps where it occurs as crusts of thin white plates, often with a near semi-circular shape, and with individual crystals up to 1.6 mm across, in cavities in quartz. One of the specimens of quartz examined contained a mass of white material 5 mm across with the appearance of cerussite, but with a distinct cleavage in places. It is probably a mass of hydrocerussite partly altered to cerussite."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
Jarosite ?
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1958) Jarosite and natrojarosite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(240), 813-815.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1958 and Hartley, 1984).
Lanarkite
Formula: Pb2(SO4)O
Habit: blades; radiating sprays of crystal sections to 20mm; thin laths to 2mm
Colour: pale sea-green; grey
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "As pale sea-green blades and radiating sprays of crystal sections to 20 mm with leadhillite, from the outcrop workings on the South vein in higher Roughton Gill (Kingsbury Collection, BM(NH)). Recently found in situ in the same area forming thin grey laths to 2 mm with mattheddleite, leadhillite, caledonite, and scotlandite in pods of altered galena (D.I. Green in prep.)."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
Leadhillite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Habit: tabular to 0.25mm
Colour: pale yellow
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Early specimens of leadhillite, attributed to Roughton Gill Mine, may well have originated from Higher Roughton Gill or Red Gill. In the present study, it is very rare, but has been found as thin hexagonal plates reaching 2.5 mm across on quartz with small crystals of linarite and cerussite in association."
Reference: Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Goodchild, 1885 and Hartley, 1984).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47. Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Lepidocrocite
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Some early excellent linarite specimens are attributed to Roughton Gill Mine, but Davidson and Thomson (1951) expressed doubts about the provenance, an opinion supported by Bridges et al. (2008) who used mineralogical and geochemical evidence to support the view that these specimens actually originated from Red Gill Mine. In this study linarite is a fairly rare mineral; most specimens taking the form of a thin blue crust and are clearly a dump alteration product of galena and chalcopyrite. Crystals, when found, take the form of royal blue blades up to a maximum of 3 mm long."
Reference: Dana, J.D. (1850) System of mineralogy. 3rd ed. Putnam, New York and London, 711 pp.; Sowerby, H. (1850) Popular mineralogy; comprising a familiar account of minerals and their uses. Reeve and Benham, London [Collecting minerals, by B.M. Wright, 14-23].; Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford, London, 168 pp.; Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.; Day, F.H. (1928) Some notes on the minerals of the Caldbeck Fells. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 4, 66-79.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 555; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47. Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Habit: fibrous; acicular; botryoidal encrustations
Colour: emerald green
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Excellent specimens of malachite have long been known from Roughton Gill Mine (Greg and Lettsom, 1858; Goodchild, 1884). Cooper and Stanley (1990) note that it was an important ore. It remains abundant in specimen material and it is interesting to note that several of the specimens examined appear to be iron stained brecciated quartz and metasomatised rock cemented by malachite, which may be small examples of malachite as an ore. In cavities, it is common as mats of fibrous needles a few millimetres high which can cover areas over 10 cm across and botryoidal encrustations of similar size. Aggregates of radiating bright emerald green needles reach 10 mm in length in some cavities and small blocky crystals also occur. By far the commonest associated minerals are cerussite and hemimorphite."
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford, London, 168 pp.; Goodchild, J.G. (1884) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 2]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 8 (for 1882-1883), 189-204.; Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. (xxxx) (MS2) Notes on the occurrence of gold in the Lake District.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal, 128 pp. [2nd ed. 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Mattheddleite ?
Formula: Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Habit: minute needles with caledonite, lanarkite, leadhillite, hydrocerussite, etc.
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Mattheddleite is very rare having only been noted on a single 4 cm specimen where it lines four 5 mm cavities as sprays of minute (<0.1 mm) needles. The matrix is iron stained quartz-galena and associated minerals are susannite, cerussite, and hydrocerussite. On the reverse of the specimen is yellow pyromorphite. Regrettably, although the specimen was found on the 90-fathom dumps, it is very similar to material from Higher Roughton Gill and the possibility of it having originated there cannot be dismissed. For this reason, the provenance is considered doubtful."
Reference: Cooper, M.P., Green, D.I., and Braithwaite, R.S.W. (1988) The occurrence of mattheddleite in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: a preliminary note. U.K. Journal of Mines and Minerals, 5, 21.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Cooper et al., 1988).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; UK Journal of Mines and Minerals (1996) 16, 15.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Colour: wax-yellow
Reference: Sowerby, H. (1850) Popular mineralogy; comprising a familiar account of minerals and their uses. Reeve and Benham, London [Collecting minerals, by B.M. Wright, 14-23].; Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford, London, 168 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Sowerby, 1850, Greg & Lettsom, 1858, and Hall, 1868).; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121 (referring to Greg & Lettsom, 1858).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Mimetite var: Campylite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Habit: grades into globular or botryoidal aggregates
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake district: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Mottramite
Formula: PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Habit: rounded
Colour: pistachio green; brown
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "In debris below Iron Crag, probably originating from the outcrop of the Roughton Gill (South) vein: as minute translucent pistachio green rounded crystals on goethite and quartz (D. Middleton Collection); and as greasy lustred brown rounded crystals encrusting quartz with pyromorphite (N. Thomson Collection). Both occurrences det. BM(NH): XRD."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: Ineson, P.R. and Mitchell, J.G. (1974) K-Ar isotopic age determinations from some Lake District mineral localities. Geological Magazine, 111, 521-537.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Ineson & Mitchell, 1974).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Olivenite ?
Formula: Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Kendall (1884) listed 'olivienite' among the 'metallic minerals' from Roughton Gill on the authority of Postlethwaite or Bryce Wright. However, neither of these authors cite any locality in the Caldbeck Fells for this species in their publications (Postlethwaite, 1877; 1899; Wright in Jenkinson, 1875 and subsequent editions)."
Reference: Kendall, J.D. (1884) The mineral veins of the Lake District. Transactions of the Manchester Geological Society, 17, 292-341. [Early theory of vein formation. Mineral lists derived from previous authors.]; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kendall, 1884).
Parahopeite ?
Formula: Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Hartley (1984) noted the presence of parahopeite on a specimen Kingsbury claimed to have collected from the 60-fathom dumps. The specimen could not be found in the NHM and no other collector has found the mineral in the Caldbeck Fells. It has to be considered fraudulent."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Plumbogummite
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Habit: drusy to minutely botryoidal
Colour: almost colourless through shades of blue-grey and lavender, to a deep cobalt blue (smalt-blue)
Description: Sometimes as epimorphs after small prisms of pyromorphite.
Reference: Blum, J.R. (1843) Die Pseudomorphosen des Mineralreichs. Vol. 1. E. Schweizerbart'sche, Stuttgart, x, 378 pp.; Dana, J.D. (1850) System of mineralogy. 3rd ed. Putnam, New York and London, 711 pp.; Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Goodchild, J.G. (1884) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 2]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 8 (for 1882-1883), 189-204.; Miers, H.A. (1897) On some British pseudomorphs. Mineralogical Magazine, 11, 263-285.; Hartley, E.G.J. (1900) On the constitution of the natural arsenates and phosphates. Part III Plumbogummite and Hitchcockite. Mineralogical Magazine, 12, 223-233.; Miers, H.A. (1900) Note on the hitchcockite, plumbogummite and beudantite analysed by Mr Hartley. Mineralogical Magazine, 12, 239-243.; Prior, G.T. (1900) Hamlinite, florencite, plumbogummite (hitchcockite), beudantite, and svanbergite, as members of a natural group of minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, 12, 249-254. Rudler, F.W. (1905) A handbook to a collection of the minerals of the British Islands... in the Museum of Practical Geology... London. H.M.S.O., London, x, 241 pp.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1.; Förtsch, E.B. (1967) ‘Plumbogummite’ from Roughten Gill, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 36(280), 530-538.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, 42(322), 169-177.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Plumbojarosite ?
Formula: Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Description: Kingsbury reference. Bridges et al. (2011) [on 'beaverite']: "Thin earthy to micro-crystalline crusts of yellow-brown material in cavities in quartz, resembling some forms of beaverite, were checked by EDS and found to contain lead, copper and iron. The copper peaks were quite significant, but detailed microprobe (WDS/EPM) analysis would be necessary to be sure the mineral was not plumbojarosite."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1960 and Hartley, 1984). Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
'Psilomelane'
Reference: Day, F.H. (1928) Some notes on the minerals of the Caldbeck Fells. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 4, 66-79.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Day, 1928, Davidson & Thomson, 1951, and Hartley, 1984).
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Habit: prismatic; tabular; botryoidal encrustations; stalactites; acicular
Colour: white; grey, yellow, oil-green to emerald-green; brown; orange; bicolour (green/orange, green/yellow)
Description: Sometimes as epimorphs/pseudomorphs after cerussite.
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford, London, 168 pp.; Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.; Day, F.H. (1928) Some notes on the minerals of the Caldbeck Fells. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 4, 66-79.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.; El Shazly, E.M., Webb, J.S., and Williams, D. (1957) Trace elements in sphalerite, galena and associated minerals from the British isles. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 66, 241-271.; Cockbain, A.G. (1968) Lead apatite solid-solution series. Mineralogical Magazine, 36(284), 1171-1173.; Newby, H.P. (1981) Rare earth elements in pyromorphite group minerals. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Quartz is by far the main gangue mineral remaining on the dumps today. It occurs as large blocks, often partly encrusted with supergene minerals such as goethite, malachite and pyromorphite. Much of the quartz has been brecciated and is cemented by later quartz and other minerals. Small to large blocks often have a hackly appearance, which is often assumed to indicate they are pseudomorphs or epimorphs of baryte. Small pyramidal crystals are common but rarely reach more than 10 mm across. Small bands of white chalcedony are also common on many of the specimens examined, the chalcedony grading into crystalline quartz."
Reference: Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Ramsbeckite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
Reference: Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
Rosasite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Habit: spherical aggregates and masses
Colour: pale blue
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Rosasite was first reported in the British Isles by Kingsbury and Hartley (1957), who described several occurrences in the Lake District, mainly in the Caldbeck Fells and including Roughton Gill Mine. Although rosasite is widespread, usually in small amounts in British orefields, it is very common at Roughton Gill and it is surprising the mineral was overlooked for as long as it was. The Kingsbury Collection contains a group of small specimens of rosasite from the 60-fathom dumps. Collected in 1950, the rosasite is associated with hemimorphite; the specimens are typical of the site and there is no reason to doubt the validity of the Kingsbury and Hartley report. On the 90-fathom dumps, it occurs as small (up to 1 mm) blue-green hemispheres perched as individuals on other minerals, particularly hemimorphite, but commonly the hemispheres aggregate to form continuous botryoidal crusts which can cover areas up to 20 cm2."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of rosasite in Britain. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 501-502.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1957).; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Schulenbergite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Reference: Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
Scotlandite
Formula: PbSO3
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Recently found on a few small specimens collected from an outcrop of the Roughton Gill South vein in higher Roughton Gill. It occurs as a sparkling pale brown encrustation on altered galena with mattheddleite, lanarkite, leadhillite and caledonite (det. Leeds Univ.: XRD, D.I. Green in prep.)".
Reference: Green, D.I. (1989) Scotlandite from Higher Roughton Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Mineralogical Magazine, 53(373), 653.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Serpierite
Formula: Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "This mineral is surprisingly rare considering how common other supergene carbonates are on the site and the abundance of hemimorphite. It has been found as typical crusts of rounded buff coloured crystals, individual crystals being less than 1 mm diameter. It is usually associated with hemimorphite and sphalerite."
Reference: Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford, London, 168 pp.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Hartley (1984) lists sphalerite as occurring on material from the 60 fathom level, claimed to have been collected by Kingsbury, but the specimen could not be found in the NHM. In this study, sphalerite is uncommon, but has been found mainly as brown cleavage fragments, a few millimetres across, in the matrix of specimens of supergene minerals such as hemimorphite and smithsonite. One specimen in the Tim Neall Collection consists of a layer 10 mm thick, with a crystalline surface, on wallrock and partly coated with 2 to 3 mm nailhead calcite crystals. Minor oxidation to hemimorphite is evident on this specimen."
Reference: Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Eastwood, 1921, Davidson & Thomson, 1951, and Hartley, 1984).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
Susannite ?
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Habit: equant to tabular
Colour: very pale blue
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Ludlam Collection (BM(NH)) (det. BM(NH): XRD, 1988)." Bridges et al. (2011): "Cooper and Stanley (1990) report susannite with caledonite from Roughton Gill on a specimen in the Ludlam Collection in the NHM, but the specimen has the appearance of material from the Roughton South Vein on Balliway Rigg. In this study, it has only been found on one specimen, where it is associated with mattheddleite in one cavity with several minute crystals in another cavity. However, the provenance is considered doubtful for the reasons outlined previously under ‘mattheddleite’."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23 (referring to Cooper & Stanley, 1990).
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series' ?
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Tetrahedrite-tennantite was recorded from the old workings in higher Roughton Gill by Hartley (1984)." Green et al. (2008): "Tetrahedrite-tennantite with an intermediate composition is listed from higher Roughton Gill by Hartley (1984). We have been unable to trace the specimen in the Kingsbury Collection at the NHM. Tetrahedrite has been confirmed along the easterly strike extension of the Roughton Gill South Vein at Driggith Mine (Stanley and Vaughan, 1981), but tennantite remains unconfirmed. There is no reference to tetrahedrite or tennantite from higher Roughton Gill in any of Kingsbury's X-ray catalogues and it may be that specimens were found independently by Jack Hartley. A more extensive investigation of the primary mineralisation is required to resolve this problem."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Tenorite ?
Formula: CuO
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "Greg and Letsom (1858) and Day (1928) note the presence of this mineral at Roughton Gill, but Davidson and Thomson (1951) comment that they were unable to find it. This mineral can only be identified reliably by XRD and as it has not been identified in this study it is considered that it should not be included in the list of Roughton Gill minerals."
Reference: Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford, London, 168 pp.; Goodchild, J.G. (1882) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 1]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 7 (for 1881-1882), 101-126.; Day, F.H. (1928) Some notes on the minerals of the Caldbeck Fells. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 4, 66-79.; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: No reference listed
Tsumebite
Formula: Pb2Cu(PO4)(SO4)(OH)
Habit: drusy aggregates; scaly crystals
Colour: apple green
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "An arsenatian tsumebite was recorded by Embrey (1977) from 'Carrock Fell', but the collector of the material subsequently reported the locality more precisely at Roughton Gill at [NY302343]; i.e. between the 60 and 90fm level (Moffit, 1979). The authors have found tsumebite to be an occasional associate of brochantite in specimens collected from the main dumps of Roughton Gill. It forms tiny (c. 0.25mm) pale apple green drusy aggregates and rarely scaly crystals on compact quartz. Associated brochantite crystals reach 2-3mm and cerussite is occasionally present. First identified on a specimen collected by D.R. Middleton (det. BM(NH): XRD; University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST): IR." Bridges et al. (2011): "Small (c. 0.25 mm) apple green drusy crystals of ‘tsumebite’ in association with brochantite were noted by Cooper and Stanley (1990). It remains an uncommon mineral but has been found in the current study as crusts of similar sized crystals, again associated with brochantite. Tindle et al. (2006) analysed four ‘tsumebite aggregates’ and showed the presence of arsenic in all of them. The arsenic becomes richer towards the outside of the crystals and in one case, at the outer edge of the AsO4/PO4 site, is 53 mol% AsO4 and just falls within the arsentsumebite field."
Reference: UK Journal of Mines & Minerals (xxxx) 16(4).; Embrey, P.G. (1977) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. pp. xlviii-lxvii in the 1977 reprint of Greg & Lettsom (1858). Mineralogical Magazine, 42, 169-177.; Moffit, C. (1979) New mineral discovered. Northern Mines Research Society Newsletter August 1979, p. 2.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Embrey, 1977 and Moffit, 1979).; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
'Wad'
Reference: Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 48-50.
Wooldridgeite
Formula: Na2CaCu2+2(P2O7)2 · 10H2O
Habit: tapering blades/prisms
Colour: aquamarine blue
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Sprays of tapering bladed aquamarine blue transparent crystals to 1.5mm on chrysocolla in quartz have been shown by XRD (BM(NH) & Leeds Univ.) and semi-quantitative EPMA (M. Rothwell, pers. comm.) to be a probable new species. Only two very small specimens have been found (J. Dickinson & P. Braithwaite Collections). The XRD pattern is closely related to that of the magnesium phosphate bobierrite (D.I. Green, pers. comm.)." Bridges et al. (2011): "A copper calcium sodium pyro-phosphate hydrate occurring as ‘sprays of tapering bladed aquamarine crystals’ was described as an unknown species from the dumps of Roughton Gill Mine by Cooper and Stanley (1990, pp. 132-133). [...] Wooldridgeite was identified on a few small specimens collected by the late Peter Braithwaite and the late John Dickinson on the 90-fathom level dumps at Roughton Gill Mine. It occurs as pale ice-blue tapering prismatic crystals, which exceptionally reach 1.8 mm in length, but are usually much smaller than this. The crystals are commonly associated with ‘chrysocolla’ in porous quartz. They are very late in the paragenetic sequence. A few overgrow recent fractures in the quartz matrix which indicate a post-mining origin. It has not been found in this study."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23 (referring to Cooper & Stanley, 1990).
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Description: Bridges et al. (2011): "A single small specimen of pyromorphite on a cellular quartz matrix in the Tim Neall Collection has a scattering of minute thin yellow plates of wulfenite which reach a maximum size of 0.5 mm on edge. The size of the crystals is so small that they are easily overlooked and the mineral may be more common than this single specimen implies."
Reference: Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold ?1.AA.05Au
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Acanthite2.BA.35Ag2S
Bornite ?2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Bournonite ?2.GA.50PbCuSbS3
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cinnabar2.CD.15aHgS
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
var: Argentiferous Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 3 - Halides
Atacamite ?3.DA.10aCu2(OH)3Cl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Bindheimite'4.DH.20Pb2Sb2O6O
Cesàrolite4.FG.10Pb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
Coronadite4.DK.05aPb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite ?4.CB.05Fe2O3
Lepidocrocite4.FE.15γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
Scotlandite4.JE.20PbSO3
Tenorite ?4.AB.10CuO
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Aurichalcite5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Hydrocerussite5.BE.10Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Leadhillite5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite5.BA.10(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Susannite ?5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Beaverite-(Cu) ?7.BC.10Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Caledonite7.BC.50Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jarosite ?7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Lanarkite7.BD.40Pb2(SO4)O
Langite7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Linarite7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite ?7.BC.10Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Ramsbeckite7.DD.60(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
Schulenbergite7.DD.80(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Serpierite7.DD.30Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Arsentsumebite8.BG.05Pb2Cu(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)
Beudantite ?8.BL.05PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Carminite ?8.BH.30PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Erythrite8.CE.40Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Hidalgoite ?8.BL.05PbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Hinsdalite ?8.BL.05PbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
var: Campylite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Mottramite8.BH.40PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Olivenite ?8.BB.30Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Parahopeite ?8.CA.70Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Plumbogummite8.BL.10PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Tsumebite8.BG.05Pb2Cu(PO4)(SO4)(OH)
Wooldridgeite8.FC.25Na2CaCu2+2(P2O7)2 · 10H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Mattheddleite ?9.AH.25Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Brewsterite' ?-
'Copper Pitch Ore'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Psilomelane'-
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series' ?-
'Wad'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold ?1.1.1.1Au
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite ?2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ø = 3
Bournonite ?3.4.3.2PbCuSbS3
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX
Tenorite ?4.2.3.1CuO
A2X3
Hematite ?4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Lepidocrocite6.1.2.2γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
(AB)5X8
Cesàrolite7.6.1.1Pb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
AB8X16
Coronadite7.9.1.4Pb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A2(O,OH)3Xq
Atacamite ?10.1.1.1Cu2(OH)3Cl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Hydrocerussite16a.2.2.1Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite16a.3.1.2(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Leadhillite17.1.2.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Susannite ?17.1.3.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Beaverite-(Cu) ?30.2.5.7Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite ?30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Lanarkite30.2.1.1Pb2(SO4)O
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite ?30.2.5.6Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Schulenbergite31.1.6.1(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Langite31.4.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Ramsbeckite31.4.9.1(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Serpierite31.6.2.1Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Caledonite32.3.2.1Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Group 34 - SELENITES, TELLURITES AND SULFITES
A(XO3)
Scotlandite34.1.1.2PbSO3
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Erythrite40.3.6.3Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Parahopeite ?40.3.3.1Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Mottramite41.5.2.2PbCu(VO4)(OH)
A2(XO4)Zq
Olivenite ?41.6.6.1Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq
Carminite ?41.10.6.1PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Plumbogummite42.7.3.5PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Arsentsumebite43.4.2.2Pb2Cu(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)
Beudantite ?43.4.1.1PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Hidalgoite ?43.4.1.3PbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Hinsdalite ?43.4.1.5PbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Tsumebite43.4.2.1Pb2Cu(PO4)(SO4)(OH)
Group 44 - ANTIMONATES
A2X2O6(O,OH,F)
'Bindheimite'44.1.1.2Pb2Sb2O6O
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Mattheddleite ?52.4.9.6Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
'Brewsterite' ?77.1.7.1
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Copper Pitch Ore'-
Galena
var: Argentiferous Galena
-PbS
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Mimetite
var: Campylite
-Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
'Psilomelane'-
Quartz
var: Chalcedony
-SiO2
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series' ?-
'Wad'-
Wooldridgeite-Na2CaCu2+2(P2O7)2 · 10H2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H TsumebitePb2Cu(PO4)(SO4)(OH)
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
H LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
H PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
H Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
H CesàrolitePb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
H Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
H Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
H SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H ArsentsumebitePb2Cu(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)
H WooldridgeiteNa2CaCu22+(P2O7)2 · 10H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
H AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
H Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
H BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
H HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
H ParahopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
H PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
CCarbon
C AragoniteCaCO3
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
C CerussitePbCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
C LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
OOxygen
O AnglesitePbSO4
O AragoniteCaCO3
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O BaryteBaSO4
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O TsumebitePb2Cu(PO4)(SO4)(OH)
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O CalciteCaCO3
O CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
O CerussitePbCO3
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O CoronaditePb(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
O CupriteCu2O
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
O LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
O LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
O PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
O QuartzSiO2
O Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
O ScotlanditePbSO3
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
O CesàrolitePb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
O Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
O Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
O SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O ArsentsumebitePb2Cu(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)
O WooldridgeiteNa2CaCu22+(P2O7)2 · 10H2O
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O Mimetite (var: Campylite)Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
O MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
O AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
O Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
O BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
O HematiteFe2O3
O HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
O ParahopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
O PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O TenoriteCuO
NaSodium
Na WooldridgeiteNa2CaCu22+(P2O7)2 · 10H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Al HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
SiSilicon
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
P TsumebitePb2Cu(PO4)(SO4)(OH)
P PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
P WooldridgeiteNa2CaCu22+(P2O7)2 · 10H2O
P HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
P ParahopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
SSulfur
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BaryteBaSO4
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S TsumebitePb2Cu(PO4)(SO4)(OH)
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CovelliteCuS
S ChalcociteCu2S
S GalenaPbS
S LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
S LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S ScotlanditePbSO3
S SphaleriteZnS
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
S AcanthiteAg2S
S CinnabarHgS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
S Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
S SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
S SulphurS8
S ArsentsumebitePb2Cu(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)
S Galena (var: Argentiferous Galena)PbS
S MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
S Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
S BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S BournonitePbCuSbS3
S HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
ClChlorine
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl Mimetite (var: Campylite)Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Cl AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Ca WooldridgeiteNa2CaCu22+(P2O7)2 · 10H2O
VVanadium
V MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
MnManganese
Mn CoronaditePb(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
Mn CesàrolitePb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Fe Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
CoCobalt
Co ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
CuCopper
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu TsumebitePb2Cu(PO4)(SO4)(OH)
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Cu Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Cu LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
Cu Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Cu SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu ArsentsumebitePb2Cu(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)
Cu WooldridgeiteNa2CaCu22+(P2O7)2 · 10H2O
Cu AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cu Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu BournonitePbCuSbS3
Cu OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
Cu TenoriteCuO
ZnZinc
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
Zn Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Zn SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Zn ParahopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
AsArsenic
As ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As ArsentsumebitePb2Cu(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)
As Mimetite (var: Campylite)Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
As BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
As HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
Ag SilverAg
SbAntimony
Sb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Sb BournonitePbCuSbS3
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
AuGold
Au GoldAu
HgMercury
Hg CinnabarHgS
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb TsumebitePb2Cu(PO4)(SO4)(OH)
Pb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
Pb CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb CoronaditePb(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Pb LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
Pb LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Pb PlumbogummitePbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Pb ScotlanditePbSO3
Pb CesàrolitePb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
Pb ArsentsumebitePb2Cu(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb Galena (var: Argentiferous Galena)PbS
Pb Mimetite (var: Campylite)Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)
Pb Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Pb CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Pb HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2

Geochronology

Mineralization age: Early Jurassic : 189 Ma to 178 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Mesozoic
  Jurassic
   Early Jurassic
ⓘ Illite (youngest age)178 Ma
ⓘ Illite (oldest age)189 Ma

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3186080
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Ordovician
443.8 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 2033368
Unnamed Extrusive Rocks, Ordovician

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Mafic lava

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Early Ordovician
470 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 3157764
Early Ordovician limestone

Age: Early Ordovician (470 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{limestone}, Minor{sandstone,siltstone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Blum, J.R. (1843) Die Pseudomorphosen des Mineralreichs. Vol. 1. E. Schweizerbart'sche, Stuttgart, x, 378 pp. (contains probably the earliest record of plumbogummite, although the specimen in question is mistaken for a hemimorphite pseudomorph after pyromorphite).
Dana, J.D. (1850) System of mineralogy. 3rd ed. Putnam, New York and London, 711 pp.
Sowerby, H. (1850) Popular mineralogy; comprising a familiar account of minerals and their uses. Reeve and Benham, London [Collecting minerals, by B.M. Wright, 14-23].
Dana, J.D. (1854) System of mineralogy 4th ed. Vol 1. (of 2). Putnam and Co., New York, 534 pp.
Greg, R.P. and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John Van Voorst, London, 583 pp. [also a facsimile reprint with addenda by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].
Bristow, H.W. (1861) A glossary of mineralogy. Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts, London, xlvii, 420 pp.
Hall, T.M. (1868) The Mineralogist's directory: or a guide to the principal mineral localities in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Edward Stanford, London, 168 pp.
Jenkinson, H.I. (1875) Practical guide to the English Lake District, 4th ed. Carlisle [a chapter on 'Mineralogy' (pp. lxxi-xciii) was contributed by Bryce M. Wright Jr and was reprinted in all subsequent editions].
Goodchild, J.G. (1882) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 1]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 7 (for 1881-1882), 101-126.
Goodchild, J.G. (1884) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 2]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 8 (for 1882-1883), 189-204.
Kendall, J.D. (1884) The mineral veins of the Lake District. Transactions of the Manchester Geological Society, 17, 292-341 [Early theory of vein formation. Mineral lists derived from previous authors].
Goodchild, J.G. (1885) Contributions towards a list of minerals occurring in Cumberland and Westmorland [part 3]. Transactions of the Cumberland Association for the Advancement of Literature and Science, 9 (for 1883-1884), 175-199.
Miers, H.A. (1897) On some British pseudomorphs. Mineralogical Magazine, 11, 263-285.
Hartley, E.G.J. (1900) On the constitution of the natural arsenates and phosphates. Part III Plumbogummite and Hitchcockite. Mineralogical Magazine, 12, 223-233.
Miers, H.A. (1900) Note on the hitchcockite, plumbogummite and beudantite analysed by Mr Hartley. Mineralogical Magazine, 12, 239-243.
Prior, G.T. (1900) Hamlinite, florencite, plumbogummite (hitchcockite), beudantite, and svanbergite, as members of a natural group of minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, 12, 249-254.
Rudler, F.W. (1905) A handbook to a collection of the minerals of the British Islands... in the Museum of Practical Geology... London. H.M.S.O., London, x, 241 pp.
Branston, J.W. (1910) The minerals of Cumberland. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 2, 14-29.
Carruthers, R.G., Eastwood, T., Wilson, G.V., Pocock, R.W., and Wray, D.A. (1915) Baryets and witherite. Special Report of the Mineral Resources of Great Britain vol. 2, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.
Melmore, S. (1920) The metamorphism of the Carrock Fell gabbro; with a note on the origin of the sulphide veins of the Caldbeck Fells. Geological Magazine, 57, 266-268.
Eastwood, T. (1921) The lead and zinc ores of the Lake District. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain No. 22, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.
Wilson, G.V., Eastwood, T., Pocock, R.W., Wray, D.A., and Robertson, T. (1922) Barytes and witherite. Special Report of the Mineral Resources of Great Britain no. 2, Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.
Dewey, H. and Eastwood, T. (1925) Copper ores of the Midlands, Wales, the Lake District and the Isle of Man. Special Report on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain, No. 30. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain.
Day, F.H. (1928) Some notes on the minerals of the Caldbeck Fells. Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society, 4, 66-79.
Bannister, F.A., Hey, M.H., and Claringbull, G.F. (1950) Connellite, buttgenbachite and tallingite. Mineralogical Magazine, 29(211), 280-286.
Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (MS) (1951) New occurrences of rare minerals in the northern part of the English Lake District: part 1 [An unpublished 39-page typescript of a paper given to the Mineralogical Society on 8 March 1951. Several of the species detailed here were to become the subject of separate papers published in later years. Many of the remaining species were not listed until Hartley's summary paper of 1984].
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(235), 289-295.
El Shazly, E.M., Webb, J.S., and Williams, D. (1957) Trace elements in sphalerite, galena and associated minerals from the British isles. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 66, 241-271.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of rosasite in Britain. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 501-502.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) Beaverite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(239), 700-702.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1958) Jarosite and natrojarosite from the Lake District. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(240), 813-815.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 32(249), 423-432.
Förtsch, E.B. (1967) 'Plumbogummite' from Roughten [sic] Gill, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 36, 530-538.
Cockbain, A.G. (1968) Lead apatite solid-solution series. Mineralogical Magazine, 36(284), 1171-1173.
Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal, 128 pp. [2nd ed. 1975 incorporating minor changes].
Ineson, P.R. and Mitchell, J.G. (1974) K-Ar isotopic age determinations from some Lake District mineral localities. Geological Magazine, 111, 521-537.
Embrey, P.G. (1977) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. pp. xlviii-lxvii in the 1977 reprint of Greg & Lettsom (1858). Mineralogical Magazine, 42, 169-177.
Moffit, C. (1979) New mineral discovered. Northern Mines Research Society Newsletter August 1979, p. 2.
Newby, H.P. (1981) Rare earth elements in pyromorphite group minerals. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of London.
Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.
Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.
Cooper, M.P., Green, D.I., and Braithwaite, R.S.W. (1988) The occurrence of mattheddleite in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: a preliminary note. U.K. Journal of Mines and Minerals, 5, 21.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
Jecock, M., Dunn, C., and Lax, A. (2001) Roughton Gill Mine and Silver Gill Mine, Cumbria. Archaeological Investigations Reports Series, AI/8/2001.
Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Bridges, T.F., Green, D., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine. Journal of the Russell Society, 14, 3-23.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (xxxx) (MS2) Notes on the occurrence of gold in the Lake District. [A spiral bound notebook containing what appears to be the manuscript for a proposed paper, with a historical introduction followed by detailed descriptions of Kingsbury's own discoveries].

Mindat Articles

Visit to Roughton Gill, August 2010 by Jolyon & Katya Ralph



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