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Kalahari manganese field, Northern Cape, South Africai
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The Kalahari Manganese Field

Situated in extremely well-preserved, 2.2 billion-year-old sedimentary rocks of the Transvaal Supergroup near Hotazel in the Northern Cape province of South Africa, the Kalahari Manganese Field is one of the geological and mineralogical wonders of the world. In addition to representing by far the largest-known land-based manganese deposit on Earth, the Kalahari Manganese Field is also the world’s top producer of ore in manganese metal tonnage. It also hosts a world-renowned, unique and varied assemblage of aesthetic collector’s mineral specimens that are often rare or unique.

Rhodochrosite

The mineral that made the Kalahari Manganese Field world famous was rhodochrosite. This mineral was originally discovered in the Hotazel opencast mine in 1963. These early specimens were generally not spectacular and consist mainly of drusy rhodochrosite associated with gypsum. Up until 1967, however, a few scalenohedral crystals did emerge from Hotazel mine. Then, 10 years later, the major discovery of rhodochrosite was made while N’Chwaning I mine was being opened, when a wide variety of the different colours and habits of spectacular specimens was encountered. Apart from its colour variations, which range from wine-red to pale-pink, the rhodochrosite occurs in a variety of shapes and sizes, from ‘dog-tooth’ (scalenohedral) to smooth spheres and ‘wheat-sheaf’ bundles of crystals.

The shaft of N’Chwaning I mine penetrated directly into vugs containing crystals, and hundreds of loose crystals were swept away off the floor at that time.

Truly exceptional, undamaged rhodochrosites are not that common, particularly the scalenohedral form, whose terminations cleave off very easily. Gem-quality material has been faceted. Most of the high-quality rhodochrosite came from N’Chwaning I mine. Specimens from Hotazel and N’Chwaning I mines typically occur with manganite, gypsum, todorokite, chalcedony and drusy quartz. The origin and formation of the rhodochrosite is connected to relatively recent geological events in the Kalahari Manganese Field and bears no link to the major Wessels-type alteration period that took place over a billion years ago. This rhodochrosite, from this much older geological event, is found in both N’Chwaning and Wessels mines but is less spectacular, and consists almost exclusively of simple pink, rhombohedral crystals, less than one centimetre, sometimes associated with gageite, orlymanite, caryopilite and leucophoenicite.
Drusy pink rhodochrosite was the most common mineral found associated with the 2006 N’Chwaning I mine shigaite specimens. Most have drusy, pale-pink to pink interlocking rhodochrosite crystals, one to three millimetres long. Some specimens have translucent pink crystals up to one centimetre or slightly longer, but these tend to be isolated on the drusy matrix. One variation of the pink rhodochrosite is thin, prismatic needle-like crystals up to two centimetres, which are intergrown with each other. These crystals are transparent, pale-red and bicoloured, almost always with a darker, red-brown colour at the termination of the crystals.

In early 2006, a very small discovery of rhodochrosite was made at N’Chwaning II mine, probably fewer than three or four dozen specimens. The difference from the classic Kalahari rhodochrosite is that this small pocket yielded pink, curved rhombohedrons, up to one centimetre. Matrix specimens coated with these crystals were collected, the largest being 12cm. (Cairncross and Beukes, 2013).

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Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

175 valid minerals. 26 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

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Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Description: Common in the Wessels-type ore
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991): The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record: 22(4), pp 281.
Aegirine-augite
Formula: (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Reference: Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Aegirine-augite var. Blanfordite
Formula: (Na,Ca)(Fe3+,Fe2+,Mn,Mg,Al)Si2O6
Reference: Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Afwillite
Formula: Ca3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Description: Less than 50 specimens preserved
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa pg 180
Åkermanite
Formula: Ca2Mg(Si2O7)
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Aluminosugilite
Formula: KNa2Al2Li3Si12O30
Reference: Frank K. Mazdab collection: "Al-dominant analog of sugilite", sugilite, and associated minerals in thin section [thin section FKM-173] https://www.rockptx.com/fkm-151-to-fkm-175/#FKM-173
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Andradite var. Hydroandradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Description: Late-stage hydrothermal orange-red octahedral cystals, associated with henritermierite and earlier calcite, in cracks and vugs of hematite-haussmannite ore.
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Cairncross/Dixon, 1995. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Cairncross/Dixon, 1995. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
'Apophyllite'
Reference: Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:252
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross/Dixon, 1995. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Banalsite
Formula: Na2BaAl4Si4O16
Reference: Cairncross/Dixon, 1995. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Description: Small clear tabular crystals associated with massive baryte.
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record: 22(4) pp 282; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa: 186.
Bementite
Formula: Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Birnessite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa
Bixbyite
Formula: Mn3+2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
'Bloodstone'
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa. 181 pp.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Brandtite
Formula: Ca2Mn2+(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: [MinRec 22:480]
Braunite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Habit: Crystals to 1cm
Colour: Black
Reference: [Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302; Min Rec (2009) 40:78]; Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:252; Gait, R., & Williams, M. P. (1980). Sugilite, a Second Occurrenge: Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Field, Republic of South Africa. Canadian Mineralogist, 18, 37-39.; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
'Braunite-II' (FRL)
Formula: CaMn3+14(SiO4)O20
Reference: American Mineralogist (1967): 52, 20-30; Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) pp 282; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa, pg 190; Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa, pg 156.
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Bultfonteinite
Formula: Ca2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Bustamite
Formula: CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Cairncrossite (TL)
Formula: Sr2Ca7-xNa2x(Si4O10)4(OH)2(H2O)15-x
Type Locality:
Description: Found on dump Block 17, Wessels Mine, Northern Cape, only known specimen in the collection of Ludi Von Bezing.
Reference: Giester, G., Lengauer, C.L., Pristacz, H., Rieck, B. and von Bezing, K.-L. (2013) Cairncrossite, IMA 2013-012. CNMNC Newsletter No. 16, August 2013, page 2703; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2695-2709.; Giester, G., Lengauer, C.L., Pristacz, H., Rieck, B., Topa, D., von Bezing, K.-L. (2016): Cairncrossite, a new phyllosilicate from the Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28, 495-505
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Bruce Cairncross (2000) The Desmond Sacco Collection
Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Mn)CO3
Reference: Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Caryopilite
Formula: Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Habit: Slightly curved, prismatic to nearly fibrous.
Colour: Pearly blue, colourless to white
Description: pearly blue, slightly curved crystals are found in association with baryte, calcite, hydroxyapophyllite and pectolite at wessels which also yielded white to colourless slightly curved, prismatic to fibrous crystals associated with andradite, strontium-rich calcite, hausmannite and sturmanite.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa: 194. Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 67.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Chalcophanite
Formula: ZnMn4+3O7 · 3H2O
Reference: Wilson, W.E. & Dunn, P.J., (1978) Famous localities: The Kalahari manganese field. Mineralogical Record 9(3) pp 151.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Chamosite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Charlesite ?
Formula: Ca6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
Description: No formal testing known
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Reference: Cairncross/Dixon, 1995. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Habit: microcrystals
Colour: red
Description: Originally found in the late 1990's on bladed hausmannite, XRD confirmed both. Recent finds of calcite with cinnabar inclusions have been identified.
Reference: Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa, 192 pp.
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
'Clinochrysotile'
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Clinotobermorite
Formula: [Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
Reference: Biagioni, C., Bonaccorsi, E., Lezzerini, M., Merlini, M., & Merlino, S. (2012). Thermal behaviour of tobermorite from N’Chwaning II mine (Kalahari Manganese Field, Republic of South Africa). I. Thermo-gravimetric and X-ray diffraction studies. European Journal of Mineralogy, 24(6), 981-989.
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Giester, G., & Rieck, B. (1994). Effenbergerite BaCu [Si4010], a new mineral from the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 58, 663-670.
Colinowensite (TL)
Formula: BaCuSi2O6
Type Locality:
Reference: Rieck, B. (2013) Colinowensite, IMA 2012-060. CNMNC Newsletter No. 15, February 2013, page 6; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 1-12.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Giester, G., & Rieck, B. (1994). Effenbergerite BaCu [Si4010], a new mineral from the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 58, 663-670.
Creedite
Formula: Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Cymrite
Formula: BaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2O
Reference: Wilson, W.E. & Dunn, P.J., (1978) Famous localities: The Kalahari manganese field. Mineralogical Record 9(3) 137-153.
Cyprine (TL)
Formula: Ca19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9
Type Locality:
Reference: Panikorovskii,T.L.,Shilovskikh,V.V., Avdontseva, E.Y., Zolotarev, A.A., Pekov, I.V., Britvin, S.N. and Krivovichev, S.V. (2015) Cyprine, IMA 2015-044. CNMNC Newsletter No. 27, October 2015, page 1228; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 1229–1236.; Panikorovskii, T.L., Shilovskikh, V.V., Avdontseva, E.Yu., Zolotarev, A.A., Pekov, I.V., Britvin, S.N., Krivovichev, S.V. (2017): Cyprine, Ca19Cu2+(Al,Mg,Mn)12Si18O68(OH)10, a new vesuvianite-group mineral from the Wessels mine, South Africa. European Journal of Mineralogy, 29, 295-306.
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Colour: flesh pink
Reference: Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (1993): Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine South Africa. Mineralogocal Record 24 (5): 365-368
Despujolsite
Formula: Ca3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Description: Rob Lavinsky (specimens analyzed by Dr. Robert Downs - University of Arizona) Despujolsite is said to be first discovered at this mine in late 2010. Earlier finds 2005/2006 came from N'Chwaning II mine (Cairncross 2013).
Reference: Barkley M C, Yang H, Evans S H, Downs R T, Origlieri M J (2011) Redetermination of despujolsite, Ca3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6·3H2O. Acta Crystallographica E67, i47-i48; Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues ... Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa
Diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Diaspore var. Mangan-diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991): The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record: 22(4), 284.
Diegogattaite (TL)
Formula: Na2CaCu2Si8O20 · H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Rumsey, M. S., Welch, M. D., Kampf, A. R., & Spratt, J. (2013). Diegogattaite, Na2CaCu2Si8O20· H2O: a new nanoporous copper sheet silicate from Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, Republic of South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 77(8), 3155-3162.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Effenbergerite (TL)
Formula: BaCuSi4O10
Type Locality:
Description: It occurs in pectolite veins which transect a fine grained massive matrix of sugelite, braunite and manganite. Additional minerals accompanying the assemblage include copper, calcite, clinozoite and quartz.
Reference: Giester, G., & Rieck, B. (1994). Effenbergerite BaCu [Si4010], a new mineral from the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 58, 663-670.
Ephesite
Formula: NaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Description: Found in fissures as small platy 1mm clusters of pale pink ephesite crystals, associated with massive beige andradite, hematite and hausmannite. It has also been identified in assemblage with calcite, brucite, andradite, hausmannite and barite.
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Ettringite
Formula: Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Description: Ettringite, Jouravskite, Charlesite and Sturmanite cannot be identified visually. All specimens are at best a 'guess' unless analysed, there are no visual properties to distinguish one from another, other mineral associations do not factor either.
Reference: No reference listed
Feitknechtite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
'Ferro-akermanite'
Formula: Ca2FeSi2O7
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Ferrobustamite
Formula: CaFe2+(Si2O6)
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Description: Tabular crystals associated with light brown andradite
Reference: Cairncross photo ID 729308
Foshagite
Formula: Ca4(Si3O9)(OH)2
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Friedelite
Formula: Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Gageite
Formula: Mn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
'Gageite-2M'
Formula: (Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
Reference: www.excaliburmineral.com
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Gatehouseite
Formula: Mn2+5(PO4)2(OH)4
Habit: Acicular
Colour: Yellow
Description: Occurs in the shigaite zone associated with baryte, rhodochrosite and shigaite.
Reference: Personally communication between Bruce Cairncross and Frank Hawthorne who quatitatively identified a second, virtually identical specimen of gatehouseite
Gaudefroyite
Formula: Ca4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Habit: Prismatic, hair-like, fibrous.
Colour: Black, copper-brown
Description: Largest crystals were up to 5cm, specimens of 1cm are common. Associated minerals are andradite, calcite, ettringite, hausmannite and hematite. The bronze hair-like specimens have been found in association with baryte, calcite, gypsum, hausmannite and hematite.
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University); Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa
Glaucochroite
Formula: CaMn2+SiO4
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
'Glauconite'
Formula: (K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Description: Also as pseudomorphs after kutnohorite
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Gonyerite
Formula: (Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Gowerite
Formula: Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Greenalite
Formula: (Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Grossular var. Hibschite
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Description: Recorded as small grains.
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa 214.
'Grossular-Hibschite Series'
Reference: Cairncross/Dixon, 1995. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Groutite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Guidottiite (TL)
Formula: Mn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4
Type Locality:
Reference: Wahle, M.W., Bujnowski, T.J., Guggenheim, S., Kogure, T. (2010): Guidottiite, the Mn-analogue of cronstedtite: A new serpentine group mineral from South Africa. Clays and Clay Minerals, 58, 364-378.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record: 22(4) pp 286.
Hausmannite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Hennomartinite (TL)
Formula: SrMn3+2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
Type Locality:
Habit: anhedral
Colour: yellow-brown
Description: Intergrowths with serandite-pectolite in small veins crosscutting an assemblage of idiomorphic sugilite in fibrous serandite-pectolite.
Reference: Schweiz.Min.Petr.Mitt.(1993) 73, 349-355; Gnos, E., Armbruster, T., & Villa, I. M. (2003). Norrishite, K (Mn23+ Li) Si4O10 (O) 2, an oxymica associated with sugilite from the Wessels Mine, South Africa: Crystal chemistry and 40Ar-39Ar dating. American Mineralogist, 88(1), 189-194.
Henritermierite
Formula: Ca3Mn3+2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Hollandite
Formula: Ba(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Description: Microscopically identified in the ore.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa: pp 214.
Holtstamite (TL)
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Type Locality:
Description: Zoned crystals with henritermierite.
Reference: Am. Min. (2005): 90: 1946; European Journal of Mineralogy: 17(2): 375-382.
Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)
Formula: KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Reference: Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (1993): Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine South Africa. Mineralogocal Record 24 (5): 365-368
Inesite
Formula: Ca2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Habit: chisel-shaped in stacked, fan-shaped parallell groups and aggregates
Colour: pale red
Reference: Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (1993): Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine South Africa. Mineralogocal Record 24 (5): 365-368; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
Inyoite
Formula: Ca(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
Reference: Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Jacobsite
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Wilson, W.E. & Dunn, P.J., (1978) Famous localities: The Kalahari manganese field. Mineralogical Record 9(3) 137-153
Jennite
Formula: Ca9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2O
Habit: Platey crystals to 0.5mm
Description: Single pocket found.
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Johannsenite
Formula: CaMn2+Si2O6
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Jouravskite
Formula: Ca3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Description: Jouravskite, Charlesite, Sturmanite and Ettringite cannot be identified visually. All specimens are at best a 'guess' unless analysed, there are no visual properties to distinguish one from another, other mineral associations do not factor either.
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Cairncross/Dixon, 1995. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Kenotobermorite (TL)
Formula: [Ca4Si6O15(OH)2 · 2H2O] · 3H2O
Type Locality:
Description: The type specimen was erronously stated as comiing from the Wessels mine in Merlino et al (2001), and corrected in Biagioni et al (2015).
Reference: Merlino S, Bonaccorsi E, Armbruster T (2001) The real structure of tobermorite 11Å: normal and anomalous forms, OD character and polytypic modification. European Journal of Mineralogy 13, 577-590 ; Biagioni, C., Merlino, S., Bonaccorsi, E. (2015): The tobermorite supergroup: a new nomenclature. Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 485-495
'Kenotobermorite-4O'
Reference: Merlino S, Bonaccorsi E, Armbruster T (2001) The real structure of tobermorite 11Å: normal and anomalous forms, OD character and polytypic modification. European Journal of Mineralogy 13, 577-590; Biagioni, C., Merlino, S., Bonaccorsi, E. (2015): The tobermorite supergroup: a new nomenclature. Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 485-495
Kentrolite
Formula: Pb2Mn3+2(Si2O7)O2
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Kirschsteinite
Formula: CaFe2+SiO4
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Kutnohorite
Formula: CaMn2+(CO3)2
Reference: Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
Lavinskyite (TL)
Formula: K(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4
Reference: http://rruff.info/lavinskyite; Yang, H., Downs, R.T., Evans, S.H., Pinch, W.W. (2014): Lavinskyite, K(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4, isotypic with planchéite, a new mineral from the Wessels mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 99, 525-530.
Lepidocrocite
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Description: Found in association with epidote.
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) pp 288.
Leucophoenicite
Formula: Mn2+7(SiO4)3(OH)2
Habit: Short lath-shaped and flattened crystals.
Colour: dark red-brown
Description: Found in assemblage with gageite, rhodochrosite, pyrochroite, hausmannite and calcite
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari Manganese Field: An Update, Mineralogical Record, 22(4) 279-302; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa: 208.
Lipuite (TL)
Formula: KNa8Mn3+5 Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Yang, H., Gu, X., Xie, X., van Nieuwenhuizen, J.J., Evans, S.H. and Downs, R.T. (2015) Lipuite, IMA 2014-085. CNMNC Newsletter No. 23, February 2015, page 58; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 51-58.
Lithiophorite
Formula: (Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Lizardite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Magnesio-arfvedsonite
Formula: {Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Cairncross/Dixon, 1995. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
'Manganese'
Formula: Mn
Reference: Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
'Manganese Oxides'
Reference: Geoff Krasnov collection
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Bruce Cairncross (2000) The Desmond Sacco Collection
Manganvesuvianite (TL)
Formula: Ca19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Reference: T. Armbruster et al. (2002) Mineralogical Magazine 66, 137-150
Manjiroite
Formula: Na(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Marokite
Formula: CaMn3+2O4
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
Meieranite (TL)
Formula: Na2Sr3MgSi6O17
Type Locality:
Reference: Yang, H., Gu, X., Downs, R.T., Evans, S.H., van Nieuwenhuizen, J.J., Lavinsky, R.M. and Xie, X. (2015) Meieranite, IMA 2015- 009. CNMNC Newsletter No. 25, June 2015, page 533; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 529-535.
Minnesotaite
Formula: Fe2+3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Mozartite
Formula: CaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Reference: Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (1993): Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine South Africa. Mineralogocal Record 24 (5): 365-368; Beukes, N. J., Burger, A. M., & Gutzmer, J. (1995). Fault-controlled hydrothermal alteration of Palaeoproterozoic manganese ore in Wessels Mine, Kalahari manganese field. South African Journal of Geology, 98(4), 430-451.
Nchwaningite (TL)
Formula: Mn2+2(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
Description: Pocket near fault intersection in Section 27 South
Reference: [Amer.Min.(1995) 80, 377-386; MinRec 27:203-204]
Neltnerite
Formula: CaMn3+6(SiO4)O8
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Nontronite
Formula: Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Cairncross/Dixon, 1995. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Norrishite
Formula: KLiMn3+2(Si4O10)O2
Reference: Gnos E., Armbruster T., Villa I. M., 2003. Norrishite, K(Mn3+2Li)Si4O10(O)2, an oxymica associated with sugilite from the Wessels Mine, South Africa: Crystal chemistry and 39Ar-40Ar dating. Am. Miner., 88: 189-194
Nsutite
Formula: (Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
Description: Occurs as a weathering product with cryptomelane in the ore bodies close to the surface.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa: pp 227.
Olmiite (TL)
Formula: CaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Reference: Bonazzi, P., Bindi, L., Medenbach, O., Pagano, R., Lampronti, Menchetti, S. (2007): Olmiite, CaMn[SiO3(OH)](OH), the Mn-dominant analogue of poldervaartite, a new mineral species from Kalahari manganese fields (Republic of South Africa), Mineralogical Magazine, 71, 193-291.
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) pp 289.
Orientite
Formula: Ca8Mn3+10(SiO4)3(Si3O10)3(OH)10 · 4H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Orlymanite (TL)
Formula: Ca4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: [Amer.Min.(1990) 75, 923-927; Mandarino, 1997]
Oyelite
Formula: Ca10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Pargasite
Formula: NaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
Reference: Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Parsettensite
Formula: (K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Pectolite
Formula: NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa The Geological Society of South Africa Cairncross, B., Beukes, N., and Gutzmer, J., (1997), The Manganese Adventure, The South African Manganese Fields. Associated Ore & Metal Corporation Limited, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa. Cairncross, B., Beukes, N., and Gutzmer, J., (1997), The Manganese Adventure, The South African Manganese Fields. Associated Ore & Metal Corporation Limited, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa. ; Gnos, E., Armbruster, T., & Villa, I. M. (2003). Norrishite, K (Mn23+ Li) Si4O10 (O) 2, an oxymica associated with sugilite from the Wessels Mine, South Africa: Crystal chemistry and 40Ar-39Ar dating. American Mineralogist, 88(1), 189-194.; Rumsey, M. S., Welch, M. D., Kampf, A. R., & Spratt, J. (2013). Diegogattaite, Na2CaCu2Si8O20· H2O: a new nanoporous copper sheet silicate from Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, Republic of South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 77(8), 3155-3162.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Piemontite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Wilson, W.E. & Dunn, P.J., (1978) Famous localities: The Kalahari manganese field. Mineralogical Record 9(3) 137-153
Piemontite-(Sr)
Formula: {CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Poldervaartite (TL)
Formula: CaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Habit: Sprays to 1 cm
Colour: White
Description: One pocket was discovered
Reference: Amer.Min.(1993) 78, 1082-1087; von Bezing, L. & Gutzmer, J. (1994): Das Kalahari Manganerzfeld und seine Mineralien (II). Mineralien-Welt, 5(5), 41-59. Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (2001): Seltene Mineralien aus dem Kalahari-Manganerzfeld, Südafrika. Lapis, 26(10), 32-42; Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (2002): Spectacular Minerals from the Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. Rocks & Minerals, 77(2), 94-107.
Portlandite
Formula: Ca(OH)2
Reference: Speziale, S., Reichmann, H. J., Schilling, F. R., Wenk, H. R., & Monteiro, P. J. M. (2008). Determination of the elastic constants of portlandite by Brillouin spectroscopy. Cement and Concrete Research, 38(10), 1148-1153.
Potassic-mangani-leakeite (TL)
Formula: [(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn3+2Li]Si8O22(OH)2
Type Locality:
Habit: fine fibers to 0.2mm
Colour: dark red to lilac
Reference: Schweiz.Min.Petr.Mitt.(1993) 73, 349-355; Gnos, E., Armbruster, T., & Villa, I. M. (2003). Norrishite, K (Mn23+ Li) Si4O10 (O) 2, an oxymica associated with sugilite from the Wessels Mine, South Africa: Crystal chemistry and 40Ar-39Ar dating. American Mineralogist, 88(1), 189-194.
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross B., Tsikos H. & Harris C. (2000) Prehnite from the Kalahari Mn field, South Africa, and its possible implications. South African Journal of Geology 103, 231-236.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Pyrochroite
Formula: Mn(OH)2
Reference: [MinRec 22:289]
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Pyrophanite
Formula: Mn2+TiO3
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;; Giester, G., & Rieck, B. (1994). Effenbergerite BaCu [Si4010], a new mineral from the Kalahari manganese field, South Africa: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 58, 663-670.; Giester, G., & Rieck, B. (1996). Wesselsite, SrCu [Si4Olo], a further new gillespite-group mineral from the Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 60, 795-798.; Rumsey, M. S., Welch, M. D., Kampf, A. R., & Spratt, J. (2013). Diegogattaite, Na2CaCu2Si8O20· H2O: a new nanoporous copper sheet silicate from Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, Republic of South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 77(8), 3155-3162.
Quartz var. Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Quartz var. Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Quartz var. Jasper
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Ramsdellite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Wilson, W.E. & Dunn, P.J., (1978) Famous localities: The Kalahari manganese field. Mineralogical Record 9(3) 137-153; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa: pp 237.
Ranciéite
Formula: (Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2O
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa: pp 237.
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Habit: Scalenohedrons to 7cm, "wheat sheaf", spherical aggregates, rhombohedrons, fan shaped groups
Colour: Wine-red to pale pink
Description: Numerous pockets of rhodochrosite crystals were found during the shaft sinking as well as mining with major discoveries in 1976-1978. The largest pocket measured 0.5 by 1.0 meter in size and produced a 100kg specimen. The red scalenohedrons were sold for 4 figure prices during the 1970's and 1980's. Habits Scalenohedron: The scalenohedral habit was relatively common and one could obtain single crystals as well as plates containing many crystals. Wheat sheaf: The wheat sheaf habit consists of a central group of pale pink crystals becoming clearer and redder toward the terminations. Spherical aggregates: Spheres of rhodochrosite are extremely rare, with a purported dozen specimens in total. Fan shaped aggregates: Fan shaped aggregates are also believed to be extremely rare. Scalenohedrons with a flat terminations
Reference: Wilson and Dunn (1978) Famous Mineral Localities: The Kalahari manganese field. Min Rec 22:137-153; Caircross, Beukes, Gutzmer (1997) The manganese adventure.; Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.; Rocks & Min.: 61:7.
Rhodonite
Formula: CaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Reference: Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (1993): Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine South Africa. Mineralogocal Record 24 (5): 365-368
Richterite
Formula: {Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Riebeckite
Formula: ◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross/Dixon, 1995. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Romanèchite
Formula: (Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Reference: Preston, P. C. C. R. (2009). Physical and chemical characterization of the manganese ore bed at the Mamatwan mine, Kalahari manganese field (Doctoral dissertation).
Ruizite
Formula: Ca2Mn3+2[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Saccoite (TL)
Formula: Ca2Mn3+2F(OH)8 · 0.5(SO4)
Type Locality:
Reference: Giester, G., Lengauer, C.L., Topa, D., Gutzmer, J., Von Bezing, K.-L. (2019): Saccoite, IMA 2019-056. CNMNC Newsletter No. 52; Mineralogical Magazine: 83; https://doi.org/10.1180/mgm.2019.73; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=15946
Saponite
Formula: Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Schizolite
Formula: NaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Colour: Light pink to deep pink
Description: Discovered in 2011 at Wessels and N'Chwaning II mines.
Reference: Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa; Origlieri, M.J., Downs, R.T and Yang, H. (2013) Marshallsussmanite, IMA 2013-067. CNMNC Newsletter No. 18,December 2013, page 3256; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 3249-3258
Scottyite (TL)
Formula: BaCu2Si2O7
Type Locality:
Reference: http://rruff.info/scottyite; Yang, H., Downs, R.T., Evans, S.H., Pinch, W.W. and Origlieri, M.J. (2012): Scottyite, IMA 2012-027. CNMNC Newsletter No. 14, October 2012, page 1284; Mineralogical Magazine, 76, 1281-1288; Yang, H., Downs, R.T., Evans, S., Pinch, W. (2013): Scottyite, the natural analogue of synthetic BaCu2Si2O7, a new mineral from the Wessels mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 98, 478–484.
Serandite
Formula: NaMn2+2Si3O8(OH)
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: Cairncross/Dixon, 1995. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Shigaite
Formula: Mn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Habit: Hexagonal, tabular crystals
Colour: Pale yellow to burnt orange, brown, and amber-red
Description: Crystal size is from less than 1 mm to 3.2 cm across
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University); Cairncross, B. & Balayer, P. (2007): Neufund: Shigait aus den Kalahari-Manganfeldern, Südafrika. LAPIS 32 (4): 23-26 + 50; Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa; Cairncross, B. (2016) Connoisseur's Choice: Shigaite, Kalahari Manganese Field, Northern Cape Province, South Africa, Rocks & Minerals, 91:2, 150-15
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Cairncross/Dixon, 1995. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Sogdianite
Formula: KZr2Li3Si12O30
Reference: Michael O’Donoghue, Gems, Sixth Edition (2006), p. 454
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Stevensite
Formula: (Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross/Dixon, 1995. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Stilpnomelane
Formula: (K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Reference: Cairncross/Dixon, 1995. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Strontianite
Formula: SrCO3
Reference: Gnos, E., Armbruster, T., & Villa, I. M. (2003). Norrishite, K (Mn23+ Li) Si4O10 (O) 2, an oxymica associated with sugilite from the Wessels Mine, South Africa: Crystal chemistry and 40Ar-39Ar dating. American Mineralogist, 88(1), 189-194.
Strontioruizite (TL)
Formula: Sr2Mn3+2Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Yang, H., Cairncross, B., Gu, X., Yong, T. and Downs, R.T. (2017) Strontioruizite, IMA 2017-045. CNMNC Newsletter No. 39, October 2017, page 1280; Mineralogical Magazine; 81: 1279–1286
Sturmanite ? (TL)
Formula: Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Description: Although this locality is the type locality for the mineral, it is believed that the actual type locality is the Wessels mine due to an error in labeling the type specimen. No subsequent specimens containing sturmanite or other minerals on the type specimen have been found since, similar material from Wessels was found from 5 pockets in the years 1978-1982.
Reference: PEACOR, D.R., DUNN, P.J. & DUGGAN, M. (1983): Sturmanite, a ferric iron, boron analogue of ettringite. Canadian Mineralogist 21, 705-709. HOCHLEITNER, R. (1986): Sturmanit und Ettringit aus den Kalahari-Manganfeldern. Lapis, Jg. 10, Nr. 10, 19-24. VON BENZIG, K.L., DIXON, R.D., POHL, D. & CAVALLO, G. (1991): The Kalahari manganese field: An update. Mineralogical Record 22, 292-293. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa, 60-66 and 244-245.
Sugilite
Formula: KNa2Fe3+2(Li3Si12)O30
Description: Crystals to 20 mm although better crystals to 3mm
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Gait, R., & Williams, M. P. (1980). Sugilite, a Second Occurrence: Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Field, Republic of South Africa. Canadian Mineralogist, 18, 37-39.; Gnos, E., Armbruster, T., & Villa, I. M. (2003). Norrishite, K (Mn23+ Li) Si4O10 (O) 2, an oxymica associated with sugilite from the Wessels Mine, South Africa: Crystal chemistry and 40Ar-39Ar dating. American Mineralogist, 88(1), 189-194.; Shigley, J. E., Koivula, J. I., & Fryer, C. W. (1987). The occurrence and gemological properties of Wessels Mine sugilite. Gems & gemology, 78-89.; Giester, G., & Rieck, B. (1996). Wesselsite, SrCu [Si4Olo], a further new gillespite-group mineral from the Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 60, 795-798.; Rumsey, M. S., Welch, M. D., Kampf, A. R., & Spratt, J. (2013). Diegogattaite, Na2CaCu2Si8O20· H2O: a new nanoporous copper sheet silicate from Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, Republic of South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 77(8), 3155-3162.
Sussexite
Formula: Mn2+BO2(OH)
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) pp 293; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.. The Geological Society of South Africa: pp 246.
Taikanite
Formula: Sr3BaMn2+2(Si4O12)O2
Reference: Armbruster, T. , Oberhänsli, R. and Kunz, M. (1993). "Taikanite BaSr2Mn3+2O2(Si4O12) from the Wessels mine (South Africa)." American Mineralogist, 78(9/10),pp:1088-1095. - Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross/Dixon, 1995. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Taniajacoite (TL)
Formula: SrCaMn3+2Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Yang, H., Gu, X., Downs, R.T. and Xie, X. (2015) Taniajacoite, IMA 2014-107. CNMNC Newsletter No. 25, June 2015, page 531; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 529-535.
Tephroite
Formula: Mn2+2SiO4
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Tetraferriannite
Formula: KFe2+3(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2
Reference: No reference listed
Thaumasite
Formula: Ca3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Description: Crystals to 5cm.
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Thomsonite-Ca
Formula: NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Habit: Thin, rectangular blades stacked together in spherical groups
Reference: Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (1993): Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine South Africa. Mineralogocal Record 24 (5): 365-368; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).;
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Cairncross/Dixon, 1995. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Tobermorite
Formula: [Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
Reference: Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (1993): Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine South Africa. Mineralogocal Record 24 (5): 365-368; Merlino, S., Bonaccorsi, E., & Armbruster, T. (2001). The real structure of tobermorite 11Å normal and anomalous forms, OD character and polytypic modifications. European Journal of Mineralogy, 13(3), 577-590.; Biagioni, C., Bonaccorsi, E., Lezzerini, M., Merlini, M., & Merlino, S. (2012). Thermal behaviour of tobermorite from N’Chwaning II mine (Kalahari Manganese Field, Republic of South Africa). I. Thermo-gravimetric and X-ray diffraction studies. European Journal of Mineralogy, 24(6), 981-989.; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Todorokite
Formula: (Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Description: Fibers to 15 cm.
Reference: Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302; Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa pg 249
Tremolite
Formula: ◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Cairncross/Dixon, 1995. Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Tridymite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Tweddillite (TL)
Formula: {CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Type Locality:
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine(2002) 66, 137-150; Lapis 2002(11), 43
Vaterite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
Vesuvianite
Formula: Ca19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Reference: Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Vonbezingite (TL)
Formula: Ca6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2O
Type Locality:
Habit: elongated monoclinic crystals to 1.5 cm.
Description: No more than 50 specimens where collected from this single pocket, in association with Sturmanite, Calcite, Baryte, Bultfonteinite, Brucite & Vesuvianite. Azurite occurs as tiny inclusions in Vonbezingite.
Reference: Amer.Min.(1992) 77, 1292-1300 Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa 251.
Vuagnatite
Formula: CaAl(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
'Wad'
Reference: Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Wesselsite (TL)
Formula: SrCuSi4O10
Type Locality:
Reference: Giester, G., & Rieck, B. (1996). Wesselsite, SrCu [Si4Olo], a further new gillespite-group mineral from the Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 60, 795-798.; Rumsey, M. S., Welch, M. D., Kampf, A. R., & Spratt, J. (2013). Diegogattaite, Na2CaCu2Si8O20· H2O: a new nanoporous copper sheet silicate from Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, Republic of South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 77(8), 3155-3162.
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Reference: [MinRec 22:296]
Xonotlite
Formula: Ca6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Reference: Giester, G., & Rieck, B. (1996). Wesselsite, SrCu [Si4Olo], a further new gillespite-group mineral from the Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 60, 795-798.
Zoisite
Formula: Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Reference: No reference listed

Gallery:

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
'Manganese' ?1.AE.30Mn
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cinnabar2.CD.15aHgS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Creedite3.CG.15Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Birnessite4.FL.45(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Bixbyite4.CB.10Mn3+2O3
Brucite4.FE.05Mg(OH)2
Chalcophanite4.FL.20ZnMn4+3O7 · 3H2O
Cryptomelane4.DK.05aK(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Diaspore4.FD.10AlO(OH)
var. Mangan-diaspore4.FD.10AlO(OH)
Feitknechtite4.FE.25Mn3+O(OH)
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Groutite4.FD.10Mn3+O(OH)
Hausmannite4.BB.10Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Hollandite4.DK.05aBa(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Jacobsite4.BB.05Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Lepidocrocite4.FE.15γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Lithiophorite4.FE.25(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Manganite4.FD.15Mn3+O(OH)
Manjiroite4.DK.05aNa(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Marokite4.BC.05CaMn3+2O4
Nsutite4.DB.15c(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Portlandite4.FE.05Ca(OH)2
Pyrochroite4.FE.05Mn(OH)2
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Pyrophanite4.CB.05Mn2+TiO3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var. Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
var. Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
var. Jasper4.DA.05SiO2
Ramsdellite4.DB.15aMn4+O2
Ranciéite4.FL.40(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2O
Romanèchite4.DK.10(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Todorokite4.DK.10(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Tridymite4.DA.10SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
var. Manganese-bearing Calcite5.AB.05(Ca,Mn)CO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Kutnohorite5.AB.10CaMn2+(CO3)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Strontianite5.AB.15SrCO3
Vaterite5.AB.20CaCO3
Group 6 - Borates
Gaudefroyite6.AB.60Ca4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Gowerite6.EC.10Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Inyoite6.CA.35Ca(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
Sussexite6.BA.15Mn2+BO2(OH)
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Celestine7.AD.35SrSO4
Charlesite ?7.DG.15Ca6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
Despujolsite7.DF.25Ca3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Ettringite7.DG.15Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jouravskite7.DG.15Ca3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Shigaite7.DD.35Mn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Sturmanite ? (TL)7.DG.15Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Thaumasite7.DG.15Ca3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Vonbezingite (TL)7.DD.65Ca6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Brandtite8.CG.10Ca2Mn2+(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Gatehouseite8.BD.10Mn2+5(PO4)2(OH)4
Group 9 - Silicates
Aegirine9.DA.25NaFe3+Si2O6
Aegirine-augite9.DA.20(NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
var. Blanfordite9.DA.20(Na,Ca)(Fe3+,Fe2+,Mn,Mg,Al)Si2O6
Afwillite9.AG.75Ca3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Aluminosugilite9.CM.9.CM.KNa2Al2Li3Si12O30
Andradite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
var. Hydroandradite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Banalsite9.FA.60Na2BaAl4Si4O16
Bementite9.EE.05Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Braunite9.AG.05Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
'Braunite-II' (TL)9.AG.05CaMn3+14(SiO4)O20
Bultfonteinite9.AG.80Ca2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Bustamite9.DG.05CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Cairncrossite (TL)9.EE.Sr2Ca7-xNa2x(Si4O10)4(OH)2(H2O)15-x
Caryopilite9.ED.15Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Chamosite9.EC.55(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
'Clinochrysotile'9.ED.
Clinotobermorite9.DG.10[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
Clinozoisite9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Cymrite9.EG.05BaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2O
Cyprine (TL)9.BG.35Ca19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9
Datolite9.AJ.20CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Effenbergerite (TL)9.EA.05BaCuSi4O10
Ephesite9.EC.20NaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ferrobustamite9.DG.05CaFe2+(Si2O6)
Foshagite9.DG.15Ca4(Si3O9)(OH)2
Friedelite9.EE.10Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Gageite9.DH.35Mn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
Glaucochroite9.AC.05CaMn2+SiO4
Gonyerite9.EC.55(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Greenalite9.ED.15(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
var. Hibschite9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Guidottiite (TL)9.ED.15Mn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4
Hennomartinite (TL)9.BE.05SrMn3+2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
Henritermierite9.AD.25Ca3Mn3+2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Holtstamite (TL)9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)9.EA.15KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Inesite9.DL.05Ca2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Jennite9.DG.20Ca9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2O
Johannsenite9.DA.15CaMn2+Si2O6
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Kentrolite9.BE.80Pb2Mn3+2(Si2O7)O2
Kirschsteinite9.AC.05CaFe2+SiO4
Leucophoenicite9.AF.60Mn2+7(SiO4)3(OH)2
Lizardite9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Magnesio-arfvedsonite9.DE.25{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Manganvesuvianite (TL)9.BG.35Ca19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Minnesotaite9.EC.05Fe2+3Si4O10(OH)2
Mozartite9.AG.60CaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
Natrolite9.GA.05Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Nchwaningite (TL)9.DB.30Mn2+2(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
Neltnerite9.AG.05CaMn3+6(SiO4)O8
Nontronite9.EC.40Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Norrishite9.EC.20KLiMn3+2(Si4O10)O2
Olmiite (TL)9.AF.90CaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Orientite9.BJ.05Ca8Mn3+10(SiO4)3(Si3O10)3(OH)10 · 4H2O
Orlymanite (TL)9.EE.30Ca4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Oyelite9.HA.80Ca10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Pargasite9.DE.15NaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
Parsettensite9.EG.40(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
Pectolite9.DG.05NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Piemontite9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Piemontite-(Sr)9.BG.05{CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Poldervaartite (TL)9.AF.90CaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Potassic-mangani-leakeite (TL)9.DE.25[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn3+2Li]Si8O22(OH)2
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Rhodonite9.DK.05CaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Richterite9.DE.20{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Riebeckite9.DE.25◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
Ruizite9.BJ.35Ca2Mn3+2[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2 · 2H2O
Saponite9.EC.45Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Serandite9.DG.05NaMn2+2Si3O8(OH)
Sogdianite9.CM.05KZr2Li3Si12O30
Stevensite9.EC.45(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2
Stilpnomelane9.EG.40(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Sugilite9.CM.05KNa2Fe3+2(Li3Si12)O30
Taikanite9.DH.25Sr3BaMn2+2(Si4O12)O2
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Tephroite9.AC.05Mn2+2SiO4
Tetraferriannite9.EC.20KFe2+3(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2
Thomsonite-Ca9.GA.10NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Tobermorite9.DG.10[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
Tremolite9.DE.10◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Tweddillite (TL)9.BG.05{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vesuvianite9.BG.35Ca19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Vuagnatite9.AG.60CaAl(SiO4)(OH)
Wesselsite (TL)9.EA.05SrCuSi4O10
Wollastonite9.DG.05CaSiO3
Xonotlite9.DG.35Ca6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Zoisite9.BG.10Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Åkermanite9.BB.10Ca2Mg(Si2O7)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Apophyllite'-
'Bloodstone'-SiO2
'Chlorite Group'-
Colinowensite (TL)-BaCuSi2O6
Diegogattaite (TL)-Na2CaCu2Si8O20 · H2O
'Ferro-akermanite'-Ca2FeSi2O7
'Gageite-2M'-(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
'Glauconite'-(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
'Grossular-Hibschite Series'-
Kenotobermorite (TL)-[Ca4Si6O15(OH)2 · 2H2O] · 3H2O
'Kenotobermorite-4O'-
Lavinskyite (TL)-K(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4
Lipuite (TL)-KNa8Mn3+5 Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2 · 4H2O
'Manganese Oxides'-
Meieranite (TL)-Na2Sr3MgSi6O17
Saccoite (TL)-Ca2Mn3+2F(OH)8 · 0.5(SO4)
Schizolite-NaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Scottyite (TL)-BaCu2Si2O7
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Strontioruizite (TL)-Sr2Mn3+2Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Taniajacoite (TL)- SrCaMn3+2Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
'Wad'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Bixbyite4.3.7.2Mn3+2O3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Pyrophanite4.3.5.3Mn2+TiO3
AX2
Nsutite4.4.8.1(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Ramsdellite4.4.7.1Mn4+O2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Diaspore6.1.1.1AlO(OH)
Feitknechtite6.1.4.3Mn3+O(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Groutite6.1.1.3Mn3+O(OH)
Lepidocrocite6.1.2.2γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Manganite6.1.3.1Mn3+O(OH)
X(OH)2
Brucite6.2.1.1Mg(OH)2
Portlandite6.2.1.4Ca(OH)2
Pyrochroite6.2.1.3Mn(OH)2
Miscellaneous
Lithiophorite6.4.1.1(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Hausmannite7.2.7.1Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Jacobsite7.2.2.2Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Marokite7.2.10.1CaMn3+2O4
(AB)2X3
Birnessite7.5.3.1(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Braunite7.5.1.3Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
'Braunite-II' (FRL)7.5.1.3CaMn3+14(SiO4)O20
Neltnerite7.5.1.2CaMn3+6(SiO4)O8
AB3X7
Chalcophanite7.8.2.1ZnMn4+3O7 · 3H2O
Todorokite7.8.1.1(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
AB8X16
Cryptomelane7.9.1.2K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Hollandite7.9.1.1Ba(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Manjiroite7.9.1.3Na(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Romanèchite7.9.2.1(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
AB4X9
Ranciéite7.10.1.1(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2O
Group 12 - COMPOUND HALIDES
Miscellaneous
Creedite12.1.4.1Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Strontianite14.1.3.3SrCO3
Vaterite14.1.2.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Kutnohorite14.2.1.3CaMn2+(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 25 - ANHYDROUS BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Diborates
Sussexite25.2.1.1Mn2+BO2(OH)
Group 26 - HYDRATED BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Triborates
Inyoite26.3.1.1Ca(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
Pentaborates
Gowerite26.5.8.1Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
Group 27 - COMPOUND BORATES
Miscellaneous
Gaudefroyite27.1.2.1Ca4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Celestine28.3.1.2SrSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Shigaite31.1.2.1Mn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
(AB)3(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Vonbezingite (TL)31.5.1.1Ca6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2O
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Despujolsite31.7.6.1Ca3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Miscellaneous
Ettringite31.10.2.1Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Hydrated Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Charlesite ?32.4.4.1Ca6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
Jouravskite32.4.4.3Ca3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
Sturmanite ? (TL)32.4.4.2Ca6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Thaumasite32.4.4.4Ca3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O
Brandtite40.2.3.2Ca2Mn2+(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Gatehouseite41.4.1.2Mn2+5(PO4)2(OH)4
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Glaucochroite51.3.2.3CaMn2+SiO4
Kirschsteinite51.3.2.2CaFe2+SiO4
Tephroite51.3.1.4Mn2+2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
var. Hibschite51.4.3d.1Ca3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Henritermierite51.4.4.1Ca3Mn3+2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Leucophoenicite52.3.2c.2Mn2+7(SiO4)3(OH)2
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Afwillite52.4.7.1Ca3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Bultfonteinite52.4.7.2Ca2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Mozartite52.4.2.1CaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Vuagnatite52.4.2.2CaAl(SiO4)(OH)
Group 54 - NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
Datolite54.2.1a.1CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Group 55 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups,Generally with no Additional Anions
Si2O7 Groups, Generally with No Additional Anions with cations in [8] and lower coordination
Åkermanite55.4.1.1Ca2Mg(Si2O7)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and/or >[4] coordination
Hennomartinite (TL)56.2.3.2SrMn3+2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
Jennite56.2.4.11Ca9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2O
Kentrolite56.2.10.2Pb2Mn3+2(Si2O7)O2
Group 57 - SOROSILICATES Si3O10 Groups and Larger Noncyclic Groups
Insular Si3O10 and Larger Noncyclic Groups with [Si4O13] groups
Ruizite57.2.2.1Ca2Mn3+2[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2 · 2H2O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Clinozoisite58.2.1a.4{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Piemontite58.2.1a.11{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Piemontite-(Sr)58.2.1a.12{CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1Ca19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Zoisite58.2.1b.1Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with insular single and triple groups (n=1, 3)
Orientite58.3.1.2Ca8Mn3+10(SiO4)3(Si3O10)3(OH)10 · 4H2O
Group 63 - CYCLOSILICATES Condensed Rings
Condensed Rings (Milarite - Osumilite group)
Sogdianite63.2.1a.13KZr2Li3Si12O30
Sugilite63.2.1a.9KNa2Fe3+2(Li3Si12)O30
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Aegirine65.1.3c.2NaFe3+Si2O6
Aegirine-augite65.1.3b.2(NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Johannsenite65.1.3a.4CaMn2+Si2O6
Nchwaningite (TL)65.1.8.1Mn2+2(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Bustamite65.2.1.2CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Ferrobustamite65.2.1.3CaFe2+(Si2O6)
Foshagite65.2.2.1Ca4(Si3O9)(OH)2
Pectolite65.2.1.4aNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Serandite65.2.1.5NaMn2+2Si3O8(OH)
Wollastonite65.2.1.1cCaSiO3
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=4
'Gageite-2M'65.3.2.2a(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
Taikanite65.3.3.1Sr3BaMn2+2(Si4O12)O2
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=5
Rhodonite65.4.1.1CaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Pargasite66.1.3a.12NaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
Potassic-mangani-leakeite (TL)66.1.3c.13[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn3+2Li]Si8O22(OH)2
Richterite66.1.3b.9{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Tremolite66.1.3a.1◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Amphiboles - Ca-Na subgroup
Inesite66.3.3.1Ca2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Xonotlite66.3.1.1Ca6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Caryopilite71.1.2b.1Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
'Clinochrysotile'71.1.2d.1
Greenalite71.1.2b.4(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
Guidottiite (TL)71.1.4.8Mn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4
Lizardite71.1.2b.2Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Effenbergerite (TL)71.2.3.3BaCuSi4O10
Ephesite71.2.2b.16NaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
'Glauconite'71.2.2a.5(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Minnesotaite71.2.1.5Fe2+3Si4O10(OH)2
Norrishite71.2.2b.11KLiMn3+2(Si4O10)O2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Tetraferriannite71.2.2b.4KFe2+3(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Nontronite71.3.1a.3Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Saponite71.3.1b.2Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Stevensite71.3.1b.6(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Chamosite71.4.1.7(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Gonyerite71.4.4.1(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 3-, 4-, or 5-membered rings and 8-membered rings
Clinotobermorite72.3.2.2[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
Oyelite72.3.2.8Ca10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Tobermorite72.3.2.1[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-, 6-, and 12-membered rings
Friedelite72.4.1b.1Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Group 73 - PHYLLOSILICATES Condensed Tetrahedral Sheets
Condensed Tetrahedral Sheets with double and single layers
Orlymanite (TL)73.2.2b.2Ca4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined islands
Parsettensite74.1.3.1(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
Stilpnomelane74.1.1.1(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Tridymite75.1.2.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Banalsite76.1.6.1Na2BaAl4Si4O16
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Natrolite77.1.5.1Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Group 78 - Unclassified Silicates
Miscellaneous
Cymrite78.1.3.1BaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2O
Poldervaartite (TL)78.1.8.1CaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Bementite78.5.2.1Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Aegirine-augite
var. Blanfordite
-(Na,Ca)(Fe3+,Fe2+,Mn,Mg,Al)Si2O6
Aluminosugilite-KNa2Al2Li3Si12O30
Andradite
var. Hydroandradite
-Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Apophyllite'-
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Bloodstone'-SiO2
Cairncrossite (TL)-Sr2Ca7-xNa2x(Si4O10)4(OH)2(H2O)15-x
Calcite
var. Manganese-bearing Calcite
-(Ca,Mn)CO3
'Chlorite Group'-
Colinowensite (TL)-BaCuSi2O6
Cyprine (TL)-Ca19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9
Diaspore
var. Mangan-diaspore
-AlO(OH)
Diegogattaite (TL)-Na2CaCu2Si8O20 · H2O
'Ferro-akermanite'-Ca2FeSi2O7
Gageite-Mn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
'Grossular-Hibschite Series'-
Holtstamite (TL)-Ca3Al2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)-KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Kenotobermorite (TL)-[Ca4Si6O15(OH)2 · 2H2O] · 3H2O
'Kenotobermorite-4O'-
Lavinskyite (TL)-K(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4
Lipuite (TL)-KNa8Mn3+5 Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Magnesio-arfvedsonite-{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Manganese' ?-Mn
'Manganese Oxides'-
Manganvesuvianite (TL)-Ca19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Meieranite (TL)-Na2Sr3MgSi6O17
Olmiite (TL)-CaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Quartz
var. Amethyst
-SiO2
var. Chalcedony-SiO2
var. Jasper-SiO2
Riebeckite-◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
Saccoite (TL)-Ca2Mn3+2F(OH)8 · 0.5(SO4)
Schizolite-NaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Scottyite (TL)-BaCu2Si2O7
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Strontioruizite (TL)-Sr2Mn3+2Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Taniajacoite (TL)- SrCaMn3+2Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Thomsonite-Ca-NaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Tweddillite (TL)-{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Wad'-
Wesselsite (TL)-SrCuSi4O10

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H NchwaningiteMn22+(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
H OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
H HennomartiniteSrMn23+(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
H Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
H PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
H VonbezingiteCa6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2O
H Tweddillite{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
H HoltstamiteCa3Al2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
H OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
H GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4
H LavinskyiteK(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4
H CairncrossiteSr2Ca7-xNa2x(Si4O10)4(OH)2(H2O)15-x
H DiegogattaiteNa2CaCu2Si8O20 · H2O
H LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2 · 4H2O
H Taniajacoite SrCaMn23+Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
H CyprineCa19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9
H Kenotobermorite[Ca4Si6O15(OH)2 · 2H2O] · 3H2O
H StrontioruiziteSr2Mn23+Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
H SaccoiteCa2Mn23+F(OH)8 · 0.5(SO4)
H SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
H AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
H InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
H ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
H ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
H GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
H Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
H GatehouseiteMn52+(PO4)2(OH)4
H BrandtiteCa2Mn2+(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
H ChalcophaniteZnMn34+O7 · 3H2O
H DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
H EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
H Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
H ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
H NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
H PortlanditeCa(OH)2
H PyrochroiteMn(OH)2
H Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
H Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
H XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H SussexiteMn2+BO2(OH)
H BruciteMg(OH)2
H BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
H CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
H CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
H FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
H Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
H GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
H GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
H HenritermieriteCa3Mn23+(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
H JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
H VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
H BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H DiasporeAlO(OH)
H EphesiteNaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H FoshagiteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2
H Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
H JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2O
H LeucophoeniciteMn72+(SiO4)3(OH)2
H Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Parsettensite(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
H Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2 · 2H2O
H SeranditeNaMn22+Si3O8(OH)
H Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
H ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
H TetraferrianniteKFe32+(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2
H Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H CymriteBaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2O
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
H Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
H Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2
H Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H Tremolite◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Gageite-2M(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
H Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)
H OrientiteCa8Mn103+(SiO4)3(Si3O10)3(OH)10 · 4H2O
H Greenalite(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
H Grossular var. HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
H Andradite var. HydroandraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
H LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
H MinnesotaiteFe32+Si4O10(OH)2
H MozartiteCaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
H Nsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
H Ranciéite(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2O
H SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H VuagnatiteCaAl(SiO4)(OH)
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H DespujolsiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H Diaspore var. Mangan-diasporeAlO(OH)
H SchizoliteNaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
H Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
H Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
H InyoiteCa(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
H PargasiteNaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
H CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
LiLithium
Li Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
Li LavinskyiteK(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4
Li SugiliteKNa2Fe23+(Li3Si12)O30
Li EphesiteNaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Li NorrishiteKLiMn23+(Si4O10)O2
Li Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
Li SogdianiteKZr2Li3Si12O30
Li AluminosugiliteKNa2Al2Li3Si12O30
BBoron
B SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
B GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
B DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
B SussexiteMn2+BO2(OH)
B GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
B OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
B InyoiteCa(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
B CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
CCarbon
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
C ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
C CalciteCaCO3
C AragoniteCaCO3
C JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C SideriteFeCO3
C Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite(Ca,Mn)CO3
C VateriteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C StrontianiteSrCO3
OOxygen
O NchwaningiteMn22+(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
O OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
O EffenbergeriteBaCuSi4O10
O HennomartiniteSrMn23+(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
O Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
O PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
O VonbezingiteCa6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2O
O Tweddillite{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
O WesselsiteSrCuSi4O10
O Braunite-IICaMn143+(SiO4)O20
O HoltstamiteCa3Al2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
O OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
O GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4
O LavinskyiteK(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4
O ScottyiteBaCu2Si2O7
O ColinowensiteBaCuSi2O6
O CairncrossiteSr2Ca7-xNa2x(Si4O10)4(OH)2(H2O)15-x
O DiegogattaiteNa2CaCu2Si8O20 · H2O
O LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2 · 4H2O
O Taniajacoite SrCaMn23+Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
O MeieraniteNa2Sr3MgSi6O17
O CyprineCa19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9
O Kenotobermorite[Ca4Si6O15(OH)2 · 2H2O] · 3H2O
O StrontioruiziteSr2Mn23+Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
O SaccoiteCa2Mn23+F(OH)8 · 0.5(SO4)
O SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
O AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
O InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
O GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
O ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
O ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
O SugiliteKNa2Fe23+(Li3Si12)O30
O GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
O Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
O GatehouseiteMn52+(PO4)2(OH)4
O AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
O BrandtiteCa2Mn2+(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
O CalciteCaCO3
O ChalcophaniteZnMn34+O7 · 3H2O
O DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
O EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
O HausmanniteMn2+Mn23+O4
O Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
O ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
O NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
O PortlanditeCa(OH)2
O PyrochroiteMn(OH)2
O RamsdelliteMn4+O2
O RhodoniteCaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
O Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
O Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
O WollastoniteCaSiO3
O XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O SussexiteMn2+BO2(OH)
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O AragoniteCaCO3
O BixbyiteMn23+O3
O BruciteMg(OH)2
O BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
O BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
O CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
O CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
O FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
O Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
O GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
O GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O HenritermieriteCa3Mn23+(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
O JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
O VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
O ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)
O BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O DiasporeAlO(OH)
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O EphesiteNaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O FerrobustamiteCaFe2+(Si2O6)
O FoshagiteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2
O GlaucochroiteCaMn2+SiO4
O Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2O
O JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6
O KentrolitePb2Mn23+(Si2O7)O2
O KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4
O LeucophoeniciteMn72+(SiO4)3(OH)2
O Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O MarokiteCaMn23+O4
O Parsettensite(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
O QuartzSiO2
O Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2 · 2H2O
O SeranditeNaMn22+Si3O8(OH)
O TephroiteMn22+SiO4
O CelestineSrSO4
O Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
O PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
O ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
O TetraferrianniteKFe32+(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2
O CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
O Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O CymriteBaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2O
O JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BanalsiteNa2BaAl4Si4O16
O Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
O Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O SideriteFeCO3
O Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2
O Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O Tremolite◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite(Ca,Mn)CO3
O Gageite-2M(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
O NorrishiteKLiMn23+(Si4O10)O2
O VateriteCaCO3
O Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O Quartz var. ChalcedonySiO2
O FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)
O Ferro-akermaniteCa2FeSi2O7
O OrientiteCa8Mn103+(SiO4)3(Si3O10)3(OH)10 · 4H2O
O Greenalite(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
O Grossular var. HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
O HollanditeBa(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
O Andradite var. HydroandraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
O LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
O ManjiroiteNa(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
O MinnesotaiteFe32+Si4O10(OH)2
O MozartiteCaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
O NeltneriteCaMn63+(SiO4)O8
O Nsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O Quartz var. AmethystSiO2
O Ranciéite(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2O
O SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O TaikaniteSr3BaMn22+(Si4O12)O2
O TridymiteSiO2
O VuagnatiteCaAl(SiO4)(OH)
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O DespujolsiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O SogdianiteKZr2Li3Si12O30
O Diaspore var. Mangan-diasporeAlO(OH)
O SchizoliteNaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
O BloodstoneSiO2
O Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
O StrontianiteSrCO3
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
O InyoiteCa(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
O Aegirine-augite var. Blanfordite(Na,Ca)(Fe3+,Fe2+,Mn,Mg,Al)Si2O6
O PargasiteNaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
O Aegirine-augite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(Fee3+AlfFeg2+Mgh)Si2O6
O AluminosugiliteKNa2Al2Li3Si12O30
O CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
FFluorine
F SaccoiteCa2Mn23+F(OH)8 · 0.5(SO4)
F Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
F BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
F CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
NaSodium
Na Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
Na CairncrossiteSr2Ca7-xNa2x(Si4O10)4(OH)2(H2O)15-x
Na DiegogattaiteNa2CaCu2Si8O20 · H2O
Na LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Na MeieraniteNa2Sr3MgSi6O17
Na ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Na SugiliteKNa2Fe23+(Li3Si12)O30
Na Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Na AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Na NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Na Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Na Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Na EphesiteNaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Na Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Na Parsettensite(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
Na Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Na SeranditeNaMn22+Si3O8(OH)
Na PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na BanalsiteNa2BaAl4Si4O16
Na Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Na NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
Na Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2
Na Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Na ManjiroiteNa(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
Na SchizoliteNaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Na Aegirine-augite var. Blanfordite(Na,Ca)(Fe3+,Fe2+,Mn,Mg,Al)Si2O6
Na PargasiteNaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
Na Aegirine-augite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(Fee3+AlfFeg2+Mgh)Si2O6
Na AluminosugiliteKNa2Al2Li3Si12O30
MgMagnesium
Mg Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
Mg ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Mg LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Mg MeieraniteNa2Sr3MgSi6O17
Mg CyprineCa19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9
Mg Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Mg BruciteMg(OH)2
Mg Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Mg VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Mg ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Mg Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Parsettensite(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
Mg Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mg Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2
Mg Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg Tremolite◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Gageite-2M(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
Mg Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg Aegirine-augite var. Blanfordite(Na,Ca)(Fe3+,Fe2+,Mn,Mg,Al)Si2O6
Mg PargasiteNaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
Mg Aegirine-augite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(Fee3+AlfFeg2+Mgh)Si2O6
AlAluminium
Al Tweddillite{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Al HoltstamiteCa3Al2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Al CyprineCa19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9
Al SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
Al ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
Al Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Al EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Al NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Al Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Al CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Al Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Al VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al DiasporeAlO(OH)
Al EphesiteNaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Al Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al CymriteBaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2O
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al BanalsiteNa2BaAl4Si4O16
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Al Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Al Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Grossular var. HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Al Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2
Al SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al VuagnatiteCaAl(SiO4)(OH)
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al Diaspore var. Mangan-diasporeAlO(OH)
Al Aegirine-augite var. Blanfordite(Na,Ca)(Fe3+,Fe2+,Mn,Mg,Al)Si2O6
Al PargasiteNaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
Al Aegirine-augite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(Fee3+AlfFeg2+Mgh)Si2O6
Al AluminosugiliteKNa2Al2Li3Si12O30
Al CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
SiSilicon
Si NchwaningiteMn22+(SiO3)(OH)2 · H2O
Si OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Si EffenbergeriteBaCuSi4O10
Si HennomartiniteSrMn23+(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
Si Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
Si PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Si Tweddillite{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Si WesselsiteSrCuSi4O10
Si Braunite-IICaMn143+(SiO4)O20
Si HoltstamiteCa3Al2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Si OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Si GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4
Si LavinskyiteK(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4
Si ScottyiteBaCu2Si2O7
Si ColinowensiteBaCuSi2O6
Si CairncrossiteSr2Ca7-xNa2x(Si4O10)4(OH)2(H2O)15-x
Si DiegogattaiteNa2CaCu2Si8O20 · H2O
Si LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2 · 4H2O
Si Taniajacoite SrCaMn23+Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Si MeieraniteNa2Sr3MgSi6O17
Si CyprineCa19Cu2+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10](OH)(OH)9
Si Kenotobermorite[Ca4Si6O15(OH)2 · 2H2O] · 3H2O
Si StrontioruiziteSr2Mn23+Si4O11(OH)4 · 2H2O
Si AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Si InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Si BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
Si ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
Si SugiliteKNa2Fe23+(Li3Si12)O30
Si GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20
Si AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Si DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Si Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
Si NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Si RhodoniteCaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Si Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2O
Si Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
Si WollastoniteCaSiO3
Si XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Si BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
Si CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
Si FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Si Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Si HenritermieriteCa3Mn23+(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]
Si OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
Si VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Si ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)
Si BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si EphesiteNaLiAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si FerrobustamiteCaFe2+(Si2O6)
Si FoshagiteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2
Si GlaucochroiteCaMn2+SiO4
Si Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2O
Si JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6
Si KentrolitePb2Mn23+(Si2O7)O2
Si KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4
Si LeucophoeniciteMn72+(SiO4)3(OH)2
Si Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Parsettensite(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si RuiziteCa2Mn23+[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2 · 2H2O
Si SeranditeNaMn22+Si3O8(OH)
Si TephroiteMn22+SiO4
Si Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Si ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Si TetraferrianniteKFe32+(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2
Si Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si CymriteBaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2O
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si BanalsiteNa2BaAl4Si4O16
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe32+Fe23+]Si8O22(OH)2
Si Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Si Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2
Si Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Tremolite◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Gageite-2M(Mn,Mg,Zn)42Si16O54(OH)40
Si NorrishiteKLiMn23+(Si4O10)O2
Si Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Quartz var. ChalcedonySiO2
Si Ferro-akermaniteCa2FeSi2O7
Si OrientiteCa8Mn103+(SiO4)3(Si3O10)3(OH)10 · 4H2O
Si Greenalite(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
Si Grossular var. HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Si Andradite var. HydroandraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Si LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si MinnesotaiteFe32+Si4O10(OH)2
Si MozartiteCaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
Si NeltneriteCaMn63+(SiO4)O8
Si Quartz var. AmethystSiO2
Si SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si TaikaniteSr3BaMn22+(Si4O12)O2
Si TridymiteSiO2
Si VuagnatiteCaAl(SiO4)(OH)
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si SogdianiteKZr2Li3Si12O30
Si SchizoliteNaCaMnSi3O8(OH)
Si BloodstoneSiO2
Si Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)
Si Aegirine-augite var. Blanfordite(Na,Ca)(Fe3+,Fe2+,Mn,Mg,Al)Si2O6
Si PargasiteNaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
Si Aegirine-augite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(Fee3+AlfFeg2+Mgh)Si2O6
Si AluminosugiliteKNa2Al2Li3Si12O30
Si CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
PPhosphorus
P LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2 · 4H2O
P GatehouseiteMn52+(PO4)2(OH)4
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
SSulfur
S VonbezingiteCa6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2O
S SaccoiteCa2Mn23+F(OH)8 · 0.5(SO4)
S SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O
S ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
S ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2O
S EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
S MarcasiteFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S BaryteBaSO4
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
S GalenaPbS
S JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2O
S CelestineSrSO4
S ChalcociteCu2S
S SphaleriteZnS
S DespujolsiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
S CinnabarHgS
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
ClChlorine
Cl FriedeliteMn82+Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K Potassic-mangani-leakeite[(Na,K)][Na2][Mg2Mn23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
K LavinskyiteK(LiCu)Cu6(Si4O11)2(OH)4
K LipuiteKNa8Mn53+ Mg0.5[Si12O30(OH)4](PO4)O2(OH)2 · 4H2O
K SugiliteKNa2Fe23+(Li3Si12)O30
K Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
K Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2O
K Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
K Parsettensite(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
K TetraferrianniteKFe32+(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2
K CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
K Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
K NorrishiteKLiMn23+(Si4O10)O2
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K SogdianiteKZr2Li3Si12O30
K AluminosugiliteKNa2Al2Li3Si12O30
CaCalcium
Ca OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2O
Ca PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)
Ca VonbezingiteCa6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2O
Ca Tweddillite{CaSr}{Mn3+AlMn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca ManganvesuvianiteCa19Mn3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]