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South Africai
Regional Level Types
South AfricaCountry

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Lock Map
Geological map of South Africa

South Africa
Mineral map of the Republic of South Africa

South Africa
Geological map of South Africa

South Africa
Mineral map of the Republic of South Africa

South Africa
Name in French:Afrique du Sud
Name in German:Südafrika
Name in Italian:Sudafrica
Name in Russian:ЮАР
Name in Simplified Chinese:南非
Name in Spanish:Sudáfrica
Name in Afrikaans:Suid-Afrika
Name in Albanian:Republika Jugafrikane
Name in Arabic:جنوب أفريقيا
Name in Belarusian:Паўднёва-Афрыканская Рэспубліка
Name in Bulgarian:Република Южна Африка
Name in Catalan:Sud-àfrica
Name in Czech:Jihoafrická republika
Name in Danish:Sydafrika
Name in Dutch:Zuid-Afrika
Name in Estonian:Lõuna-Aafrika Vabariik
Name in Farsi/Persian:آفریقای جنوبی
Name in Finnish:Etelä-Afrikka
Name in Galician:Suráfrica
Name in Greek:Νότια Αφρική
Name in Hebrew:דרום אפריקה
Name in Hindi:दक्षिण अफ़्रीका
Name in Hungarian:Dél-Afrika
Name in Icelandic:Suður-Afríka
Name in Indonesian:Afrika Selatan
Name in Irish Gaelic:An Afraic Theas
Name in Japanese:南アフリカ
Name in Korean:남아프리카 공화국
Name in Latvian:Dienvidāfrika
Name in Lithuanian:Pietų Afrikos Respublika
Name in Macedonian:Јужноафриканска Република
Name in Norwegian:Sør-Afrika
Name in Polish:Republika Południowej Afryki
Name in Portuguese:África do Sul
Name in Romanian:Africa de Sud
Name in Serbian:Јужноафричка Република
Name in Slovak:Južná Afrika
Name in Slovenian:Južna Afrika
Name in Swahili:Afrika Kusini
Name in Swedish:Sydafrika
Name in Tagalog:Timog Aprika
Name in Thai:แอฟริกาใต้
Name in Turkish:Güney Afrika
Name in Ukrainian:Південно-Африканська Республіка
Name in Vietnamese:Nam Phi
Name in Welsh:De Affrica
Area:1,221,037 km2
Neighbouring regions:
Locality type:Country
Largest Settlements:
PlacePopulation
Cape Town3,433,441 (2016)
Durban3,120,282 (2012)
Johannesburg2,026,469 (2015)
Soweto1,695,047 (2012)
Pretoria1,619,438 (2016)
Port Elizabeth967,677 (2018)
Museums in region:


South Africa is a country very rich in mineral resources. The Bushveld complex is an important source of chromium and platinum. The Witwatersrand is the largest gold mining area in the world. Diamond is also an extremely important mineral to the nation.

South Africa is subdivided into nine provinces which in turn are divided into 52 districts (8 metropolitan and 44 district municipalities).

Click here to read more about diamonds in South Africa

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

909 valid minerals. 75 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 2 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Abernathyite
Formula: K(UO2)(AsO4) · 3H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Adamite
Formula: Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Adamite var: Cuprian Adamite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)2AsO4OH
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Aegirine-augite
Formula: (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Aegirine-augite var: Blanfordite
Formula: (Na,Ca)(Fe3+,Fe2+,Mn,Mg,Al)Si2O6
Reference: Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
Aenigmatite
Formula: Na4[Fe2+10Ti2]O4[Si12O36]
Reference: Wooley (2001) 269-270.
Afwillite (TL)
Formula: Ca3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: [Mineralogical Magazine(1925) 20, 277-285; Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index, 3rd Edition"]
Aikinite
Formula: PbCuBiS3
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Ajoite
Formula: (K,Na)Cu7AlSi9O24(OH)6 · 3H2O
Akdalaite
Formula: 5Al2O3 · H2O
Description: ROM specimen M16225
Reference: Zhou, B., Sherriff, B. L., Taulelle, F., & Wu, G. (2003). Nuclear magnetic resonance study of Al: Si and F: OH order in zunyite. The Canadian Mineralogist, 41(4), 891-903.
Åkermanite
Formula: Ca2Mg(Si2O7)
Alabandite
Formula: MnS
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 55 localities in this region.
Albite var: Andesine
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Baldwin, J. R. (1994). Lithium and tantalum mineralization in rare-element pegmatites from southern Africa (Doctoral dissertation, University of St Andrews).
Albite var: Oligoclase-Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Baldwin, J. R. (1994). Lithium and tantalum mineralization in rare-element pegmatites from southern Africa (Doctoral dissertation, University of St Andrews).
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 41 localities in this region.
Allanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Allanite-(La)
Formula: {CaLa}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Allophane
Formula: (Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Altaite
Formula: PbTe
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Aluminite
Formula: Al2(SO4)(OH)4 · 7H2O
Aluminocerite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,La,Ca)9(Al,Fe3+)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, pg 181
Alum-(K)
Formula: KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Martini, J.E.J. et al (1997), "Mbobo Mkulu Cave, South Africa", in "Cave Minerals of the World" (1997)
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Amblygonite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)F
Amesite
Formula: Mg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4
'Amesite-2H1'
Formula: (Mg2Al)(SiAl)O5(OH)4
Habit: Small, hexagonal prisms
Colour: White to pale greenish-gray
Description: Occurring in clusters or disseminated in bixbyite ore
Reference: Zheng, H. & Bailey, S.W. (1997) Refinement of an amesite-2H1 polytype from Postmasburg,South Africa. Clays and Clay Minerals: 45(3): 301-310
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Ancylite-(Ce)
Formula: CeSr(CO3)2(OH) · H2O
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Andalusite var: Chiastolite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Andradite var: Hydroandradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
Description: Late-stage hydrothermal orange-red octahedral cystals, associated with henritermierite and earlier calcite, in cracks and vugs of hematite-haussmannite ore.
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Andradite var: Melanite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: USGS Open-File Report 02–156–A
'Andradite-Grossular Series'
Reference: Rozendaal, A., & Moyen, J. (2009, May). The Riviera Deposit: Endo-skarn and Vein-hosted W-MO-REE Mineralization in I-type Granites of the Cape Granite Suite, South Africa. In AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts.
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Annabergite
Formula: Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Annite
Formula: KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: MITCHELL, R.H. & LIFEROVICH, R.P. (2004) Ecandrewsite - zincian pyrophanite from lujavrite. Pilansber alkaline complex, South Africa. Canadian Mineralogist), 42, 1169-1178.
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Anorthite var: Bytownite
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
'Anorthoclase'
Formula: (Na,K)AlSi3O8
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Antarcticite
Formula: CaCl2 · 6H2O
Reference: J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997)
Anthophyllite
Formula: ☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Antimony
Formula: Sb
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Antlerite
Formula: Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Anzaite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce3+ 4Fe2+Ti6O18 (OH)2
Reference: Giebel, R.J., Gauert, C.D.K., Marks, M.A.W., Costin, G. and Markl, G. (2017): Multi-stage formation of REE minerals in the Palabora Carbonatite Complex, South Africa. American Mineralogist 102, 1218-1233.
'Apatite'
Localities: Reported from at least 72 localities in this region.
'Apatite Group'
Reference: VERWOERD, W.J. (1993) Update on carbonatites of South Africa and Namibia. South African Journal of Geology, 96(3), 75-95.
Aphthitalite
Formula: (K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
'Apophyllite'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 47 localities in this region.
Arcanite
Formula: K2SO4
Ardealite
Formula: Ca2(HPO4)(SO4) · 4H2O
Arfvedsonite
Formula: [Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Argentojarosite
Formula: AgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 435 pp
Argentopentlandite
Formula: Ag(Fe,Ni)8S8
Description: Determined in carbonatitic ores, in sulfide flotation concentrate
Reference: Nikolay Rudashevsky et al (2001) Efficient Technology of Ore Minerals Investigation of PGE-Bearing Deposits – Case Study in (2001) European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
Armalcolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
Armbrusterite
Formula: K5Na7Mn15[(Si9O22)4](OH)10 · 4H2O
Arsenbrackebuschite
Formula: Pb2Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)
Arsenolite
Formula: As2O3
Arsenopalladinite
Formula: Pd8(As,Sb)3
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 40 localities in this region.
Arsentsumebite
Formula: Pb2Cu(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)
Reference: Costin, G., Fairey, B., & Tsikos, H. (2014) Tokyoite and As-rich tokyoite: new occurrence in the manganese ore of the Postmasburg Manganese Field, South Africa. 21st annual IMA conference
Arsenuranylite
Formula: Ca(UO2)4(AsO4)2(OH)4 · 6H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Asbestos'
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Astrophyllite
Formula: K2NaFe2+7Ti2Si8O28(OH)4F
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Atheneite
Formula: Pd2As0.75Hg0.25
Atokite (TL)
Formula: (Pd,Pt)3Sn
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Can Min 13 (1975), 146
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Augite var: Fassaite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Reference: Mathias, M., Siebert, J.C., and Rickwood, P.C. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 26, 75-123.
Augite var: Ferroaugite
Reference: Reid, A. M. (1974) The Macibini Meteorite and some thoughts on the Origin of Basaltic Achondrites: Meteoritics 9(4): 398-399. (Dec 1974); Mason B., Jarosewich E. & Nelen J. A. (1979) The pyroxene-plagioclase achondrites. Smithson. Contrib. Earth Sci. 22: 27-45.
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Auricupride
Formula: Cu3Au
Aurorite
Formula: (Mn2+,Ag,Ca)Mn4+3O7 · 3H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Aurostibite
Formula: AuSb2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Awaruite
Formula: Ni3Fe
Reference: Guenther, C., & Gauert, C. (2012), September. Mineral characterization of the metallurgically detrimental talc-carbonate-pyrite schist in ultramafic rocks of the Nkomati Ni-Cu-PGE (-Co-Cr) Mine, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. In European Mineralogical Conference (pp. 2-6).
Axinite-(Fe)
Formula: Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
'Axinite Group'
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 30 localities in this region.
Baddeleyite
Formula: ZrO2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Bafertisite
Formula: Ba2Fe2+4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
Reference: R. Liferovich - L. Horváth p.c. (2004)
Banalsite
Formula: Na2BaAl4Si4O16
Barbosalite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Bariopharmacosiderite
Formula: Ba0.5Fe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2O
Barringerite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)2P
Reference: M. A. Nazarov, Franz Brandstaetter, G. Kurat & T. Ntaflos. (1998). Chemistry of P-rich Sulfides in Murchison, Cold Bokkeveld and Nogoya CM Chondrites. 29th Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Houston, TX, abstract no. 1628. (March 1998).
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 70 localities in this region.
Baryte var: Cerian Barite
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Haggerty, S.E. (1984): The mineral chemistry of new titanates from the Jagersfontein kimberlite, South Africa: Implications for metasomatism in the upper mantle. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta: 47: 1833-1854; in: Dunn, P.J., Volker, G., Grice, J.D., Jambor, J.L., Puziewicz, J., Shigley, J.E., Vanko, D.A., Zilczer, J.A. (1985): New mineral Names. American Mineralogist: 70: 439
Baryte var: Hokutolite
Formula: (Ba,Pb)SO4
Reference: Armitage, P. E. B., McDonald, I., Edwards, S. J., & Manby, G. M. (2002). Platinum-group element mineralization in the Platreef and calc-silicate footwall at Sandsloot, Potgietersrus District, South Africa. Applied Earth Science: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section B, 111(1), 36-45.
Barytocalcite
Formula: BaCa(CO3)2
Reference: Costin, G., Fairey, B., & Tsikos, H. (2014) Tokyoite and As-rich tokyoite: new occurrence in the manganese ore of the Postmasburg Manganese Field, South Africa. 21st annual IMA conference
Barytolamprophyllite
Formula: (Ba,Na)2(Na,Ti,Fe3+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O(OH,F)
Reference: Mitchell, R. H., & Liferovich, R. P. (2006). Subsolidus deuteric/hydrothermal alteration of eudialyte in lujavrite from the Pilansberg alkaline complex, South Africa. Lithos, 91(1), 352-372.
Bassanite
Formula: CaSO4 · 0.5H2O
Reference: Brearley, A. J. & Jones, R. H. (1998): Chondritic Meteorites. In: Planetary Materials (Papike, J. J., Editor): Chapter 3, 398 pages. Mineralogical Society of America: Washington, DC, USA. (1998)
'Bastnäsite'
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Bastnäsite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(CO3)F
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Bastnäsite-(La)
Formula: La(CO3)F
Reference: MITCHELL, R.H. & LIFEROVICH, R.P. (2004) Ecandrewsite - zincian pyrophanite from lujavrite. Pilansber alkaline complex, South Africa. Canadian Mineralogist), 42, 1169-1178.
Bastnäsite-(Y)
Formula: Y(CO3)F
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, pg 181
Bavenite
Formula: Ca4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Beaverite-(Cu)
Formula: Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Becquerelite
Formula: Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Beidellite
Formula: (Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Belovite-(Ce)
Formula: NaCeSr3(PO4)3F
Reference: R. Liferovich - L. Horváth p.c. (2004)
Bementite
Formula: Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Berthierite
Formula: FeSb2S4
Bertrandite
Formula: Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 43 localities in this region.
Beryl var: Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Beryl var: Heliodor
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 49.
Beryl var: Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
'Bindheimite'
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
'Biotite'
Localities: Reported from at least 44 localities in this region.
'Biotite var: Manganophyllite'
Reference: The Canadian Mineralogist, V 42, 2004, pp. 1169-1178.
Birnessite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Bismite
Formula: Bi2O3
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Bismoclite (TL)
Formula: BiOCl
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine (1935): 24: 59-62; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 61.
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Bismutoferrite
Formula: Fe3+2Bi(SiO4)2(OH)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Bixbyite
Formula: Mn3+2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 35 localities in this region.
'Bloodstone'
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa. 181 pp.
Boltwoodite
Formula: (K,Na)(UO2)(SiO3OH) · 1.5H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Bonaccordite (TL)
Formula: Ni2Fe3+(BO3)O2
Type Locality:
Reference: [Trans.Geol.Soc.S.Afr.(1974) 77, 373; Nickel & Nichols, 1991 - "Mineral Reference Manual, p25]
Boracite
Formula: Mg3(B7O13)Cl
Reference: Rozendaa, A., & Boshoff, R. (2012). Rare Earth Element Mineralogy and its Recovery from the Neoproterozoic Riviera W–Mo Deposit, South Africa. In Proceedings of the 10th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM) (pp. 605-612). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Localities: Reported from at least 36 localities in this region.
Botallackite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Boulangerite
Formula: Pb5Sb4S11
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Bowieite
Formula: (Rh,Ir,Pt)2S3
Brackebuschite
Formula: Pb2Mn3+(VO4)2(OH)
Reference: Costin, G., Fairey, B., & Tsikos, H. (2014) Tokyoite and As-rich tokyoite: new occurrence in the manganese ore of the Postmasburg Manganese Field, South Africa. 21st annual IMA conference
Bradleyite
Formula: Na3Mg(CO3)(PO4)
Braggite (TL)
Formula: (Pt,Pd,Ni)S
Localities: Reported from at least 33 localities in this region.
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine(1932) 23, 198-206
Brandtite
Formula: Ca2Mn2+(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: [MinRec 22:480]
Brannerite
Formula: UTi2O6
Braunite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Localities: Reported from at least 30 localities in this region.
'Braunite-II' (FRL)
Formula: CaMn3+14(SiO4)O20
Reference: American Mineralogist (1967): 52, 20-30; Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) pp 282; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: pp 190; Cairncross, B., and Beukes, N. J., (2013) The Kalahari Manganese Field, the adventure continues. Struik Nature Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa, pp 156.
'Bravoite'
Formula: (Fe,Ni)S2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Brazilianite
Formula: NaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Breithauptite
Formula: NiSb
Reference: O'Driscoll, B., Clay, P. L., Cawthorn, R. G., Lenaz, D., Adetunji, J., & Kronz, A. (2014). Trevorite: Ni-rich spinel formed by metasomatism and desulfurization processes at Bon Accord, South Africa?. Mineralogical Magazine, 78(1), 145-163.
'Brewsterite'
Description: Recorded from amygdales.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, 191 pp.
Brianyoungite
Formula: Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Description: Slag
Reference: Glass, J. (2006). The environmental impact of the abandoned Edendale lead mine near Tshwane, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, University of Johannesburg).
Britholite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Britholite-(Y) ?
Formula: (Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Brookite
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Brushite
Formula: Ca(HPO4) · 2H2O
Bultfonteinite (TL)
Formula: Ca2(HSiO4)F · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Description: The mineral was first found by a miner named Cann in 1903 or 1904 on the 480-foot level of the Bultfontein mine at Kimberley. It occurred, associated with calcite, apophyllite, and natrolite, in a large 'horse' of dolerite and shale fragments enclosed in kimberlite, Parry et al (1932)
Reference: Parry J, Williams A F, Wright F E (1932) On bultfonteinite, a new fluorine-bearing hydrous calcium silicate from South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine 23, 145-162
Bunsenite
Formula: NiO
Burbankite
Formula: (Na,Ca)3(Sr,Ba,Ce)3(CO3)5
Bustamite
Formula: CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Cabriite
Formula: Pd2CuSn
Cacoxenite
Formula: Fe3+24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa
Cairncrossite (TL)
Formula: Sr2Ca7–xNa2x(Si4O10)4(OH)2(H2O)15–x (with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1)
Type Locality:
Description: Found on dump Block 17, Wessels Mine, Northern Cape, only known specimen in the collection of Ludi Von Bezing.
Reference: Giester, G., Lengauer, C.L., Pristacz, H., Rieck, B. and von Bezing, K.-L. (2013) Cairncrossite, IMA 2013-012. CNMNC Newsletter No. 16, August 2013, page 2703; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2695-2709.; Giester, G., Lengauer, C.L., Pristacz, H., Rieck, B., Topa, D., von Bezing, K.-L. (2016): Cairncrossite, a new phyllosilicate from the Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Field, South Africa. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28, 495-505
Calaverite
Formula: AuTe2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 153 localities in this region.
Calcite var: Glendonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: South African Journal of Geology Date: September 1, 2001 p265
Calcite var: Manganoan Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Mn)CO3
Calderite
Formula: (Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Calzirtite
Formula: CaZr3TiO9
Reference: Kamenetsky, V. S., Belousova, E. A., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, M. B., Goemann, K., & Griffin, W. L. (2014). Chemical abrasion of zircon and ilmenite megacrysts in the Monastery kimberlite: Implications for the composition of kimberlite melts. Chemical Geology, 383, 76-85.
Cancrinite
Formula: (Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Carlsbergite
Formula: CrN
Reference: H. J. Axon, J. Kinder, C. W. Haworth and J. W. Horsfield (1981) Carlsbergite, CrN, in Troilite, FeS, of the Sikhote Alin Meteoritic Iron. Mineralogical Magazine 44:107-109.
Carminite
Formula: PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Carnotite
Formula: K2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Caryopilite
Formula: Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Cassedanneite
Formula: Pb5(CrO4)2(VO4)2 · H2O
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 435 pp
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Localities: Reported from at least 35 localities in this region.
Catapleiite
Formula: Na2Zr(Si3O9) · 2H2O
Cebollite
Formula: Ca5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Cerianite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce4+,Th)O2
Cerite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Cerite-(La)
Formula: (La,Ce,Ca)9(Fe,Ca,Mg)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, pg 181
Ceruleite
Formula: Cu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
Reference: Rick Turner
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Cervantite
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+O4
'Chabazite'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Chabazite-Ca
Formula: (Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Chabazite-Na
Formula: (Na2,K2,Ca,Sr,Mg)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Reference: Tschernich, R.W. (1992). Zeolites of the World. Geoscience Press Inc.: Phoenix; Cairncross, B. & Dixon, R. (1995). Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa: Linden; Heron, H.D.C. New analyses performed in 2004.
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Chalcoalumite
Formula: CuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Localities: Reported from at least 36 localities in this region.
Chalcophanite
Formula: (Zn,Fe,Mn)Mn3O7 · 3H2O
Reference: Wilson, W.E. & Dunn, P.J., (1978) Famous localities: The Kalahari manganese field. Mineralogical Record 9(3) pp 151.
Chalcophyllite
Formula: Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 102 localities in this region.
Chalcostibite
Formula: CuSbS2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Chamosite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Chantalite
Formula: CaAl2(SiO4)(OH)4
Reference: Cairncross, B. & Dixon, R. (1995). Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa: Linden; Heron. H.D.C. (2004). Barite occurrences at Clairwood Quarries in Durban, Natal, South Africa. S.A. Lapidary Magazine, 36(3): 5-25.
Chapmanite
Formula: Fe3+2Sb3+(Si2O5)O3(OH)
Reference: Sabine MC. Verryn & Paul MPB Meulenbe(e)ld (2000) A new locality for Chapmanite (Sb(OH)Fe2(SiO4)2) at a lead-silver-zinc deposit near Argent Station, Mpumalanga, South Africa. N. Jb. Miner. Mh. 2000(2):85-90. Stuttgart.
Charlesite
Formula: Ca6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2O
Chenevixite
Formula: Cu2Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Malcolm Southwood (2002) Arsenical Ramblings. British Micromount society Newsletter 61:2-9
Cheralite
Formula: CaTh(PO4)2
Reference: Cairncross & Dixon (1995) 138-140.
'Cheralite-(Ce)'
Cherepanovite
Formula: RhAs
Chevkinite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,La,Ca,Th)4(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe2+,Ti,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)2O8
Reference: VERWOERD, W.J. (1986) Mineral deposits associated with carbonatites and alkaline rocks. In: Mineral deposits of Southern Africa. Vol. II. 2173-2191. Edited by: Annhaeusser and Maske. Geological Society of South Africa.
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
'Chlorite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 52 localities in this region.
Chloritoid
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Chondrodite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Chromatite
Formula: CaCr6+O4
Reference: http://www.fc.up.pt/geo/ecrofi/377.PDF; McDonald, I., Vaughan, D. J., & Tredoux, M. (1995). Platinum mineralization in quartz veins near Naboomspruit, central Transvaal. S. Afr. J. Geol, 98, 168-175.
'Chrome-Spinel (of Dana)'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 84 localities in this region.
Chrysoberyl
Formula: BeAl2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Churchite-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Clairite (TL)
Formula: (NH4)2Fe3(SO4)4(OH)3 · 3H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Ann.Geol.Survey S.Africa,(1983) 17, 29-34; Daltry, V.D.C., (1997) Mineralogy of South Africa: Type-Mineral Species and Type-Mineral Names, Council For Geoscience, Geological Survey of South Africa, Handbook 15.
Clausthalite
Formula: PbSe
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Clays'
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Clinochlore var: Ripidolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Reference: Henning, A., van der Westhuizen, W.A., de Bruiyn, H., and Beukes, G.J. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 410-418.
'Clinochrysotile'
Clinoclase
Formula: Cu3(AsO4)(OH)3
Clinoenstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Reference: Miyahara, M., Uehara, S., Ohtani, E., Nagase, T., Nishijima, M., Vashaei, Z. and Kitagawa, R. (2008): THE ANATOMY OF ALTERED CHONDRULES AND FGRS COVERING THEM IN A CM CHONDRITE BY FIB- TEM/STEM. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX, 1194.
Clinoferrosilite
Formula: Fe2+SiO3
Clinohumite
Formula: Mg9(SiO4)4F2
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Clinotobermorite
Formula: [Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)
Reference: Biagioni, C., Bonaccorsi, E., Lezzerini, M., Merlini, M., & Merlino, S. (2012). Thermal behaviour of tobermorite from N’Chwaning II mine (Kalahari Manganese Field, Republic of South Africa). I. Thermo-gravimetric and X-ray diffraction studies. European Journal of Mineralogy, 24(6), 981-989.
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Cobaltpentlandite
Formula: (Co,Ni,Fe)9S8
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Cochromite (TL)
Formula: (Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4
Type Locality:
Reference: Am Min 65 (1980), 811; O'Driscoll, B., Clay, P. L., Cawthorn, R. G., Lenaz, D., Adetunji, J., & Kronz, A. (2014). Trevorite: Ni-rich spinel formed by metasomatism and desulfurization processes at Bon Accord, South Africa?. Mineralogical Magazine, 78(1), 145-163.
Coesite
Formula: SiO2
Coffinite
Formula: U(SiO4) · nH2O
Cohenite
Formula: Fe3C
Reference: Mason, B. H. (1966). The Enstatite Chondrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 30, 23-30. (Jan 1966)
Colinowensite (TL)
Formula: BaCuSi2O6
Type Locality:
Reference: Rieck, B. (2013) Colinowensite, IMA 2012-060. CNMNC Newsletter No. 15, February 2013, page 6; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 1-12.
Collinsite
Formula: Ca2Mg(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Coloradoite
Formula: HgTe
Columbite-(Fe)
Formula: Fe2+Nb2O6
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 79 pg
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
'Columbite Group'
Reference: VERWOERD, W.J. (1986) Mineral deposits associated with carbonatites and alkaline rocks. In: Mineral deposits of Southern Africa. Vol. II. 2173-2191. Edited by: Annhaeusser and Maske. Geological Society of South Africa.
Columbite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Nb2O6
Reference: R. Liferovich - L. Horváth p.c. (2004)
'Columbite-Tantalite'
Connellite
Formula: Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Cookeite
Formula: (Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Cooperite (TL)
Formula: PtS
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Reference: ourn.Chem.Metall.Mining Soc.S.Africa,(1928) 28, 281-283
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 42 localities in this region.
'Copper Stain'
Reference: Schoeman, P. (1996). Overview and comparison of Besshi-type deposits: ancient and recent (Doctoral dissertation, Rhodes University).
Coquimbite
Formula: Fe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Corkite
Formula: PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Cornetite
Formula: Cu3(PO4)(OH)3
Reference: Windisch, W. (2014) An introduction to micromounting.; Thomas Kleser collection.; Leon Hupperichs collection.
Cornwallite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Coronadite
Formula: Pb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 41 localities in this region.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Crandallite
Formula: CaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Description: Found in caves associated with bones and bat guanno. Also as grains in Karoo coals.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995), Minerals of South Africa.
Creaseyite
Formula: Pb2Cu2Fe3+2(Si4.67Al0.33)O15.33(OH)3 · H2O
Creedite
Formula: Ca3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995), Minerals of South Africa.
Crocoite
Formula: PbCrO4
Cronstedtite
Formula: Fe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIV (2003); Thomas J. Zega & Peter R. Buseck (2003). Fine-grained-rim mineralogy of the Cold Bokkeveld CM chondrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67, #9, 1711-1721. (May 2003.); Miyahara, M., Uehara, S., Ohtani, E., Nagase, T., Nishijima, M., Vashaei, Z. and Kitagawa, R. (2008): THE ANATOMY OF ALTERED CHONDRULES AND FGRS COVERING THEM IN A CM CHONDRITE BY FIB- TEM/STEM. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX, 1194.
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
'Cualstibite-1M'
Formula: (Cu,Al)3(OH)6[Sb5+(OH)6]
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004): History of The Okiep Copper District, Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Mineralogical Record 35(4) 289-317.
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Cummingtonite
Formula: ☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Cuprite var: Chalcotrichite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 146 pg
Cuprotungstite
Formula: Cu2(WO4)(OH)2
Curite
Formula: Pb3(UO2)8O8(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cuspidine ?
Formula: Ca4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
Reference: Giuliani, A., Soltys, A., Phillips, D., Kamenetsky, V. S., Maas, R., Goemann, K., ... & Griffin, W. L. (2017). The final stages of kimberlite petrogenesis: petrography, mineral chemistry, melt inclusions and Sr-CO isotope geochemistry of the Bultfontein kimberlite (Kimberley, South Africa). Chemical Geology, 455, 342-356.
Cyanotrichite
Formula: Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Cymrite
Formula: BaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2O
Cyprine (TL)
Formula: Ca19Cu2+(Al10Mg2)Si18O68(OH)10
Type Locality:
Reference: Panikorovskii,T.L.,Shilovskikh,V.V., Avdontseva, E.Y., Zolotarev, A.A., Pekov, I.V., Britvin, S.N. and Krivovichev, S.V. (2015) Cyprine, IMA 2015-044. CNMNC Newsletter No. 27, October 2015, page 1228; Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 1229–1236.; Panikorovskii, T.L., Shilovskikh, V.V., Avdontseva, E.Yu., Zolotarev, A.A., Pekov, I.V., Britvin, S.N., Krivovichev, S.V. (2017): Cyprine, Ca19Cu2+(Al,Mg,Mn)12Si18O68(OH)10, a new vesuvianite-group mineral from the Wessels mine, South Africa. European Journal of Mineralogy, 29, 295-306.
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Daubréelite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2S4
Davidite-(La)
Formula: (La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Delafossite
Formula: CuFeO2
Descloizite
Formula: PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995), Minerals of South Africa.
'Desert Rose'
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, 211 pp; Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, SA, 124 pp;
Despujolsite
Formula: Ca3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Diaboleite
Formula: Pb2CuCl2(OH)4
Diamond
Formula: C
Localities: Reported from at least 80 localities in this region.
Diamond var: Stewartite (of Sutton)
Formula: C
Reference: J. H. Sutton, 1911. Nature, London, vol. lxxxvii, p. 550
Diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Diaspore var: Mangan-diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Diegogattaite (TL)
Formula: Na2CaCu2Si8O20·H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Rumsey, M. S., Welch, M. D., Kampf, A. R., & Spratt, J. (2013). Diegogattaite, Na2CaCu2Si8O20· H2O: a new nanoporous copper sheet silicate from Wessels Mine, Kalahari Manganese Fields, Republic of South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 77(8), 3155-3162.
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 37 localities in this region.
Diopside var: Chromian Diopside
Formula: Ca(Mg,Cr)Si2O6
'Diopside-Hedenbergite Series'
Reference: Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, 136 pp.
Dioptase
Formula: CuSiO3 · H2O
Djerfisherite (TL)
Formula: K6(Fe,Cu,Ni)25S26Cl
Reference: Minerals of South Africa; Daltry, V.D.C., (1997) Mineralogy of South Africa: Type-Mineral Species and Type-Mineral Names, Council For Geoscience, Geological Survey of South Africa, Handbook 15.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 41 localities in this region.
Donnayite-(Y)
Formula: NaCaSr3Y(CO3)6 · 3H2O
Reference: VERWOERD, W.J. (1993) Update on carbonatites of South Africa and Namibia. South African Journal of Geology, 96(3), 75-95.
Doyleite
Formula: Al(OH)3
Dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
'Dravite-Schorl Series'
Reference: De Villiers, J.E. (1940) Iron-rich kornerupine from Port Shepstone, Natal. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 25, n° 169, 550-556.
Dufrénite
Formula: Ca0.5Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
Duftite
Formula: PbCu(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Minerals of South Africa
Dumortierite
Formula: (Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3
Dyscrasite
Formula: Ag3Sb