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South Africa

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Area:1,221,037 km2
Museums in region:


South Africa is a country very rich in mineral resources. The Bushveld complex is an important source of chromium and platinum. The Witwatersrand is the largest gold mining area in the world. Diamond is also an extremely important mineral to the nation.

South Africa is subdivided into nine provinces which in turn are divided into 52 districts (8 metropolitan and 44 district municipalities).

Click here to read more about diamonds in South Africa

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Abernathyite

Acanthite

Actinolite

Adamite

var: Cuprian Adamite

Aegirine

Aegirine-augite

var: Blanfordite

Aenigmatite

Afwillite (TL)

Aikinite

Ajoite

Akdalaite

Åkermanite

Alabandite

Albite

var: Andesine

var: Cleavelandite

'Albite-Anorthite Series'

Allanite-(Ce)

'Allanite Group'

Allanite-(La)

Allophane

Almandine

Altaite

Aluminite

Alum-(K)

Alunite

Alunogen

Amblygonite

Amesite

'Amesite-2H1'

Amphibole Supergroup

Analcime

Anatase

Ancylite-(Ce)

Andalusite

var: Chiastolite

Andradite

var: Hydroandradite

var: Melanite

'Andradite-Grossular Series'

Anglesite

Anhydrite

Ankerite

Annabergite

Annite

Anorthite

var: Bytownite

'Anorthoclase'

Antarcticite

Anthophyllite

Antigorite

Antimony

Antlerite

'Apatite'

'Apatite Group'

'Apophyllite'

Aragonite

Arcanite

Ardealite

Arfvedsonite

Argentojarosite

Argentopentlandite

Armalcolite

Armbrusterite

Arsenolite

Arsenopalladinite

Arsenopyrite

Arsenuranylite

'Asbestos'

Astrophyllite

Atacamite

Atheneite

Atokite (TL)

Augite

var: Fassaite

var: Ferroaugite

Aurichalcite

Auricupride

Aurorite

Aurostibite

Autunite

Awaruite

Axinite-(Fe)

'Axinite Group'

Azurite

Baddeleyite

Bafertisite

Banalsite

Barbosalite

Bariopharmacosiderite

Barringerite

Baryte

var: Cerian Barite

var: Hokutolite

Barytolamprophyllite

Bassanite

'Bastnäsite'

Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Bastnäsite-(La)

Bavenite

Beaverite-(Cu)

Becquerelite

Beidellite

Belovite-(Ce)

Bementite

Berthierite

Bertrandite

Beryl

var: Emerald

var: Heliodor

var: Morganite

Beudantite

'Bindheimite'

'Biotite'

'var: Manganophyllite'

Birnessite

Bismite

Bismoclite (TL)

Bismuth

Bismuthinite

Bismutite

Bismutoferrite

Bixbyite

var: Sitaparite

'Bloodstone'

Boltwoodite

Bonaccordite (TL)

Boracite

Bornite

Botallackite

Boulangerite

Bournonite

Bowieite

Braggite (TL)

Brandtite

Brannerite

Braunite

'Braunite-II' (FRL)

'Bravoite'

Brazilianite

Breithauptite

'Brewsterite'

Brianyoungite

Britholite-(Ce)

Brochantite

Brookite

Brucite

Brushite

Bultfonteinite (TL)

Bunsenite

Burbankite

Bustamite

Cabriite

Cairncrossite (TL)

Calaverite

Calcite

var: Glendonite

Calderite

Caledonite

Cancrinite

Carlsbergite

Carminite

Carnotite

Caryopilite

Cassedanneite

Cassiterite

Catapleiite

Cebollite

Celestine

Cerianite-(Ce)

Cerite-(Ce)

Ceruleite

Cerussite

Cervantite

'Chabazite'

Chabazite-Ca

Chabazite-Na

Chalcanthite

Chalcoalumite

Chalcocite

Chalcophanite

Chalcophyllite

Chalcopyrite

Chalcostibite

Chamosite

Chantalite

Chapmanite

Charlesite

Chenevixite

Cheralite

'Cheralite-(Ce)'

Cherepanovite

Chevkinite-(Ce)

Chlorargyrite

'Chlorite Group'

Chloritoid

Chondrodite

Chromatite

'Chrome-Spinel (of Dana)'

Chromite

Chrysoberyl

Chrysocolla

Chrysotile

Churchite-(Y)

Cinnabar

Clairite (TL)

Clausthalite

'Clays'

Clinochlore

var: Ripidolite

'Clinochrysotile'

Clinoclase

Clinoenstatite

Clinoferrosilite

Clinohumite

'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'

Clinotobermorite

Clinozoisite

Cobaltite

Cobaltpentlandite

Cochromite (TL)

Coesite

Coffinite

Cohenite

Colinowensite (TL)

Collinsite

Coloradoite

Columbite-(Fe)

'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'

'Columbite Group'

Columbite-(Mn)

'Columbite-Tantalite'

Connellite

Cookeite

Cooperite (TL)

Copiapite

Copper

'Copper Stain'

Coquimbite

Cordierite

Corkite

Cornetite

Cornwallite

Coronadite

Corundum

Covellite

Crandallite

Creaseyite

Creedite

Cristobalite

Crocoite

Cronstedtite

Cryptomelane

'Cualstibite-1M'

Cubanite

Cummingtonite

Cuprite

var: Chalcotrichite

Cuprotungstite

Curite

Cyanotrichite

Cymrite

Cyprine (TL)

Datolite

Daubréelite

Davidite-(La)

Delafossite

Descloizite

'Desert Rose'

Despujolsite

Diaboleite

Diamond

var: Stewartite (of Sutton)

Diaspore

var: Mangan-diaspore

Dickite

Diegogattaite (TL)

Digenite

Diopside

var: Chromian Diopside

'Diopside-Hedenbergite Series'

Dioptase

Djerfisherite (TL)

Dolomite

Donnayite-(Y)

Doyleite

Dravite

'Dravite-Schorl Series'

Dufrénite

Duftite

Dumortierite

Dyscrasite

Ecandrewsite

Effenbergerite (TL)

Eglestonite

Elbaite

'Electrum'

Elyite

Embreyite

Enargite

Enstatite

var: Bronzite

Ephesite

Epidote

Epistilbite

Epsomite

Erlichmanite

Erythrite

Ettringite

Eucryptite

Eudialyte

Euxenite-(Y)

Evansite

Faheyite

Famatinite

Fayalite

'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'

'var: Hortonolite'

'Fayalite-Tephroite Series'

'var: Knebelite'

Feitknechtite

'Feldspar Group'

'var: Perthite'

Ferberite

'Fergusonite'

Fergusonite-(Ce)

Fergusonite-(Y)

Ferricopiapite

Ferrimolybdite

Ferro-actinolite

'Ferro-akermanite'

Ferrobustamite

Ferrohexahydrite

'Ferrohögbomite-6N12S'

Ferro-hornblende

Ferro-katophorite

Ferrokinoshitalite (TL)

Ferronickelplatinum

Ferrosilite

Fersmite

Fiedlerite

Fluoborite

'Fluocerite'

Fluocerite-(Ce)

Fluorapatite

var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite

Fluorapophyllite-(K)

Fluorite

Fluorstrophite

Fornacite

Forsterite

Foshagite

Franklinite

Freudenbergite

var: Ferrous freudenbergite

Friedelite

Froodite

'Gadolinite'

Gadolinite-(Y)

Gageite

'Gageite-2M'

Gahnite

Galena

var: Argentiferous Galena

Galenobismutite

Gamagarite (TL)

'Garnet'

Gasparite-(Ce)

Gaspéite

Gatehouseite

Gaudefroyite

Gaylussite

Gearksutite

Gedrite

Geikielite

Genkinite (TL)

Gersdorffite

var: Cobaltoan Gersdorffite

Geversite (TL)

Gibbsite

'Gismondine'

'Glass'

Glaucochroite

Glaucodot

Glauconite

Glaukosphaerite

'Gmelinite'

Godlevskite

Goethite

Gold

var: Palladian Gold

Gonyerite

Gorceixite

Goudeyite

Gowerite

Goyazite

Graftonite

Grandidierite

Graphite

Greenalite

Greenockite

Greigite

Grossular

var: Hibschite

var: Transvaal Jade

'Grossular-Hibschite Series'

Groutite

Grunerite

var: Amosite

Guanine

Gudmundite

Guidottiite (TL)

Gwihabaite

Gypsum

Halite

'Halloysite'

Halotrichite

Hannayite

Harmotome

Hastingsite

Hausmannite

Hawthorneite (TL)

Haycockite (TL)

Heazlewoodite

Hedenbergite

var: Ferrosalite

Hejtmanite

'Hellandite'

Hellyerite

Helvine

Hematite

var: Specularite

Hemihedrite

Hemimorphite

Hennomartinite (TL)

Henritermierite

Hercynite

var: Picotite

Hessite

Hetaerolite

Heterogenite

Heterosite

'Heulandite'

Heulandite-Ca

Hexahydrite

Hibonite

Hilairite

'Högbomite'

Hollandite

Hollingworthite (TL)

Holtstamite (TL)

Hopeite

'Hornblende'

Hotsonite (TL)

Hübnerite

Huntite

Hureaulite

Huttonite

Hydrobiotite

Hydrocerussite

Hydromagnesite

Hydrombobomkulite (TL)

'Hydrophlogopite'

Hydrotalcite

Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)

Hydroxylapatite

Hydrozincite

Hypercinnabar

'Hypersthene'

Ilmenite

var: Magnesian Chromian Ilmenite

Ilsemannite

Ilvaite

Inesite

Insizwaite (TL)

Inyoite

Iowaite

Irarsite (TL)

Iridarsenite

Iridium

var: Osmiridium

var: Platiniridium

var: Ruthenosmiridium

Iriginite

Iron

var: Kamacite

var: Martensite

'Iron oxide'

Isocubanite

Isoferroplatinum (TL)

Isomertieite

var: Fengluanite

Jacobsite

Jalpaite

Jamesonite

Jarosite

Jennite

Johannsenite

Jordisite

'Joséite'

Joséite-B

Jouravskite

Julgoldite-(Fe3+)

Kainosite-(Y)

Kalinite

'Kalkowskite'

Kamphaugite-(Y)

Kaolinite

Keithconnite

Kenotobermorite (TL)

'Kenotobermorite-4O'

Kentbrooksite

Kentrolite

Kermesite

'K Feldspar'

Kirschsteinite

Koechlinite

Kornerupine

Kosmochlor

Kotulskite

Krennerite

Ktenasite

Kupletskite

Kutnohorite

Kyanite

Lamprophyllite

Lanarkite

Langite

Laumontite

Laurionite

Laurite

Lavendulan

Låvenite

Lavinskyite (TL)

Lead

Leadhillite

'Lead-parkerite'

Lepidocrocite

'Lepidolite'

Letovicite

Leucite

Leucophoenicite

Leucophosphite

Leucoxene

Libethenite

Liebenbergite (TL)

'Limonite'

Linarite

'Lindackerite Group'

Lindsleyite (TL)

Linnaeite

Lipuite (TL)

Lithiophilite

Lithiophorite

Lizardite

Löllingite

Lonecreekite (TL)

Loparite-(Ce)

var: Nioboloparite

Lópezite

Lorenzenite

Ludlamite

Ludlockite

Mackinawite

Maghemite (TL)

Magnesio-arfvedsonite

Magnesiohögbomite-2N3S (TL)

Magnesio-hornblende

Magnesite

Magnetite

var: Titaniferous Magnetite

Majakite

Majorite

Malachite

Malanite

Maldonite

'Manganese'

'Manganese Oxides'

'var: Manganese Dendrites'

Manganite

'Manganoan Calcite'

Manganvesuvianite (TL)

Manjiroite

Mannardite

Marcasite

Margarite

Marialite

Marokite

Marshallsussmanite (TL)

Marshite

Mascagnite

'Maskelynite'

Maslovite

Massicot

Mathiasite (TL)

Matlockite

Maucherite

Mbobomkulite (TL)

Mcguinnessite

Meieranite (TL)

Meionite

Melanterite

var: Cuprian Melanterite

'Melnikovite'

Melonite

Meneghinite

Menshikovite

Mercury

Merenskyite (TL)

Merrillite

Mertieite-I

Mertieite-II

Mesolite

Meta-autunite

Metacinnabar

Metakahlerite

Metatorbernite

Metauranospinite

Metavariscite

Metazeunerite

'Meteoritic Iron'

Miassite

'Mica Group'

Michenerite

Microcline

var: Amazonite

Microlite Group

var: Uranmicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)

Millerite

Mimetite

Minium

Minnesotaite

Minyulite

Mitridatite

Modderite (TL)

Moissanite

Molybdenite

Molybdite

'Monazite'

Monazite-(Ce)

Monazite-(La)

Monazite-(Nd)

Moncheite

Montgomeryite

Monticellite

Montmorillonite

Mooihoekite (TL)

Mordenite

Morenosite

Mosandrite-(Ce)

Mottramite

Mountainite (TL)

Mozartite

Mullite

Munirite

Muscovite

var: Fuchsite

var: Illite

var: Sericite

Nacrite

Natroalunite

Natrojarosite

Natrolite

Natropharmacosiderite

Naumannite

Nchwaningite (TL)

Neltnerite

Nepheline

Népouite

Nesquehonite

Newberyite

'Nichromite'

Nickel

'Nickelalumite'

Nickeline

Nickelskutterudite

Niggliite (TL)

Nimite (TL)

Niningerite

Niobophyllite

Niter

Nitrocalcite

Nitromagnesite

Noelbensonite

Nontronite

Norrishite

Nováčekite-I

Nsutite

Oldhamite

Olekminskite

Olivenite

'Olivine'

Olmiite (TL)

Omphacite

Onoratoite

Opal

var: Opal-AN

Orcelite

Orientite

Orlymanite (TL)

Orpiment

Orthoclase

'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'

Osarsite

Osmium

var: Iridosmine

Osumilite-(Mg)

Otwayite

Oyelite

Palarstanide

Palladium

Palladoarsenide

Palladobismutharsenide

Palladosilicide

Paolovite

Papagoite

'Parachrysotile'

Paracoquimbite

Parakeldyshite

Paralaurionite

Paratacamite

Pargasite

'Parisite'

Parisite-(Ce)

Parkerite (TL)

Parsettensite

'Partridgeite'

Pecoraite

Pectolite

Penfieldite

Pennantite

Pentlandite

Periclase

var: Ferropericlase

Perovskite

Perryite

'Petrified Wood'

Pharmacosiderite

Phenakite

'Phengite'

Philipsbornite

'Phillipsite'

Phillipsite-Ca

Phillipsite-Na

Phlogopite

Phoenicochroite

Phosgenite

Phosphosiderite

Phosphuranylite

Pickeringite

Picropharmacolite

Piemontite

Piemontite-(Sr)

Pigeonite

Plancheite

Planerite

Platarsite (TL)

Platinum

var: Ferroan Platinum

Plattnerite

'Plessite'

Plumbogummite

Plumbojarosite

Plumbopalladinite

Poldervaartite (TL)

Pollucite

Polycrase-(Y)

Polydymite

Portlandite

Posnjakite

Potarite

Potassic-mangani-leakeite (TL)

'Potassic-richterite'

Powellite

Prehnite (TL)

Priderite

Prosopite

Proustite

Pseudobrookite

Pseudomalachite

Pseudorutile

'Psilomelane'

'Pumpellyite'

Purpurite

Pyrargyrite

Pyrite

'Pyrobitumen'

'var: Thucholite'

'Pyrochlore'

Pyrochlore Group

Pyrochlore Supergroup

var: Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)

Pyrochroite

Pyrolusite

Pyromorphite

Pyrope

Pyrophanite

Pyrophyllite

Pyrosmalite-(Fe)

'Pyroxene Group'

Pyroxmangite

Pyrrhotite

'Pyrrhotite-6C'

'Pyrrhotite Group'

Quartz

var: "Herkimer-style" Quartz

var: Agate

var: Amethyst

var: Aventurine

var: Carnelian

var: Chalcedony

var: Citrine

var: Jasper

var: Moss Agate

var: Rose Quartz

var: Smoky Quartz

Ramsdellite

Ranciéite

Realgar

Rectorite

Reevesite

Reichenbachite

Retzian-(Ce)

Rhodarsenide

Rhodesite (TL)

Rhodium

Rhodochrosite

var: Capillitite

Rhodonite

Richterite

Rickardite

Riebeckite

'Riebeckite Root Name'

'var: Crocidolite'

Rinkite-(Ce)

Rockbridgeite

Romanèchite

Römerite

Rosasite

Roscoelite

Rozenite

Ruarsite

Ruizite

Rustenburgite (TL)

var: Cuprian Rustenburgite

Ruthenarsenite

Ruthenium

Rutile

var: Ilmenorutile

var: Niobian Chromian Rutile

var: Strüverite

Sabieite (TL)

Sabugalite

Safflorite

Salammoniac

Samarskite-(Y)

Sampleite

Sanidine

Saponite

Sapphirine

Sarmientite

Sasaite (TL)

Sauconite

'Saussurite'

Scheelite

Schertelite

Schorl

Schorlomite

Schreibersite

Scolecite

Scorodite

Scottyite (TL)

Senarmontite

Serandite

'Serpentine Subgroup'

Serpierite

Shattuckite

Shigaite

Siderite

Sideronatrite

Siegenite

'Silica'

Sillimanite

Silver

var: Küstelite

Skutterudite

'Smectite Group'

Smithsonite

Sobolevskite

Sodalite

Soddyite

Sogdianite

Sperrylite

Spessartine

Sphalerite

Spinel

var: Pleonaste

Spodumene

Stannite

Stannopalladinite

Staurolite

Stellerite

Stevensite

'Stibiconite'

Stibiopalladinite (TL)

Stibnite

Stichtite

'Stichtite-2H' (FRL)

'Stilbite'

Stilbite-Ca

Stillwaterite

Stilpnomelane

Stishovite

Strengite

Stromeyerite

Stronalsite

Strontianite

Strontioruizite (TL)

'Strontium-Apatite'

Struvite

Stumpflite (TL)

Sturmanite

Sudburyite

Sudoite

Sugilite

Sulphur

Susannite

Sussexite

Sylvanite

Sylvite

Synchysite-(Ce)

'Synchysite Group'

Synchysite-(Nd)

Synchysite-(Y)

Szomolnokite

Taenite

Taikanite

Taimyrite

Talc

Talnakhite

Taniajacoite (TL)

'Tantalite'

Tantalite-(Mn)

'Tapiolite'

Tapiolite-(Fe)

Taranakite

Taseqite

Tatyanaite

Tavorite

Tellurium

Tellurobismuthite

Temagamite

Tennantite

Tenorite

Tephroite

Teschemacherite (TL)

'Testibiopalladite'

Tetra-auricupride

Tetradymite

Tetraferriannite

Tetraferroplatinum

Tetrahedrite

Thaumasite

'Thomsonite'

Thomsonite-Ca

Thorianite

var: Uranothorianite

Thorite

var: Uranothorite

'Tiger's Eye'

Titanite

Titanomaghemite (TL)

Tobermorite

Tochilinite

Todorokite

Tokyoite

Topaz

Torbernite

'Tourmaline'

Tredouxite

Tremolite

Trevorite (TL)

Tridymite

Triphylite

Triplite

Triploidite

Trippkeite

Troilite

Trona

Truscottite

Tschermigite

Tučekite

Tulameenite

Tungsten

Tungstite

Turquoise

Tweddillite (TL)

Ullmannite

Ulvöspinel

'UM1966-02-E:FeNi'

'UM1973-17-S:FeNi'

'UM1973-18-S:FeNi'

'UM1974-02-Bi:AsPdPtSb'

'UM1975-07-As:PdSn'

'UM1975-09-O:BaCrFeMgTiV'

'UM1976-02-As:IrPtRhRuS'

'UM1976-16-S:IrRhSb'

'UM1976-18-S:RhRu'

'UM1976-19-S:Ru'

'UM1977-04-E:CuFeNiPtSb'

'UM1978-14-S:CuFePtRh'

'UM1978-15-S:IrOsPtRhRu'

'UM1978-16-S:IrOsPtRu'

'UM1978-17-S:IrOsPtRu'

'UM1978-20-S:PtRh'

'UM1984-36-SiO:CaNaZr'

'UM1986-22-O:BaCeFeKTiV'

'UM1991-06-E:AuCu'

'UM1992-04-Bi:Pt'

'UM1992-12-E:IrPtSb'

'UM1992-38-Sn:CuPdPt'

'Unnamed (Ir-Ni Alloy I)'

'Unnamed (Ir-Os-Rh-Pd-Cu-Fe-Ni Sulphide)'

'Unnamed (Ir-Os Sulphide II)'

'Unnamed (Ir-Os Sulphide III)'

'Unnamed (NH4 Thiosulphate)'

'Unnamed (Ni Antimonide)'

'Unnamed (Ni Antimonide-Arsenide II)'

'Unnamed (Ni Antimonide-Arsenide III)'

'Unnamed (Ni Antimonide-Arsenide IV)'

'Unnamed (Ni Arsenide)'

'Unnamed (possible ordered As-analogue of Tokyoite)'

Uraninite

var: Pitchblende

Uranophane

Uranophane-β

Uranospathite

Uranospinite

'Uranpyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)'

Uvarovite

Valentinite

Valleriite

Vanadinite

Variscite

Vasilite

Vaterite

Vauquelinite

Vermiculite

var: Vaalite

Vesuvianite

Vincentite

Violarite

Vivianite

Vonbezingite (TL)

Vuagnatite

Vysotskite

'Wad'

Wadeite

Wavellite

Werdingite (TL)

Wesselsite (TL)

Whitlockite

Willemseite (TL)

Witherite

Wittichenite

Wolfeite

'Wolframite'

Wollastonite

Wroewolfeite

Wulfenite

Wurtzite

Wüstite

'Xenotime'

Xenotime-(Y)

Xonotlite

Zaccariniite

Zaherite

Zaratite

'Zeolite Group'

Zeunerite

'Zinnwaldite'

Zircon

Zirconolite

var: Niobozirconolite

Zircophyllite

Zirkelite

Zoisite

Zunyite

Zvyagintsevite


862 valid minerals. 74 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 2 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Geochronology

Mineralization age: Proterozoic : 1040 Ma to 950 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Precambrian
 Proterozoic
  Neoproterozoic
   Tonian
ⓘ Molybdenite (youngest age)950 MaNarrap Mine, Okiep Copper District, Namakwa District (Namaqualand), Northern Cape Province, South Africa
  Mesoproterozoic
   Stenian
ⓘ Norrishite (youngest age)1010 MaWessels Mine (Wessel's Mine), Hotazel, Kalahari manganese field, Northern Cape Province, South Africa
ⓘ Molybdenite (oldest age)1031 MaOkiep Copper District, Namakwa District (Namaqualand), Northern Cape Province, South Africa
ⓘ Norrishite (oldest age)1040 MaWessels Mine (Wessel's Mine), Hotazel, Kalahari manganese field, Northern Cape Province, South Africa

Localities in this Region


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References

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Scientific American Supplement Vol. XVI, NO. 392. JULY 7, 1883.
Wagner, P. (1929) The Platinum Deposits and Mines of South Africa. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, U.K.
De Villiers, J. (1960) Manganese deposits of the Union of South Africa. Handbook Geol. Surv. S. Afr., 2, 280.
Anhaeusser, C. R. and Maske, S., eds. (1986) Mineral Deposits of Southern Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, Johannesburg. 2 Vols., 2376.
Cairncross, B., and Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa (1995), 290p.
Daltry, V.D.C. (1997) Mineralogy of South Africa: Type-Mineral Species and Type-Mineral Names. Handbook 15, Council For Geoscience, Geological Survey of South Africa, 114 pp.
Cairncross, B., Beukes, N., and Gutzmer, J. (1997) The Manganese Adventure, The South African Manganese Fields.
Mineral Resources of South Africa (1998).
Gait, R. I. (2002) African type-minerals: minerals first described from African localities. Rocks & Minerals 77, 25-30.
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide to Rocks & Minerals of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa.
Wilson, M. G. C., et al. (2007) The occurrence of diamonds in South Africa. South Africa Council for Geoscience, Mineral Resources Series 1: 105.
Field, M., Stiefenhofer, J., Robey, J., and Kurszlaukis, S. (2008) Kimberlite-hosted diamond deposits of Southern Africa: A review. Ore Geology Reviews 34, 33-75.
Cairncross, B. (2013) Type minerals from South Africa. Elements 9, 392.
Mogessie, A. et al. (2015) A Geological Excursion to the Mining Areas of South Africa. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft 161, 175-219. [http://www.uibk.ac.at/mineralogie/oemg/bd_161/bd_161_173-219.pdf]

External Links

http://www.geoscience.org.za./ [Council for Geoscience (South Africa's geological survey organization)]

http://www.fosagams.co.za/ [Federation of SA Gem and Mineralogical Societies]

http://www.gssa.org.za/ [Geological Society of South Africa]

http://www.bullion.org.za/ [Chamber of Mines of South Africa]

http://www.mining.co.za/ [African Mines online]

http://www.miasa.org.za/ [Mining Industry Associations of Southern Africa]

http://www.dmr.gov.za/ [Dept. of Mineral Resources]

http://www.gissa.org.za/ [The Geo-Information Society of South Africa]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa

Mineral and/or Locality  
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