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Silver Gill, Roughton Gill, Caldbeck, Allerdale, Cumbria, England, UK

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 54° 41' 48'' North , 3° 5' 16'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 54.69667,-3.08778
GeoHash:G#: gctz1tpx1
UK National Grid Reference:NY299341
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Other/historical names associated with this locality:North and Western Region; Cumberland


The earliest known reference to the ancient mines in Silver Gill, Caldbeck, may be the order of Edward III in 1331 concerning Robert de Barton, "whom the King has appointed...keeper of a mine of silver and lead in the parts of Minerdale and Silverbeck Co. Cumb." (quoted by Raistrick and Jennings, 1965).

The Silver Gill vein is a Pb-Zn-Cu-bearing quartz vein. The mineralisation is thought to be early Carboniferous in age.

Regions containing this locality

Caldbeck Fells Mining Region, Cumbria, England, UK

Mining District - 307 mineral species & varietal names listed

Lake District National Park, Cumbria, England, UK

National Park - 403 mineral species & varietal names listed

Lake District National Park Authority - Caldbeck and Uldale Amber Zone, Cumbria, England, UK

Mineral Collecting Permit Zone - 225 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


43 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Description: From the 'Golden Hugh' as small transparent tablets with a rhombic outline; occasionally seen altered to leadhillite (D. Middleton Collection). As small colourless prisms in altered sulphides with linarite from an old ore pile at [NY29953415].
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: No reference listed
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Description: small transparent blades of baryte from the upper workings. The crystals occur with malachite on goethite encrusted quartz.
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Cooper, M.P., and Thomson, N. (2005) A review of the supergene mineralisation at Silver Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 8(2), 85-97.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 48-50.
Bechererite
Formula: Zn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
Reference: Pluth, J. J., Steele, I. M., Kampf, A. R. & Green, D. I. (2005): Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)•H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.
Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 8, 2005
'Bindheimite'
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 8, 2005
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Habit: minute rounded scales (< 1mm); fibrous sprays apparently altering from langite (D.I. Green pers. comm.)
Description: Identified by XRD at Leeds University (Cooper & Stanley, 1990).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal, 128 pp. [2nd ed. 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Shaw, 1970).
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Habit: radiating bunches of minute, acicular crystals on decomposing sulphides.
Description: From the 'Golden Hugh', probably of post-mining formation (D.R. Middleton, pers. comm.)
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Habit: striated prisms
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Found in the 'Golden Hugh' as small attractive striated prisms with acicular malachite in small cavities in quartz."
Reference: Greg, R.P and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John van Voorst, London, ix, 483 pp. [facsimile reprint, with addenda, by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Greg & Lettsom, 1858 and Davidson & Thomson, 1951).
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 8, 2005
Connellite
Formula: Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Reference: Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Cooper, M.P., and Thomson, N. (2005) A review of the supergene mineralisation at Silver Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society 8(2), 85-97.; Pluth, J.J., Steele, I.M., Kampf, A.R., and Green, D.I. (2005) Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)•H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Pluth, J. J., Steele, I. M., Kampf, A. R. & Green, D. I. (2005): Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)•H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Description: 'Outside the lowest level at 1500ft [450m]' (Hartley, 1984).
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984 and Young, 1987).
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Description: As thin strings in masses of altered sulphides from an old ore pile at [NY29953415] (det. M. Rothwell: EPMA, pers. comm.).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Fraipontite
Formula: (Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Pluth, J. J., Steele, I. M., Kampf, A. R. & Green, D. I. (2005): Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)•H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Description: From the level at c. 450m (1500ft) and from the head of the gill, the so-called "Golden Hugh".
Reference: Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal, 128 pp. [2nd ed. 1975 incorporating minor changes].; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Shaw, 1970 and Hartley, 1984).; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Pluth, J.J., Steele, I.M., Kampf, A.R., and Green, D.I. (2005) Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)•H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 48-50.
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Description: From the 'lowest level at 1500ft [450m]' (Hartley, 1984).
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Hydrocerussite
Formula: Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: No reference listed
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: No reference listed
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 8, 2005
Lanarkite
Formula: Pb2(SO4)O
Reference: Pluth, J. J., Steele, I. M., Kampf, A. R. & Green, D. I. (2005): Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)•H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Habit: pseudohexagonal
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Locally common as pseudo-hexagonal crystals to 0.25mm on altered sulphides from an old ore pile at [NY29952415]. Probably dump-formed (det. Leeds Univ.: XRD, D.I. Green, pers. comm.)."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Leadhillite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "In small amounts from the 'lowest level at 1500ft [450m]' (Hartley, 1984); also as crusts of minute crystals on altered sulphides from the 'Golden Hugh' where it appears to still be forming on the mine walls."
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Habit: acicular
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "In 'traces' from an unspecified locality (Davidson & Thomson, 1951). As pretty acicular crystals with cerussite from the 'Golden Hugh' (D.R. Middleton, pers. comm.)."
Reference: Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Davidson & Thomson, 1951 and Hartley, 1984).; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1987) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London. pp. 108-113.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Cooper, M.P. and Thomson, N. (2005) A review of the supergene mineralisation at Silver Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 8(2), 85-97.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Posnjakite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
Habit: blocky
Colour: turquoise blue
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "Rarely, as blocky turquoise blue crystals (< 0.2mm) on altered sulphides in an old ore pile on the west bank of the gill [NY29953415] (det. BM(NH): XRD on a specimen submitted by B. Young, 1988). Linarite, langite, and wroewolfeite also occur in this assemblage and all are probably the result of dump oxidation."
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
'Psilomelane'
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Greg, R.P and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John van Voorst, London, ix, 483 pp. [facsimile reprint, with addenda, by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Greg & Lettsom, 1858).
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Description: From the 'lowest level at 1500ft [450m]' (Hartley, 1984) and the 'Golden Hugh' (D.R. Hacker Collection).
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.
Ramsbeckite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
Reference: Pluth, J. J., Steele, I. M., Kampf, A. R. & Green, D. I. (2005): Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)•H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.
Redgillite (TL)
Formula: Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Habit: crystalline crusts
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): an 'unknown copper sulphate' on oxidized sulphides from the 'Golden Hugh' (D.R. Middleton Collection, det. BM(NH): XRD, 1987) and in an old ore pile on the west bank of the gill [NY29953415] (D.I. Green, pers. comm.)
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.; Pluth, J.J., Steele, I.M., Kampf, A.R., Green, D.I. (2005) Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)·H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England, UK: Description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Rosasite ?
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Description: Kingsbury reference. Kingsbury and Hartley (1957): "[In the] Middle level, on north [Silver Gill] vein."
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of rosasite in Britain. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 501-502.; Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Kingsbury & Hartley, 1957, Hartley, 1984, and Young, 1987).
Schulenbergite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Reference: Pluth, J. J., Steele, I. M., Kampf, A. R. & Green, D. I. (2005): Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)•H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): "From 'the level at 1500ft' [450m] (Hartley, 1984). Young (1987) lists smithsonite with rosasite on a BM(NH) specimen from the same site."
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984 and Young, 1987).
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Pluth, J. J., Steele, I. M., Kampf, A. R. & Green, D. I. (2005): Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)•H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.
Susannite
Formula: Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Pluth, J. J., Steele, I. M., Kampf, A. R. & Green, D. I. (2005): Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)•H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.
Wroewolfeite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Habit: blades up to 0.5mm
Colour: deep blue
Description: Cooper & Stanley (1990): Specimen in the D.I. Green collection, identified by the collector at Leeds University (XRD, 1988). Almost certainly dump-formed. From an old ore pile in the west bank of the gill [NY29953415].
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Habit: square plates to 1mm
Colour: yellow to orange
Description: From an old ore pile found on the west bank of the gill [NY29953415] in 1988 (P. Braithwaite & N Hubbard Collections, det. BM(NH): XRD, 1989).
Reference: Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Copper'1.AA.05Cu
'Sulphur'1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Cinnabar'2.CD.15aHgS
'Covellite'2.CA.05aCuS
'Galena'2.CD.10PbS
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
'Sphalerite'2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
'Connellite'3.DA.25Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Bindheimite'4.DH.20Pb2Sb2O6O
'Cuprite'4.AA.10Cu2O
'Goethite'4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Aurichalcite'5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
'Cerussite'5.AB.15PbCO3
'Hydrocerussite'5.BE.10Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
'Hydrozincite'5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
'Leadhillite'5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
'Malachite'5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
'Rosasite' ?5.BA.10(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
'Smithsonite'5.AB.05ZnCO3
'Susannite'5.BF.40Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Anglesite'7.AD.35PbSO4
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
'Bechererite'7.DD.55Zn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
'Brochantite'7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
'Caledonite'7.BC.50Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
'Jarosite'7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
'Lanarkite'7.BD.40Pb2(SO4)O
'Langite'7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
'Linarite'7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
'Posnjakite'7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
'Ramsbeckite'7.DD.60(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
'Redgillite' (TL)7.DD.70Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
'Schulenbergite'7.DD.80(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
'Wroewolfeite'7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
'Wulfenite'7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Beudantite'8.BL.05PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
'Mimetite'8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
'Pyromorphite'8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
'Chrysocolla'9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
'Fraipontite'9.ED.15(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
'Hemimorphite'9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Psilomelane'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Hydrocerussite16a.2.2.1Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite ?16a.3.1.2(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Leadhillite17.1.2.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Susannite17.1.3.1Pb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Lanarkite30.2.1.1Pb2(SO4)O
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Connellite31.1.1.1Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Schulenbergite31.1.6.1(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Langite31.4.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Posnjakite31.4.1.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
Ramsbeckite31.4.9.1(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
Wroewolfeite31.4.2.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Group 32 - COMPOUND SULFATES
Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Caledonite32.3.2.1Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Beudantite43.4.1.1PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Group 44 - ANTIMONATES
A2X2O6(O,OH,F)
'Bindheimite'44.1.1.2Pb2Sb2O6O
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Fraipontite71.1.2c.4(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Bechererite-Zn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
'Psilomelane'-
Redgillite (TL)-Cu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
H BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
H Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
H LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
H Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
H RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
H Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
H Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
H SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
H WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
CCarbon
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C CalciteCaCO3
C CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
C CerussitePbCO3
C HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
OOxygen
O AnglesitePbSO4
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O BaryteBaSO4
O BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
O BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O CalciteCaCO3
O CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
O CerussitePbCO3
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
O CupriteCu2O
O Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
O LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O QuartzSiO2
O Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
O RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
O Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
O Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
O WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AlAluminium
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
SiSilicon
Si BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
SSulfur
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BaryteBaSO4
S BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
S BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CinnabarHgS
S ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
S CovelliteCuS
S GalenaPbS
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
S LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
S RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
S Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
S SphaleriteZnS
S SulphurS8
S SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
S WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
ClChlorine
Cl ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
KPotassium
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
FeIron
Fe BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe PyriteFeS2
CuCopper
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Cu CopperCu
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2O
Cu Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
Cu RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2O
Cu Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Cu WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
ZnZinc
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]
Zn Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Zn Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
SbAntimony
Sb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
HgMercury
Hg CinnabarHgS
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
Pb CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Pb LanarkitePb2(SO4)O
Pb LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3186080
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Ordovician
443.8 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 2033368
Unnamed Extrusive Rocks, Ordovician

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Mafic lava

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Early Ordovician
470 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 3157764
Early Ordovician limestone

Age: Early Ordovician (470 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{limestone}, Minor{sandstone,siltstone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Parson, W. and White, W. (1829) History, directory, and gazeteer of the counties of Cumberland and Westmorland... xxxiv, 732 pp. [facsimile reprint by Michael Moon, Beckermet, Cumbria, 1976].
Dean, A. (1852) The Roughtengill silver lead mines, Caldbeck, Cumberland. Report. [Printed in a prospectus of the Roughtengill Silver Lead and Copper Mining Co.]. Druid's Inn collection (package no. 57), National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth, 2 pp.
Greg, R.P and Lettsom, W.G. (1858) Manual of the mineralogy of Great Britain and Ireland. John van Voorst, London, ix, 483 pp. [facsimile reprint, with addenda, by Lapidary Publications, Broadstairs, 1977].
Davidson, W.F. and Thomson, N. (1951) Some notes on the minerals of Westmorland and Cumberland. North West Naturalist, 23 (for 1948), 136-154.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1957) New occurrences of rosasite in Britain. Mineralogical Magazine, 31(237), 501-502.
Raistrick, A. and Jennings, B. (1965) A History of Lead Mining in the Pennines. Longmans, London, 347 pp.
Shaw, W.T. (1970) Mining in the Lake Counties. Dalesman Books, Kendal, 128 pp. [2nd ed. 1975 incorporating minor changes].
Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.
Young, B. (1987) Glossary of the minerals of the Lake District and adjoining areas. British Geological Survey, Newcastle upon Tyne, 104 pp.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp.
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous mineral localities: Pyromorphite group minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-122.
Jecock, M., Dunn, C., and Lax, A. (2001) Roughton Gill Mine and Silver Gill Mine, Cumbria. Archaeological Investigations Reports Series, AI/8/2001.
Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Cooper, M.P., and Thomson, N. (2005) A review of the supergene mineralisation at Silver Gill, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 8(2), 85-97.
Pluth, J.J., Steele, I.M., Kampf, A.R., and Green, D.I. (2005) Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)•H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.
Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, 11, 3-28.
Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 29-47.
Bridges, T.F. and Green, D.I. (2008) Baryte formation in supergene environments in the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 11, 48-50.


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