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Florence Mine, Haile, Copeland, Cumbria, England, UKi
Regional Level Types
Florence MineMine (Inactive)
HaileCivil Parish
CopelandDistrict
CumbriaCounty
EnglandConstituent Country
UKCountry

This page kindly sponsored by Dana Slaughter
Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
54° 28' 42'' North , 3° 31' 3'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
UK National Grid Reference:
NY017101
Locality type:
Mine (Inactive) - last checked 2020
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Egremont6,222 (2018)0.6km
Beckermet704 (2018)3.2km
Moor Row787 (2018)4.3km
Cleator Moor6,936 (2018)4.8km
Saint Bees1,644 (2018)4.9km


Located south of Whitehaven in Cumbria is the town of Egremont and the Florence Mine, which was the last deep working iron ore mine in Europe. It was first sunk in 1914, when this part of West Cumbria was rich with seams of haematite than ran for miles beneath the surface.
The mine was linked by underground tunnels to the nearby Ullcoats and Beckermet mines and drew in workers from across the county and beyond. The iron ore pigment, a deep red colour, was used in the manufacture of paints, dyes and cosmetics and the mine produced a never-ending supply until it was closed (for the first time) on 13th September 1968. A reprieve was on the horizon in the form of the newly nationalised British Steel Corporation who bought the mine in 1969, pumped water from the flooded tunnels, and restarted blasting the iron ore. They drew ore up Beckermet shaft for Workington steel works.
Florence Mine’s second closure came on 3rd October 1980, when British Steel underwent severe cost-cutting and cut Florence from its holdings; the saviours this time around were the miners themselves using their redundancy money to purchase the property, as the Egremont Mining Co. In a deal with British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (who owned and operated the nearby Sellafield nuclear plant) they kept the mine going - BNFL pumped the water out to use in their cooling systems, and the miners continued to provide the paint, dye, and cosmetics industry with pigment, although on a much smaller scale than before. Alongside the mining operation the West Cumbria Mines Research Group (WCMRG) opened a Heritage Centre in 1992, run by volunteers. They also provided tours of the pit and underground workings.
Unfortunately Florence Mine was finally forced to close in 2007 due to the cost of pumping; British Nuclear Fuels Ltd, who had been paying the pumping costs as part of a deal whereby they were allowed to extract water lower down the river, no longer required the water and ceased their support. It is estimated that pumping costs amounted to about £2,000 per week at the time, a cost that the mine was not able to cover by selling iron ore, despite looking at alternative power sources (wind turbines) and the possibility of using the mine to store nuclear waste. The visitor centre was closed and the exhibits were put into storage prior to the closure of the mine.
Today the mine lives on as backdrop to a thriving arts centre, the Florence Arts Centre, which houses a venue for live music, theatre, and comedy, as well as an art gallery and workshop space. The disused mine is scattered with reminders of its past, not least the towering pit-head and a plethora of abandoned machinery and rusting mine carts.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


8 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Paul Nicholson collection
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Fluorite: The Collector's Choice. Extra Lapis English No. 9
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Fluorite: The Collector's Choice. Extra Lapis English No. 9
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: []
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Fluorite: The Collector's Choice. Extra Lapis English No. 9
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Fluorite: The Collector's Choice. Extra Lapis English No. 9
Hematite var. Kidney Ore
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Van King
Hematite var. Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: []
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: No reference listed
Quartz var. Eisenkiesel
Formula: SiO2
Quartz var. Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2

Gallery:

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
var. Kidney Ore4.CB.05Fe2O3
var. Specularite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var. Eisenkiesel4.DA.05SiO2
var. Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
Hematite
var. Kidney Ore
-Fe2O3
var. Specularite-Fe2O3
Quartz
var. Eisenkiesel
-SiO2
var. Smoky Quartz-SiO2

List of minerals for each chemical element

CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C AragoniteCaCO3
OOxygen
O BaryteBaSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O HematiteFe2O3
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O QuartzSiO2
O Quartz var. Smoky QuartzSiO2
O Hematite var. SpeculariteFe2O3
O Quartz var. EisenkieselSiO2
O Hematite var. Kidney OreFe2O3
O AragoniteCaCO3
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Quartz var. Smoky QuartzSiO2
Si Quartz var. EisenkieselSiO2
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
MnManganese
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
FeIron
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Hematite var. SpeculariteFe2O3
Fe Hematite var. Kidney OreFe2O3
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Belakovskiy, Dmitriy, Blauwet, Dudley, Cairncross, Bruce (2006) Fluorite: The Collector's Choice. Extra Lapis English No. 9.

External Links


Other Regions, Features and Areas containing this locality

British IslesGroup of Islands
Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
UK

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