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Regional Level Types

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Name in French:Italie
Name in German:Italien
Name in Italian:Italia
Name in Russian:Италия
Name in Simplified Chinese:意大利
Name in Spanish:Italia
Name in Afrikaans:Italië
Name in Albanian:Italia
Name in Alemannic:Italie
Name in Arabic:إيطاليا
Name in Bavarian:Italien (Walsch; Belischelant; Balschlònt)
Name in Belarusian:Італія
Name in Bulgarian:Италия
Name in Catalan:Itàlia
Name in Corsican:Italia
Name in Croatian:Italija
Name in Czech:Itálie
Name in Danish:Italien
Name in Dutch:Italië
Name in Emilian-Romagnol:Itâlia
Name in Estonian:Itaalia
Name in Farsi/Persian:ایتالیا
Name in Finnish:Italia
Name in Franco-Provençal:Étalie
Name in Friulian:Italie
Name in Galician:Italia
Name in Greek:Ιταλία
Name in Hebrew:איטליה
Name in Hindi:इटली
Name in Hungarian:Olaszország
Name in Icelandic:Ítalía
Name in Indonesian:Italia
Name in Irish Gaelic:An Iodáil
Name in Japanese:イタリア
Name in Korean:이탈리아
Name in Latin:Italia
Name in Latvian:Itālija
Name in Ligurian:Italia
Name in Lithuanian:Italija
Name in Lombard:Italia
Name in Macedonian:Италија
Name in Maltese:Italja
Name in Neapolitan:Italia
Name in Norwegian:Italia
Name in Occitan:Itàlia
Name in Piedmontese:Italia
Name in Polish:Włochy
Name in Portuguese:Itália
Name in Romanian:Italia
Name in Romansh:Italia
Name in Sardinian:Itàlia
Name in Serbian:Италија
Name in Sicilian:Italia
Name in Slovak:Taliansko
Name in Slovenian:Italija
Name in Swahili:Italia
Name in Swedish:Italien
Name in Tagalog:Italya
Name in Thai:อิตาลี
Name in Turkish:İtalya
Name in Ukrainian:Італія
Name in Venetian:Itałia
Name in Vietnamese:Ý
Name in Walser German:Italie
Name in Welsh:Yr Eidal
Area:301,338 km2
Neighbouring regions:
Locality type:Country
Largest Settlements:
Rome2,318,895 (2018)
Milan1,236,837 (2017)
Naples959,470 (2017)
Turin870,456 (2017)
Palermo648,260 (2017)
Genoa580,223 (2017)

To the north, Italy borders France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia, and its borders are largely naturally defined by the Alpine watershed. To the south, it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula and the two largest Mediterranean islands of Sicily and Sardinia as well as around 68 smaller islands. There are two small independent states within Italy: the Vatican City in Rome, and the Republic of San Marino.

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is divided into 20 regions which represent the first-level administrative divisions of the country. Five of them (Aosta Valley, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, and Sicily) have a special autonomous status. Each region, with the sole exception of Aosta Valley, is divided into second-level administrative divisions (represented by provinces and metropolitan cities), which in turn are subdivided into municipalities (known in Italian as comuni; singular: comune). In Friuli-Venezia Giulia the former provinces of Gorizia, Pordenone, Udine, and Trieste were disbanded in 2017-2018 and 18 municipal associations named Inter-Municipal Territorial Unions (UTI is the Italian acronym) have been created. In Sicily, since 2014, 6 free municipal consortia and 3 metropolitan cities have substituted the 9 former provinces.

Numerous seamounts rise from the seafloor surrounding Italy, particularly at the bottom of Tyrrhenian Sea and Sicily Channel.

The complexity of its geological history combined with the wide variety of its substratum rock types, often dislocated by numerous fault-lines, folding and thrusting of the rocky units by orogenic forces, have contributed to Italy’s extremely diverse morphology. Less than a quarter (23%) of its total territory is formed by plains, while mountainous areas occupy over a third of its surface (35%). And, over two-fifths (42%) consists of hill zones. Italy’s maximum height above sea level corresponds with the summit of Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco), 4810 m, on the border with France. In the far eastern section of the Po valley, there are some zones which are slightly below the sea level and which are often subject to subsidence phenomena.

The evolution of the geology of Italy spans from the early Palaeozoic orogens throughout the Mesozoic opening of the Tethys oceans to the later closure of these oceanic embayments during the Alpine and Apenninic subductions. All these phenomena are reflected in the lithological characteristics of the different Italian regions.

Local toponymy on the Italian territory is quite complex. In fact, although the official language is Italian, it is often natively spoken in regional varieties. Furtheremore, there is a consistent number of minority languages used at regional level. Twelve of them are formally recognised by Italian law: Albanian, Catalan, Croatian, Franco-Provençal (Arpitan), French, Friulan, German, Greek, Ladin, Occitan, Sardinian, and Slovene. Four of these languages enjoy a co-official status in their respective region: French in the Aosta Valley; German in South Tyrol, and Ladin as well in some parts of the same province and in parts of the neighbouring Trentino; and Slovene in Friuli-Venezia Giulia on the territory of the abolished provinces of Gorizia, Udine, and Trieste. All these realities are reflected in local toponyms, whose spelling and pronunciation in many cases differ from those of the Standard Italian.

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Mineral List

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