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Muonionalusta meteorite, Kitkiöjärvi, Pajala, Norrbotten, Sweden

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 67° 47' 60'' North , 23° 6' 0'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 67.80000,23.10000
GeoHash:G#: us03twsgt
Locality type:Meteorite Fall Location
Meteorite Class:IVA iron meteorite
Meteoritical Society Class:Iron, IVA
Metbull:View entry in Meteoritical Bulletin Database
Köppen climate type:Dfc : Subarctic climate
Name(s) in local language(s):Muonionalustameteoriten


Iron meteorite, fine octahedrite (IVA,Of)
Found, 1906; 239 kg

In 1906 an iron-rich mass was found by a 10-year-old boy who tended cattle in the forest 3 km southwest of the village Kitkiöjärvi. 50 years later a larger 15 kg mass was recovered. Since then, additional specimens — including a 158 kg mass discovered in 2003 - have revealed a 25 x 15 km recovery ellipse in an Arctic region intersected by lakes and bogs. The description by Buchwald (1975) covering the first 3 masses (Muonionalusta I, II, and III) provides a broad overview of Muonionalusta's mineralogy. The original meteorite was a fine octahedrite which fragmented before reaching the earth's surface and has since been effected by the reworking of glacial ice of the last ice age. The major constituents — kamacite, taenite, troilite, schreibersite, and minor sulfides — are, of course, not unexpected in a IVA iron. The several associated weatherates (Akaganeite, Goethite, Lepidocrocite) offer an unusual opportunity to study the effects of long exposure to an unusual and extremely cold environment.

With the recovery of additional species new findings have been reported. One of the new pieces discovered in 2001 — a 9.575 kg fragment found at a depth of 25 cm only 20 m from the site of the first find — contains stishovite apparently created in a preterrestrial shock eons ago. A recent Pb-Pb date from Muonionalusta troilite of ~4.565 Ga suggest a very ancient formation age for the IVA parent asteroid.

Regions containing this locality

Scandinavia

Region - 2,004 mineral species & varietal names listed

Norrbotten Province, Sweden

Province (Historical) - 103 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


13 valid minerals.

Meteorite/Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Akaganeite
Formula: (Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Description: Corrosion product.
Reference: D. Holtstam and J. Söderhielm : "The Muonionalusta iron meteorite from Lapland, Sweden : New finds and findings", 5th International Conference "Mineralogy & Museums", Paris, Sept. 5-8th 2004, Bull. de Liaison de la Soc. Franç. de Minéralogie et Cristallographie, 2004, Vol 16, N°2.
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: Holtstam, D., Broman, C., Söderhielm, J., Dan; Broman, C.; Söderhielm, J.; Zetterqvist, A. (2003): First discovery of stishovite in an iron meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science (Meteoritical Society). 38 (11): 1579–1583
Daubréelite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2S4
Reference: Holtstam, D., Broman, C., Söderhielm, J., Dan; Broman, C.; Söderhielm, J.; Zetterqvist, A. (2003): First discovery of stishovite in an iron meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science (Meteoritical Society). 38 (11): 1579–1583; Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pp.
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Description: Corrosion product.
Reference: D. Holtstam and J. Söderhielm : "The Muonionalusta iron meteorite from Lapland, Sweden : New finds and findings", 5th International Conference "Mineralogy & Museums", Paris, Sept. 5-8th 2004, Bull. de Liaison de la Soc. Franç. de Minéralogie et Cristallographie, 2004, Vol 16, N°2.
Iron
Formula: Fe
Description: e-iron
Reference: D. Holtstam and J. Söderhielm : "The Muonionalusta iron meteorite from Lapland, Sweden : New finds and findings", 5th International Conference "Mineralogy & Museums", Paris, Sept. 5-8th 2004, Bull. de Liaison de la Soc. Franç. de Minéralogie et Cristallographie, 2004, Vol 16, N°2.
Iron var: Kamacite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Reference: Mulford, R. N., & El-Dasher, B. (2010). Mechanical properties of several Fe-Ni meteorites (No. LA-UR-10-07276; LA-UR-10-7276). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).; Holtstam, D., Broman, C., Söderhielm, J., Dan; Broman, C.; Söderhielm, J.; Zetterqvist, A. (2003): First discovery of stishovite in an iron meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science (Meteoritical Society). 38 (11): 1579–1583; Prior, G. T. (1923) Catalogue of Meteorites: with special reference to those represented in the collection of the British Museum of Natural History. Richard Clay & Sons, Limited: Bungay, Suffolk.; Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pp.
Iron var: Martensite
Formula: Fe
Reference: Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pp.
'IVA iron meteorite'
Reference: Meteoritical Society Database
Lepidocrocite
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Description: Corrosion product.
Reference: D. Holtstam and J. Söderhielm : "The Muonionalusta iron meteorite from Lapland, Sweden : New finds and findings", 5th International Conference "Mineralogy & Museums", Paris, Sept. 5-8th 2004, Bull. de Liaison de la Soc. Franç. de Minéralogie et Cristallographie, 2004, Vol 16, N°2.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
'Plessite'
Reference: Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pp.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Description: Very minor, but intriguing possible devitrification product.
Reference: Holtstam, D., Broman, C., Söderhielm, J. & Zetterqvist, A. (2003) First discovery of stishovite in an iron meteorite: Meteoritics &Planetary Science 38 (11): 1579-1583. (Nov 2003).
Schreibersite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)3P
Reference: Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pp.
Stishovite
Formula: SiO2
Description: Stishovite found as tridymite pseudomorphs.
Reference: Holtstam, D., Broman, C., Söderhielm, J., Dan; Broman, C.; Söderhielm, J.; Zetterqvist, A. (2003): First discovery of stishovite in an iron meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science (Meteoritical Society). 38 (11): 1579–1583
Taenite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Reference: Mulford, R. N., & El-Dasher, B. (2010). Mechanical properties of several Fe-Ni meteorites (No. LA-UR-10-07276; LA-UR-10-7276). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).; Prior, G. T. (1923) Catalogue of Meteorites: with special reference to those represented in the collection of the British Museum of Natural History. Richard Clay & Sons, Limited: Bungay, Suffolk.; Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pp.
Troilite
Formula: FeS
Reference: D. Holtstam and J. Söderhielm : "The Muonionalusta iron meteorite from Lapland, Sweden : New finds and findings", 5th International Conference "Mineralogy & Museums", Paris, Sept. 5-8th 2004, Bull. de Liaison de la Soc. Franç. de Minéralogie et Cristallographie, 2004, Vol 16, N°2.; Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pp.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Iron'1.AE.05Fe
var: Kamacite1.AE.05(Fe,Ni)
var: Martensite1.AE.05Fe
Schreibersite1.BD.05(Fe,Ni)3P
Taenite1.AE.10(Fe,Ni)
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Daubréelite'2.DA.05Fe2+Cr3+2S4
'Gersdorffite'2.EB.25NiAsS
Troilite2.CC.10FeS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Akaganeite'4.DK.05(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
'Chromite'4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
'Goethite'4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Lepidocrocite4.FE.15γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Stishovite4.DA.40SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'IVA iron meteorite'-
Plessite-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Iron
var: Kamacite
1.1.11.1(Fe,Ni)
Schreibersite1.1.21.2(Fe,Ni)3P
Taenite1.1.11.2(Fe,Ni)
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Troilite2.8.9.1FeS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Daubréelite2.10.1.11Fe2+Cr3+2S4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Gersdorffite2.12.3.2NiAsS
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Stishovite4.4.1.9SiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Akaganeite6.1.6.1(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Lepidocrocite6.1.2.2γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'IVA iron meteorite'-
Iron-Fe
var: Martensite-Fe
'Plessite'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
OOxygen
O Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O QuartzSiO2
O StishoviteSiO2
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si StishoviteSiO2
PPhosphorus
P Schreibersite(Fe,Ni)3P
SSulfur
S DaubréeliteFe2+Cr23+S4
S GersdorffiteNiAsS
S TroiliteFeS
ClChlorine
Cl Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Cr DaubréeliteFe2+Cr23+S4
FeIron
Fe Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe DaubréeliteFe2+Cr23+S4
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe IronFe
Fe Iron (var: Kamacite)(Fe,Ni)
Fe Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Iron (var: Martensite)Fe
Fe Schreibersite(Fe,Ni)3P
Fe Taenite(Fe,Ni)
Fe TroiliteFeS
NiNickel
Ni Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Ni GersdorffiteNiAsS
Ni Iron (var: Kamacite)(Fe,Ni)
Ni Schreibersite(Fe,Ni)3P
Ni Taenite(Fe,Ni)
AsArsenic
As GersdorffiteNiAsS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Paleoproterozoic
1600 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3160597
Proterozoic I granodiorite

Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{granodiorite}, Minor{granite,gabbro}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Paleoproterozoic
1600 - 2500 Ma



ID: 633433
Igneous: intrusive; Intrusive: tonalitic-granodioritic

Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)

Description: Northern Europe, Svecofennian and Lapland-Kola orogens

Comments: Orogen, fold-thrust belt, folded region; Koistinen et al., 2001; Sigmond, 2002; Solli, unpublished compilation, 2007-08; Bergman et al., unpublished revisions, 2007-08

Lithology: Tonalite, granite, diorite, granodiorite, monzonite, migmatite

Reference: J.C. Harrison, M.R. St-Onge, O.V. Petrov, S.I. Strelnikov, B.G. Lopatin, F.H. Wilson, S. Tella, D. Paul, T. Lynds, S.P. Shokalsky, C.K. Hults, S. Bergman, H.F. Jepsen, and A. Solli. Geological map of the Arctic. doi:10.4095/287868. Geological Survey of Canada Map 2159A. [2]

Orosirian
1800 - 2050 Ma



ID: 2635409

Age: Orosirian (1800 - 2050 Ma)

Description: Svecokarelian orogen; Norrbotten lithotectonic unit

Lithology: Granitoid and subordinate syenitoid, metamorphic

Reference: Bergman, S., M.B. Sephens, J. Andersson, B. Kathol, T. Bergman. Sveriges berggrund, skala 1:1 miljon. Sveriges geologiska undersökning K 423. [95]

Archean
2500 - 4000 Ma



ID: 3189563
Archean crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: Archean (2500 - 4000 Ma)

Lithology: High grade unclassified metamorphic rock

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
GFF 32, 482
Prior, G. T. (1923) Catalogue of Meteorites: with special reference to those represented in the collection of the British Museum of Natural History. Richard Clay & Sons, Limited: Bungay, Suffolk.
Krinov, E.L. (1961) Meteoritical Bulletin, no.20. Moscow.
Krinov, E.L. (1963) Meteoritical Bulletin, no.28. Moscow.
Buchwald, V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites. University of California Press. 1418 pp.
Graham, A. L., Bevan, A. W. R. & Hutchison, B. (1985) Catalogue of Meteorites (4/e). University of Arizona Press: Tucson.
Lagerbäck, R. & Wickman, F.E. (1997): A new iron meteorite from Muonionalusta, northernmost Sweden. GFF. 119, 193–198.
Holtstam, D., Broman, C., Söderhielm, J., Dan; Broman, C., Söderhielm, J. & Zetterqvist, A. (2003): First discovery of stishovite in an iron meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science (Meteoritical Society). 38 (11): 1579–1583.
Blichert-Toft, J., Moynier, F., Lee, C.-T. & Albarede, F. (2010) Radiogenic Pb in Muonionalusta troilite and the Old Age of the IVA Asteroid :Lunar Planetary Science Conference XLI, LPI Contribution #1533, pdf.1127. (March 2010).

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