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Avicaya Mines (Totoral Mines), Monserrat-Antequera mining district, Pazña, Poopó Province, Oruro, Boliviai
Regional Level Types
Avicaya Mines (Totoral Mines)Group of Mines
Monserrat-Antequera mining districtDistrict
Pazña- not defined -
Poopó ProvinceProvince
OruroDepartment
BoliviaCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 18° 30' South , 66° 53' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -18.50000,-66.88333
GeoHash:G#: 6s8qy01j9
Locality type:Group of Mines
Köppen climate type:BSk : Cold semi-arid (steppe) climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Totoral1,645 (2013)1.1km
Poopó1,720 (2013)16.0km
Huanuni15,492 (2013)24.0km
Llallagua28,069 (2013)32.7km
Machacamarca2,044 (2013)39.2km


High-temperature mineralization in veins and impregnations of a tourmaline-hornfels in the contact zone of a "micro-adamellite" intrusion (Cerro Chualla, 4,740 meters). These grade into mesothermal veins in the surrounding quartzitic sandstones.
(Avicaya and Totoral are actually two separate companies, each owning several workings in different sections of the same set of veins.)

Regions containing this locality

South AmericaContinent
Altiplano PlateTectonic Plate
Andean tin province, South America

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


15 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld y Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz); Min Rec (1977) 8:52-57
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld y Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld y Jorge Munoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia. (Banco Minero de Bolivia)
Gibbsite
Formula: Al(OH)3
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Ludlamite ?
Formula: Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Description: (Labelled simply "Poopo", but likely more specifically from the Totoral mine.)
Reference: Royal Ontario Museum specimen (Pala; obtained 1972)
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld y Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld y Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld y Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld y Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)
Stannite
Formula: Cu2FeSnS4
Description: Micro exsolution inclusions in sphalerite.
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld y Jorge Munoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia. (Banco Minero de Bolivia)
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld y Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz); Philadelphia Academy specimen #20979.
'Turgite'
Reference: Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
Vivianite
Formula: Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Agustin Arando and Alfredo Petrov specimens
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Reference: Federico Ahlfeld and Alejandro Schneider-Scherbina (1964) Los Yacimientos Minerales y de Hidrocarburos de Bolivia. (Ministerio de Minas y Petroleo, La Paz)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stannite2.CB.15aCu2FeSnS4
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Gibbsite4.FE.10Al(OH)3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunite7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Ludlamite ?8.CD.20Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Vivianite8.CE.40Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Feldspar Group'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Turgite'-
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Stannite2.9.2.1Cu2FeSnS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
X(OH)3
Gibbsite6.3.1.1Al(OH)3
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Ludlamite ?40.3.5.1Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Vivianite40.3.6.1Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Feldspar Group'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Turgite'-
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H GibbsiteAl(OH)3
H LudlamiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 4H2O
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O CassiteriteSnO2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O QuartzSiO2
O VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O GibbsiteAl(OH)3
O Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
O SideriteFeCO3
O LudlamiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 4H2O
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
AlAluminium
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al GibbsiteAl(OH)3
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
PPhosphorus
P VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
P LudlamiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 4H2O
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S StanniteCu2FeSnS4
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
KPotassium
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca FluoriteCaF2
MnManganese
Mn Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Fe StanniteCu2FeSnS4
Fe Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe LudlamiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 4H2O
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu StanniteCu2FeSnS4
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
Sn StanniteCu2FeSnS4
WTungsten
W Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Ordovician
443.8 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 3192909
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


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