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Smallcleugh Mine, Nenthead, Alston Moor, Eden, Cumbria, England, UK
Smallcleugh Mine, Nenthead, Weardale, Co. Durham, England, UK

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 54° 46' 52'' North , 2° 19' 46'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 54.78136,-2.32966
GeoHash:G#: gcwrduxse
UK National Grid Reference:NY788430
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Other/historical names associated with this locality:North Pennines; North and Western Region; Cumberland

Smallcleugh mine is recorded to have been developed from 1770 for a short time, working a series of veins and strata-bound replacement deposits (flats) believed to have been first encountered in 1776 associated with the Handsome Mea and Smallcleugh veins. Although the mine does not appear to have gotten into its stride until 1787, several other veins and flat deposits were also developed before the mine closed in the early 1900s. In 1963 an abortive attempted was made to locate further ore reserves. The most well-known account is the dinner held underground by the Masonic Lodge in the so-called Ballroom Flats in 1901. The first amateur exploration of the mine may have been in the late 1960s.

Smallcleugh mine in the North Pennine Orefield is well known amongst British mineral collectors for good examples of galena, sphalerite, ankerite, and calcite, and to a much lesser extent quartz, all of which have been collected for many years since access was regained. Excellent specimens of single black complex sphalerite crystals to 1.5cm or so on white matrix were collected from a replacement deposit above the so-called Hydraulic shaft. Single galena crystals to 4cm could be collected from cavities in the strata-bound replacement deposits (flats) and veins. Less well known are the secondary species: secondary minerals mostly of zinc, copper, lead, and iron, rare nickel, and manganese have occasionally been found. Many of the secondary minerals from Smallcleugh would be only of interest to micro-mineral collectors. Many of the flat deposits now have modern names such as Wheel Flats (from a set of ore cart wheels found there, the old name may have been Browns Flat), while Whit Hudsons Flat and Hetheringtons Flat and cross-cut are possibly an original name. Other modern names are Incline Flats (an incline level leads into these workings), Old Fan Flats (parts of a ventilator fan found here), New Fan Flats (near the Old Fan Flats), North End Flats (?), Smallcleugh Main Flats (after the mine), The Ball Room Flat (named after a Victorian Masonic dinner party held there), Zinc Flat (from a high sphalerite content), High Flats (above the Smallcleugh Horse Level), Proud's Sump Flat (after the sump near these Flat workings), and Gullyback Flats (?). The rises and sumps appear to have mostly retained their old names, e.g. Spottiswood, Proud's, and Luke Halls.

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

Smallcleugh Mine, Nenthead, Alston Moor District, North Pennines, North and Western Region (Cumberland), Cumbria, England, UK

Regions containing this locality

Weardale, Co. Durham, England, UK

Valley - 93 mineral species & varietal names listed

The Pennines, England, UK

Range of Mountains and Hills - 260 mineral species & varietal names listed

North Pennines Area, England, UK

Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty - 172 mineral species & varietal names listed

Northern Pennine Orefield, England, UK

Ore Field - 137 mineral species & varietal names listed

Alston Moor District, Cumbria, England, UK

Mining District - 89 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

37 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Colour: White to creamy
Description: Ankerite is the most common constituent of the metasomatic deposits in this mine and many others in the orefield. The colour is white-creamy in unoxidized specimens showing typical saddle shaped crystals to 1cm. Oxidised examples from the Nenthead mines varies in colour from pale creamy brown and yellow to black.
Reference: Dunham Sir K C, Geology of the Northern Pennine Orefield, Vol 1, Tyne to Stainmore. HMSO
Formula: Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Colour: white to very pale green
Description: Some annabergite from this mine is Sb enriched. (Pale green translucent balls and small botryoidal masses, where at first thought also to be annabergite, furthere anaysis has found Mg, Ni and Ca)
Reference: Sb rich annabergite Natural History Museum London, and S Rust Collection.
Formula: CaCO3
Colour: Colourless to white
Description: Forming radial acicular white colourless crystals to 0.5mm, and small mats of crystals to 1cm+.
Reference: S.Rust collection
Formula: BaSO4
Colour: Colourless to tinted yellow
Description: The Smallcluegh Mine lays mostly out side the Baryte Zone. There for baryte is not at all common from the mine, and may be considered rare. Baryte from this mine is restricted to very few areas forming as a primary and secondary mineral.
Reference: S.Rust Collection
Formula: Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Colour: Yellow to brown
Description: Usually as a yellow powdery crust to seveal cms, and as pustules to 4mm dia. Very rarely forms sparkling vitreous crystal druses composed of minute yellow to yellow-brown micro-crystals
Reference: S.Rust Collection
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
Colour: Dirty yellow
Description: Identified while investigating small nickel bering ankerite veinlets in the mine. Forms as very rare dull yellow pseudomorphs after probable ullmannite crystals.
Reference: S. Rust collection
Formula: Ni2+Sb5+2(OH)12 · 6H2O
Colour: Light blue-green
Description: Bottinoite from the Smallcleugh Mine is comparable with the same mineral from Hendra Fellen Mine in Mid-Wales in terms of crystal form, although only found on 7 specimens from Smallcleugh Mine.
Reference: Nat Hist Museum London and S.Rust collection
Formula: Zn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Colour: White
Description: Specimens of hydrozincite from this mine should be tested to confirm that they are not brianyoungite. Some of the brianyoungite crystals associated with a small nickel rich area in the mine are tinted pale light green, possibly due to a very small amount of Ni in the chemical structure. It only takes a very very small amount of Ni to give some minerals the green colouration.
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine: 57:665-670.
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Colour: Emerald green
Description: As emerald green scattered micro-crystals and small thin drusy crusts covering areas to 1cm +. Associated with gypsum, beverite-Cu, schulenbergite, and possible serpierite.
Reference: University Manchester Museum, and NHM London
Formula: CaCO3
Colour: Translucent white to colourless
Description: A common mineral throughout the mine, forming crystals to 3 cms in diameter displaying major shallow pyramid faces with minor development of the prism faces. Commonly forming crystals richly scattered over an ankerite matrix. An area near the Bogg Shaft, from a brecciated area has in the past furnished cabinet size specimens of typical calcite crystals to 2.5cm dia.
Reference: Collected by many collectors over many years .
Formula: PbCO3
Colour: White
Description: Occurs as a minute crystalline alteration of galena,as micro prismatic, and bladed twinned crystals <0.4mm.
Reference: NHM London & S. Rust Collection.
Chalcanthite ?
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Description: No analysis written or collector reference has been found to substantiate the occurrence of chalcanthite from this mine. Possibly blue-green sulphates where thought to be this species.
Reference: No reference listed
Formula: CuFeS2
Colour: Metallic yellow with various tarnish colours.
Description: Occasionally found as crystals to 0.8cm on annkerite, and has been seen from the dumps in crystals to 0.5cm richly investing an ankerite matrix to 10cm x 7cm.
Reference: Collected by many collectors.
Formula: Cu2O
Colour: Red to maroon
Description: So far only found on a few micro-specimens derived from a specimen collected in Nov 2010.
Reference: S.Rust Collection
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Colour: White to colourless, yellow.
Description: Most of the specimens which have been classified as dolomite are actually ankerite. But dolomite has been found as Zn/Mg enriched crystals associated with a nickel berring area in the mine. Tests should be under take to confirm that a specimen is dolomite.
Reference: Dunham, Sir K C, Geology of the Northern Pennine Orefield, Vol 1 Tyne to Stainmore. HMSO. Zn/Mg rich dolomite S.Rust Collection
Epsomite ?
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Description: So far no written analysis or collector reference has been found to confirm the occurrence at this mine
Formula: CaF2
Description: Fluorite from the Nenthead mines dose not form in the abundance it dose in the Weardale area., being restricted to some localised areas in the mines of the Nenthead area. Judging from dump material above the Smallcleugh mine shallow shafts penetrating the sandstone members, fluorite appears to be ‘more abundant’. Although all the crystals so far collected are small from the sandstone horizons.
Reference: [J.Ralph Collected]
Formula: PbS
Colour: Grey
Description: Cubic and cubo-octahedral crystals to 10cms have reputedly been collected from the large cavities in the replacement ore body; crystals are common in the 2.5cm range.
Reference: Dunham Sir K C, Geology of the Northern Pennine Orefield, Vol 1, Tyne to Stainmore. HMSO
Formula: ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: Manchester University Museum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Colour: Colourless to white
Description: Found in most areas in the mine.
Reference: Found by many collectors
Formula: Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Colour: White
Description: Forms white balls to 1mm and botryoidal area to several mm.
Reference: NHM London & S.Rust Collection;
Hydroniumjarosite ?
Formula: (H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Colour: Light Yellow
Reference: SEM image on Mineral Paradice Webb Site. This appears to be Hydroniumjarosite (priv com David Green);
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Colour: White
Description: Many so called hydrozincite specimens from this mine should be tested to confirm that it is not brianyoungite.
Reference: No reference listed
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Description: SEM image on Mineral Paradice Webb Site. See Hydroniumjarosite (priv com David Green)
Reference: Mineral Paradice Webb Site
Formula: Zn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
Colour: Blue-green
Description: All of the ktenasite from this mine should be tested to see if it is ktenasite or the Zn analog of ktenasite.
Reference: Livingstone, A. (1991): The zinc analogue of ktenasite from Smallcleugh and Brownley Hill mines, Nenthead, Cumbria. J. Russel Soc. 4, 13-15.
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Colour: Green
Description: Found as hemispheres <0.5mm on and near crystals of chalcopyrite
Reference: []
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Colour: Pale green to almost white
Description: All though no analysis has been found to confirm that melanterite occurs at the Smallcleugh mine it is probably a very good bet that it dose.
Reference: No reference listed
Formula: NiS
Colour: Metallic yellow
Description: Very rare restricted to 2 or 3 areas in the mine, usually found as micro-acicular crystals in various states of alteration to Ni secondary mineral.
Reference: NHM London & S.Rust Collection
Formula: Zn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
Colour: Light blue-green
Description: Found in one restricted area in the mine, in the Second Sun Vein.
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols. Livingstone, A., Bridges, T. F. and Bevins, R. E. (1990): Schulenbergite and namuwite from Smallcleugh Mine, Nenthead, Cumbria. J. Russell Soc. 3, 23-24.; American Mineralogist, Volume 81, pages 238-243, 1996
Formula: FeS2
Colour: Pale metallic yelow, commonly tarnished
Description: Crystals usually small <5mm cubic, although crystals have been found to over 2cm. And as Hemispherical forms to 1cm and small botryoidal groups.
Reference: Collected by many collectors.
Formula: SiO2
Colour: Translucent white to colourless
Description: A common mineral forming rare veins to a few cms wide, and crystals to 1cm. Quartz from this mine normally only develop the pyramid faces with very little growth of the prism. Fine beds of pyramidal colourless to white quartz have been noted lining replacement cavities to 20cms.
Reference: Collected by many collectors
Formula: (Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Colour: Light blue-green
Description: Crystals are minute hexagonal <0.2mm, sometimes forming small aggregates to a few mm.
Reference: Livingstone, A., Bridges, T. F. and Bevins, R. E. (1990): Schulenbergite and namuwite from Smallcleugh Mine, Nenthead, Cumbria. J. Russell Soc. 3, 23-24.
Formula: Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Colour: Light blue-green
Description: Forms micro-lath-like crystals. Some supposed serpierite specimens appear not to be this species, test are under way to prove or disprove this assumption
Reference: Bridges, T,F.(1987): Serpierite and develline from the North Pennine Orefield. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geo Soc. 46, 169.
Formula: FeCO3
Colour: Brown, oxidised examples black
Description: By far the least common carbonate species in the mine, from brown to black.
Reference: S. Rust Collection
Formula: ZnCO3
Description: Found in a small veinlet near the High Zinc Flates.
Reference: Steve Rust Collection
Formula: ZnS
Colour: Black, dark brown
Description: Specimens are dark brown to black due to the presence of iron in solid solution. Small crystals less than 2mm are sometimes of the ruby variety. Of particular interest and great rarity are specimens from the replacement deposit above the Hydraulic Shaft, which have fossils coated by white calcite and sprinkled with black sphalerite crystals to 1cm. The deposit was originally discovered by David Lloyd, and Richard Barstow in the 1970's. David was testing the level wall for hollow sounds indicating a possible cavity, when part of the wall collapsed in leading to this remarkable deposit.
Reference: Dunham K C, Geology of the Northern Pennine Orefield , Vol 1, Tyne to Stainmore. HMSO
Formula: S8
Colour: Almost colourless to pale yellow.
Description: Forms micro rounded crystals to 0.75mm, and small crystal clusters to 2mm. Of particular interest are well formed sulphur micro-crystals very sparsely scattered amongst contrasting white micro-crystal mats of brianyoungite.
Reference: Richard De Nul collection
Formula: NiSbS
Colour: Metallic grey
Description: Crystals are small <0.5mm in inter-grown clusters to 1.5mm. Commonly replaced by various Ni-secondary species.
Reference: S.Rust Collection
'Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Ktenasite)'
Formula: Zn(Zn,Cu)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
Colour: White
Reference: Livingstone, A. (1991) The zinc analogue of ktenasite from Smallcleugh and Brownley Hill mines, Nenthead, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society. 4, 13-15

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Group 3 - Halides
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Bottinoite'4.FH.05Ni2+Sb5+2(OH)12 · 6H2O
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Hydromagnesite'5.DA.05Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Chalcanthite' ?7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
'Epsomite' ?7.CB.40MgSO4 · 7H2O
'Goslarite'7.CB.40ZnSO4 · 7H2O
'Gypsum'7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Hydroniumjarosite' ?7.BC.10(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
'Jarosite'7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
'Ktenasite'7.DD.20Zn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
'Melanterite'7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
'Namuwite'7.DD.50Zn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
'Schulenbergite'7.DD.80(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
'Serpierite'7.DD.30Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Annabergite'8.CE.40Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Ktenasite)'-Zn(Zn,Cu)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Semi-metals and non-metals
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Bottinoite6.3.9.1Ni2+Sb5+2(OH)12 · 6H2O
Hydromagnesite16b.7.1.1Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Chalcanthite ? · 5H2O
Epsomite ? · 7H2O
Goslarite29.6.11.2ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Schulenbergite31.1.6.1(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Namuwite31.4.7.1Zn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
Ktenasite31.6.3.1Zn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
Serpierite31.6.2.1Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Annabergite40.3.6.4Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Hydroniumjarosite ?-(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
'Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Ktenasite)'-Zn(Zn,Cu)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

H AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
H Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
H BottinoiteNi2+Sb25+(OH)12 · 6H2O
H BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
H GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
H Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H KtenasiteZn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H NamuwiteZn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
H Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
H SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Ktenasite)Zn(Zn,Cu)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C AragoniteCaCO3
C BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
C CalciteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C SideriteFeCO3
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
O AragoniteCaCO3
O BaryteBaSO4
O Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
O BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
O BottinoiteNi2+Sb25+(OH)12 · 6H2O
O BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O CalciteCaCO3
O CerussitePbCO3
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O CupriteCu2O
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
O GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
O Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O KtenasiteZn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O NamuwiteZn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
O SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O SideriteFeCO3
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Ktenasite)Zn(Zn,Cu)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
F FluoriteCaF2
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
Mg HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
S BaryteBaSO4
S Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
S BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
S GalenaPbS
S GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S KtenasiteZn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S MilleriteNiS
S NamuwiteZn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
S SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
S SphaleriteZnS
S SulphurS8
S UllmanniteNiSbS
S Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Ktenasite)Zn(Zn,Cu)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Ni AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Ni BottinoiteNi2+Sb25+(OH)12 · 6H2O
Ni MilleriteNiS
Ni UllmanniteNiSbS
Cu Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu KtenasiteZn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Cu SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Ktenasite)Zn(Zn,Cu)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
Zn BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4
Zn GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn KtenasiteZn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
Zn NamuwiteZn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2O
Zn Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
Zn SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Ktenasite)Zn(Zn,Cu)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
As AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Sb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
Sb BottinoiteNi2+Sb25+(OH)12 · 6H2O
Sb UllmanniteNiSbS
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Pb Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe23+Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

Late Carboniferous
298.9 - 323.2 Ma

ID: 3160982
Late Carboniferous sandstone

Age: Pennsylvanian (298.9 - 323.2 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{sandstone}, Minor{siltstone,mudstone}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Bashkirian - Visean
315.2 - 346.7 Ma

ID: 2036067
Yoredale Group

Age: Carboniferous (315.2 - 346.7 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Yoredale Group

Lithology: Limestone, sandstone, siltstone and mudstone

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma

ID: 3186080
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Bridges, T.F. (1983) An occurrence of annabergite in Smallcleugh Mine, Nenthead, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 2, 18.
Bridges, T.F. (1987) Serpierite and devilline from the North Pennine Orefield. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 46, 169.
Livingstone, A., Bridges, T.F., and Bevins, R.E. (1990) Schulenbergite and namuwite from Smallcleugh Mine, Nenthead, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 3, 23-24.
Livingstone, A. (1991) The zinc analogue of ktenasite from Smallcleugh and Brownley Hill mines, Nenthead, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society, 4, 13-15.
Livingstone, A. and Champness, P.F. (1993) Brianyoungite, a new mineral related to hydrozincite, from the north of England orefield. Mineralogical Magazine, 57, 665-670.

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