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Wolf Mine, Herdorf, Siegerland, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 50° 46' 50'' North , 7° 57' 51'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 50.78083,7.96444
GeoHash:G#: u1j8vhrec
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Name(s) in local language(s):Grube Wolf, Herdorf, Siegerland, Rheinland-Pfalz, Deutschland


The Wolf mine belongs to the Siegerland siderite district where mining goes back to celtic times. The ore of this district is primarily of sideritic type with more or less developed oxidation zones where limonite/goethite is prevalent. Also Pb, Zn, Cu and Ag as well as Co and Ni minerals occurred frequently - especially at the upper levels - and mostly have been mined at the beginning of modern mining. Mineralization is of hydrothermal origin and developed as veins in Devonian sedimentary rocks (shales, sand- and siltstone) of the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge. The Wolf mine was characterized by a deeply developed oxidation zone (to a depth of almost 400 m), probably due to the influence of the intrusion of tertiary basaltic melts in the neighborhood which provided thermal energy and fluid flow favouring the alteration of the siderite veins. The rhodochrosite finds were restricted to the limonitic ores of the oxidation zone. Towards depth the ore became sideritic with quartz gangue and towards the roots of the veins the quartz content increased.

The Wolf mine is one of the younger mines of the district. Mining started about 1870 when limonite ore was extracted via adits. In 1890 the Reifenrath brothers from Neunkirchen acquired the mine and sank a shaft. Having reached a depth of 300 m the mine was sold in 1917 to Krupp, Essen and modernized by the installation of new steam machines for haulage. The water pumps were fitted with electric power supply. Consequently the extraction tonnage increased to 4,000 - 5,000 tonnes per month. During the 1920s 200 to 250 miners worked at the mine. In 1925 the mining stopped due to economic reasons. The surface installations were demolished and the mine was flooded. 10 years later the reopening was prepared by pumping out the mine and the building of new surface installations including an electric hauling machine and a cableway to transport the ore to the central processing plant at the Füsseberg mine in Daaden-Biersdorf. On 1st of may 1937 the mine was then reopened again. With an extraction of 84,000 tonnes of ore the year 1944 marks the best yield in the history of the mine. But in 1945 the mine closed again due to World War II impact and the mine was flooded again. In 1953/54 the last mining period at the Wolf mine started: it then was consolidated with the San Fernando, Friedrich-Wilhelm, Füsseberg and Große Burg mines to a combined mining complex. The mined ore was transported underground to the San Fernando mine and hauled and processed there. Finally in 1962 the mine was completely closed.

Rhodochrosite from the Wolf mine is probably one of the best known mineral species from Germany in the world. The specimens from there are considered to be the best of Europe and they are present in museums and collections worldwide. Finds were restricted to the active mining period so nowadays specimens from there are highly sought after and increasing in value.
The rhodochrosite varies in colour from salmon pinkish to raspberry pink or orange-reddish to brownish. Typically it is associated with limonitic matrix where it forms crystals and aggregates in vugs of the ore. The habit varies from single millet-seed shaped crystals to star or hedgehog shaped aggregates of those, barrel and cone shaped crystals as well as sheave-like aggregates. Most of the crystals are built by numerous small steep scalenohedral subindividues. The crystals reach up to about 2 cm size, larger crystals have been extremely rare. The majority of the crystallized samples show crystal sizes from a few mm to about 1 cm. Also botroydal and spherical aggregates and coatings were common. The aggregates often show a 'raspberry' like habit ('Himbeerspat' - raspberry spar - Breithaupt, 1832). The most beautiful specimens are of a deep orange-pink colour, they are translucent and provide a great contrast to the limonite matrix. Combo specimens of rhodochrosite with malachite-coated crystals of native copper (reaching sizes of up to about 3 cm) on matrix are the most interesting association of the Wolf mine. The best and richest specimens were found in a zone around the 350 m level.


Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

Grube Wolf, Herdorf, Siegerland, Altenkirchen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Tyskland
Wolf mine? (or Diez bei Ober Neissen) Rheinland Palatinate, Germany

Regions containing this locality

Rhenish Massif, Europe

Massif - 1,163 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


20 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Chalcoalumite
Formula: CuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
Reference: Reinhardt & Henrich (2005); Henrich, J. M. (2010): Chalkoalumit - Rarität aus dem Siegerland. Mineralien-Welt 21 (4), 14-17.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990; Min.Rec.: 20:483.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Lepidocrocite
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Reference: Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Pharmacosiderite
Formula: KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Reference: Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: Andreas Gerstenberg collection
Ullmannite
Formula: NiSbS
Reference: Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Copper'1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Bismuthinite'2.DB.05Bi2S3
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Marcasite'2.EB.10aFeS2
'Millerite'2.CC.20NiS
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
'Sphalerite'2.CB.05aZnS
'Tetrahedrite'2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
'Ullmannite'2.EB.25NiSbS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Cuprite'4.AA.10Cu2O
'Lepidocrocite'4.FE.15γ-Fe3+O(OH)
'Pyrolusite'4.DB.05Mn4+O2
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Dolomite'5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
'Malachite'5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
'Rhodochrosite'5.AB.05MnCO3
'Siderite'5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Chalcanthite'7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
'Chalcoalumite'7.DD.75CuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Pharmacosiderite'8.DK.10KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Millerite2.8.16.1NiS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Ullmannite2.12.3.3NiSbS
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Lepidocrocite6.1.2.2γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Chalcoalumite31.3.1.1CuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Pharmacosiderite42.8.1a.1KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
H Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
CCarbon
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
O CupriteCu2O
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O QuartzSiO2
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O SideriteFeCO3
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
SSulfur
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MilleriteNiS
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
S UllmanniteNiSbS
KPotassium
K PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
CaCalcium
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
MnManganese
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
NiNickel
Ni MilleriteNiS
Ni UllmanniteNiSbS
CuCopper
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
Cu ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CopperCu
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
AsArsenic
As PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
SbAntimony
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Sb UllmanniteNiSbS
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Devonian
358.9 - 419.2 Ma



ID: 3186341
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Devonian (358.9 - 419.2 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Early Devonian
393.3 - 419.2 Ma



ID: 2608911

Age: Early Devonian (393.3 - 419.2 Ma)

Description: marine deposits

Lithology: Argillaceous shale and/or slate, graywacke, sandstone

Reference: Toloczyki, M., P. Trurnit, A. Voges, H. Wittekindt, A. Zitzmann. Geological Map of Germany 1:M. Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe. [94]

Early Devonian
393.3 - 419.2 Ma



ID: 3159802
Early Devonian quartzite

Age: Early Devonian (393.3 - 419.2 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{quartzite}, Minor{sandstone,shale/slate}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
- A. Hoffmann (1964): Beschreibung rheinland-pfälzischer Bergamtsbezirke - Band 1 Bergamtsbezirk Betzdorf. - Verlag Glückauf, Essen.
- H.-G. Koch (1982): Erzväter - Berg- und Hüttenleute im Siegerland und Westerwald. - Verlag Gudrun Koch, Siegen.
- W. Richartz (1979): Rhodochrosit von der Grube Wolf. - LAPIS, Vol. 4, Nr. 10, 12-16.
- R. Bode (1980): Die Grube Wolf in Herdorf, Siegerland. - Emser Hefte 3, 6-35.
- M. Reinhardt, J.M. Henrich (2005): Die Grube Wolf in Herdorf. - Mineralien-Welt 16 (5), 14-37.

External Links



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