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White Island (Whakaari), Bay of Plenty Region (Te Moana-a-Toi), North Island, New Zealandi
Regional Level Types
White Island (Whakaari)Island
Bay of Plenty Region (Te Moana-a-Toi)Region
North Island- not defined -
New ZealandCountry

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Name(s) in local language(s):Te Puia o Whakaari
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 37° 31' 7'' South , 177° 10' 56'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -37.51879,177.18249
GeoHash:G#: rcmfxcum5
Locality type:Island


An uninhabited island with an area of approximately 800 acres. White Island, is regarded as one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes and is the emergent summit of a 16 x 18 km submarine volcano in the Bay of Plenty about 50 kms offshore of North Island.

The island was in a state of frequent eruptions from 1976 to 2000.

The 321 metre high island consists of two overlapping andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcanoes; the summit crater appears to be breached to the SE because the shoreline corresponds to the level of several notches in the SE crater wall.

Volckner Rocks, four sea stacks that are remnants of a lava dome, lie 5 km NNE of White Island. Intermittent moderate phreatomagmatic and strombolian eruptions have occurred at White Island throughout the short historical period beginning in 1826, but its activity also forms a prominent part of Maori legends. Formation of many new vents during the 19th and 20th centuries has produced rapid changes in crater floor topography.

Sulphur mining was carried out from 1885 but ceased in 1914 when a crater wall collapsed and produced a debris avalanche that buried buildings and workers at the sulfur-mining project.

Not to be confused with White Island off the coast of Dunedin in the South Island.


Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


14 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Akaganeite
Formula: (Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Reference: Johnston, J. H. (1977) Jarosite and akaganéite from White Island Volcano, New Zealand: an X-ray and Mossbauer study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 41:4, 539-544. Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.
Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Reference: Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Cody, A.D., Grammer, T.R. (1979) Magnesian halotrichite from White Island. N.Z. Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 22:4, 495-498.
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cody, A.D., Grammer, T.R. (1979) Magnesian halotrichite from White Island. N.Z. Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 22:4, 495-498.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: White Island. Hamilton and Baumgart, 1959. DSIR Bull. 127
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Cody, A.D., Grammer, T.R. (1979) Magnesian halotrichite from White Island. N.Z. Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 22:4, 495-498.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: White Island. Hamilton and Baumgart, 1959. DSIR Bull. 127
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Cody, A.D., Grammer, T.R. (1979) Magnesian halotrichite from White Island. N.Z. Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 22:4, 495-498. Johnston, J. H. (1977) Jarosite and akaganéite from White Island Volcano, New Zealand: an X-ray and Mossbauer study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 41:4, 539-544.
Natroalunite
Formula: NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Cody, A.D., Grammer, T.R. (1979) Magnesian halotrichite from White Island. N.Z. Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 22:4, 495-498.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cody, A.D., Grammer, T.R. (1979) Magnesian halotrichite from White Island. N.Z. Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 22:4, 495-498.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: White Island. Hamilton and Baumgart, 1959. DSIR Bull. 127. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whakaari/White_Island
Tridymite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cody, A.D., Grammer, T.R. (1979) Magnesian halotrichite from White Island. N.Z. Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 22:4, 495-498.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Akaganeite4.DK.05(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Cristobalite4.DA.15SiO2
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Tridymite4.DA.10SiO2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunite7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Alunogen7.CB.45Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Chalcanthite7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Halotrichite7.CB.85FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Natroalunite7.BC.10NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Akaganeite6.1.6.1(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Halotrichite29.7.3.2FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Alunogen29.8.6.1Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Cristobalite75.1.1.1SiO2
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Tridymite75.1.2.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Natroalunite-NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
OOxygen
O HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O CristobaliteSiO2
O Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O TridymiteSiO2
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
NaSodium
Na NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
AlAluminium
Al HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Al NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si CristobaliteSiO2
Si TridymiteSiO2
SSulfur
S HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S SulphurS8
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
ClChlorine
Cl Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
KPotassium
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
FeIron
Fe HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Fe Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
NiNickel
Ni Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
CuCopper
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.
Giggenbach, W.F., Matsuo, S. (1991) Evaluation of results from Second and Third IAVCEI Field Workshops on Volcanic Gases Mt Usu, Japan, and White Island, New Zealand. Applied Geochemistry: 6:2, 125-141.
Johnston, J. H. (1977) Jarosite and akaganéite from White Island Volcano, New Zealand: an X-ray and Mossbauer study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 41:4, 539-544.
Nairn, I.A., Houghton, B.F., Cole, J.W. (1996) Volcanic hazards at White Island. 2nd ed.

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