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Monowai Mine, Waiomu, Thames-Coromandel District, Waikato Region, North Island, New Zealandi
Regional Level Types
Monowai MineMine
Waiomu- not defined -
Thames-Coromandel DistrictDistrict
Waikato RegionRegion
North Island- not defined -
New ZealandCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 37° 1' 3'' South , 175° 32' 57'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -37.01750,175.54944
GeoHash:G#: rckv6tpjq
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Thames7,136 (2014)13.5km
Whitianga3,367 (2011)24.5km
Tairua1,588 (2011)26.7km
Pauanui749 (2011)28.2km
Coromandel1,502 (2014)28.9km


An epithermal gold and silver mine operated from 1891 to 1915 producing 1,240 kg of bullion. Noted for presence of native gold and tellurides. Associated with Pb-Zn-Cu sulphides in the late stage quartz veins.

The early details were not found, and the first mention of the mine is in 1895 as the Monowai Amalgamated Company. In 1896, the Monowai Gold Mining Company of New Zealand was formed with English capital. The company was reconstructed in 1901 as the Monowai Gold Mines Company. It was reported the mine and battery was to be sold in 1904.

This was purchased by the newly formed New Monowai Gold Mining Company. This company in 1909 was wound up, and a new company formed, named the Monowai Gold Mining Company Limited. In 1916, the Monowai Gold Mining Company was placed in voluntary liquidation with plans to auction off the lease and plant.

In 1899, local landowner R.R. Otter sued the Monowai Gold Mines Limited for polluting the Waiomu Stream with cyanide and other chemicals. All fish life in the stream had been killed off, although there was little thought at the time for such environmental disasters. Otter was more concerned about the lack of drinking water for his stock. The company countered that it had posted signs before operations warning it was about to dump cyanide into the stream. This weak defence saw the warden's court award Otter some money, and an injunction against further pollution. However this could easily be overridden by the government declaring the stream a sludge channel under the mining act, effectively allowing mining companies to dump tailings, chemicals, and anything else they liked into the water course with impunity.

The Ferguson Mining and Smelting Company was working the mine under an option to purchase in the early 20th Century. They built a new type of battery from the U.S.A. that involved heating the ore to extreme temperatures to release the gold. After 18 months of construction, the plant operated for only two months before closing. It is said while the opening celebrations for the plant was taking place, the directors were holding a meeting in the office discussing the disposal plan for the treatment plant with scrap merchants.

The Monowai Gold Copper and Lead Mines Limited was formed in Auckland in 1932, to acquire the Zeehan, Monowai, Broken Hill, and other claims in the immediate area from the Waiomu Sulphide Company. They planned to conduct some development work, however by 1933 they were in the warden's court with a former Monowai mine manager requesting forfeiture for non compliance of labour conditions, and generally showing a lack of interest. The company by this stage was in liquidation. The Monowai Gold Developments Limited was mentioned briefly in 1937.

The large reef was on a spur between the Paroquet and Comstock streams, on the northern slopes of the Waiomu valley. The reef strikes north-east, dips 60 degrees west, an average width of 20 feet, following a fault fissure, accessed by four adits ranging from 113 to 1,380 feet long. The lode across included a clay section, then hard flinty sparsely mineralised quartz, another clay section, then the main mineralised white quartz vein with disseminated mixed sulphides, and small irregular quartz lenses, and finally a quartz and country rock intermixed section with a few pockets of sulphides with no clear Hanging Wall.

The vein was wedged shaped being wider at depth. The profitable pay shoot was only 150 feet long. The sulphides include pyrite, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, electrum, and various minor tellurides, bismuth, and antimony. Occasional secondary un-named species are found. The sulphides are complex, and historically led to much of the gold-silver values going to the tailings. The richest ore was found in dark complex sulphide patches often in the vicinity of quartz cavities in finely crystalline granular quartz in the upper sections of the reef.

Various plans have been put forward to re-open the mine from the 1970's, usually opposed by local groups. The old battery site is part of a walk up the Waiomu valley to a Kauri tree location. Little remains. Various adits are in the hills above, with waste rock covering the hill side below each one, although are not easily accessible.

Regions containing this locality

Pacific OceanOcean
Australian Plate (Australia Plate)Tectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


21 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Aikinite
Formula: PbCuBiS3
Reference: Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Geology and Mineralisation of the Monowai Mine Coromandel Peninsula, P. J. ROBERTS. in Mineral Deposits of New Zealand, Ed Dr. D Kear. 1989
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Geology and Mineralisation of the Monowai Mine Coromandel Peninsula, P. J. ROBERTS. in Mineral Deposits of New Zealand, Ed Dr. D Kear. 1989
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Geology and Mineralisation of the Monowai Mine Coromandel Peninsula, P. J. ROBERTS. in Mineral Deposits of New Zealand, Ed Dr. D Kear. 1989
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Reference: Geology and Mineralisation of the Monowai Mine Coromandel Peninsula, P. J. ROBERTS. in Mineral Deposits of New Zealand, Ed Dr. D Kear. 1989
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: CF Johnson Collected
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Geology and Mineralisation of the Monowai Mine Coromandel Peninsula, P. J. ROBERTS. in Mineral Deposits of New Zealand, Ed Dr. D Kear. 1989
Chalcostibite
Formula: CuSbS2
Reference: Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Reference: Geology and Mineralisation of the Monowai Mine Coromandel Peninsula, P. J. ROBERTS. in Mineral Deposits of New Zealand, Ed Dr. D Kear. 1989
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Geology and Mineralisation of the Monowai Mine Coromandel Peninsula, P. J. ROBERTS. in Mineral Deposits of New Zealand, Ed Dr. D Kear. 1989
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Geology and Mineralisation of the Monowai Mine Coromandel Peninsula, P. J. ROBERTS. in Mineral Deposits of New Zealand, Ed Dr. D Kear. 1989
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: CF Johnson Collected
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Geology and Mineralisation of the Monowai Mine Coromandel Peninsula, P. J. ROBERTS. in Mineral Deposits of New Zealand, Ed Dr. D Kear. 1989
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Geology and Mineralisation of the Monowai Mine Coromandel Peninsula, P. J. ROBERTS. in Mineral Deposits of New Zealand, Ed Dr. D Kear. 1989
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Craw, D., Chappell, D.A. (2000) Metal redistribution in historic mine wastes, Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geolophysics, 43:2, 187-198.
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Craw, D., Chappell, D.A. (2000) Metal redistribution in historic mine wastes, Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geolophysics, 43:2, 187-198.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Geology and Mineralisation of the Monowai Mine Coromandel Peninsula, P. J. ROBERTS. in Mineral Deposits of New Zealand, Ed Dr. D Kear. 1989
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Geology and Mineralisation of the Monowai Mine Coromandel Peninsula, P. J. ROBERTS. in Mineral Deposits of New Zealand, Ed Dr. D Kear. 1989
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: Geology and Mineralisation of the Monowai Mine Coromandel Peninsula, P. J. ROBERTS. in Mineral Deposits of New Zealand, Ed Dr. D Kear. 1989
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: CF Johnson Collected
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Geology and Mineralisation of the Monowai Mine Coromandel Peninsula, P. J. ROBERTS. in Mineral Deposits of New Zealand, Ed Dr. D Kear. 1989
Tetradymite
Formula: Bi2Te2S
Reference: Geology and Mineralisation of the Monowai Mine Coromandel Peninsula, P. J. ROBERTS. in Mineral Deposits of New Zealand, Ed Dr. D Kear. 1989
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: Geology and Mineralisation of the Monowai Mine Coromandel Peninsula, P. J. ROBERTS. in Mineral Deposits of New Zealand, Ed Dr. D Kear. 1989

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Electrum'1.AA.05(Au, Ag)
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Aikinite2.HB.05aPbCuBiS3
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Bournonite2.GA.50PbCuSbS3
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Chalcostibite2.HA.05CuSbS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Tetradymite2.DC.05Bi2Te2S
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 9 - Silicates
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
Tetradymite2.11.7.1Bi2Te2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ø = 3
Aikinite3.4.5.1PbCuBiS3
Bournonite3.4.3.2PbCuSbS3
ø = 2
Chalcostibite3.7.5.1CuSbS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Electrum'-(Au, Ag)
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
OOxygen
O QuartzSiO2
O BaryteBaSO4
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O CerussitePbCO3
O HematiteFe2O3
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SSulfur
S AikinitePbCuBiS3
S ChalcostibiteCuSbS2
S BaryteBaSO4
S PyriteFeS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S MarcasiteFeS2
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
S BournonitePbCuSbS3
S TetradymiteBi2Te2S
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
MnManganese
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Fe HematiteFe2O3
CuCopper
Cu AikinitePbCuBiS3
Cu ChalcostibiteCuSbS2
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Cu BournonitePbCuSbS3
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
AgSilver
Ag Electrum(Au, Ag)
SbAntimony
Sb ChalcostibiteCuSbS2
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Sb BournonitePbCuSbS3
TeTellurium
Te TetradymiteBi2Te2S
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
AuGold
Au GoldAu
Au Electrum(Au, Ag)
PbLead
Pb AikinitePbCuBiS3
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Pb CerussitePbCO3
BiBismuth
Bi AikinitePbCuBiS3
Bi TetradymiteBi2Te2S
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Quaternary
0 - 2.588 Ma



ID: 3187411
Cenozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Pleistocene (0 - 2.588 Ma)

Lithology: Ignimbrite(s); felsic volcanic rocks; rhyolite

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Miocene
5.333 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 1308094
Coromandel Group Miocene andesite and basaltic andesite lava

Age: Miocene (5.333 - 23.03 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Coromandel Group

Description: Andesite and basaltic andesite lava, tuff and tuff breccia, agglomerate and pyroclastic flow deposits; andesite, diorite and dacite dikes and subvolcanic intusions.

Comments: Zealandia Megasequence Extrusive and Intrusive Rocks (Neogene)

Lithology: Andesite, tuffite, tuff-breccia, agglomerate, pyroclastic material, andesite, diorite, dacite

Reference: Edbrooke, S.W., Heron, D.W., Forsyth, P.J., Jongens, R. (compilers). Geology Map of New Zealand 1:1 000 000. GNS Science Geological Map 2. [12]

Tortonian - Burdigalian
7.246 - 20.44 Ma



ID: 1315860
Kuaotunu Subgroup andesite and dacite (Coromandel Group) of Coromandel Volcanic Zone

Age: Miocene (7.246 - 20.44 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Kuaotunu Subgroup

Description: Basaltic andesite, andesite and dacite intrusives, flows, volcaniclastites and volcanic epiclastites.

Comments: Neogene igneous rocks. Age based on K-Ar

Lithology: Major:: {andesite},Minor:: {dacite}

Reference: Heron, D.W. . Geology Map of New Zealand 1:250 000. GNS Science Geological Map 1. [13]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Auckland Star newspaper (1895) The Monowai Crushing, Vol. XXVI, issue 140, 13 June 1895.
New Zealand Herald newspaper (1896) Monowai Gold Mining Company of New Zealand, Vol. XXXIII, issue 10169, 27 June 1896.
Thames Advertiser newspaper (1899) T. Otter v Monowai Gold Mines ,Vol. XXIX, issue 9420, 22 August 1899. (spelling error by newspaper, should be R.R. Otter).
Thames Star newspaper (1904) Monowai Mine to be Sold, Vol. XXXXI, issue 10686, 15 August 1904.
Thames Star newspaper (1909) New Monowai, Vol. XLV, issue 10599, 11 August 1909.
New Zealand Herald newspaper (1916) (no title), Vol. LIII, issue 16185, 23 March 1916.
Evening Post newspaper (1932) Monowai Mines Ltd, Vol. CXIV, issue 3, 04 July 1932.
New Zealand Herald newspaper (1933) Monowai Mining Claim, Vol. LXX, issue 21668, 07 December 1933.
Evening Post newspaper (1937) Monowai Gold Developments Ltd, Vol. CXXVIII, issue 106, 06 May 1937.
Hanlen, W.A. (1970) Ferguson Smelting Company Waiomu, Ohinemuri Regional History Journal 14, Vol.7:2, October 1970.
Roberts, P.J. (1989) Geology and mineralisation of the Monowai Mine, Coromandel, in Mineral deposits of New Zealand: the Gordon J. Williams memorial volume, edited by David Kear.
Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.
Craw, D., Chappell, D.A. (2000) Metal redistribution in historic mine wastes, Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geolophysics, 43:2, 187-198.


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