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Puhipuhi, Whangarei District, Northland Region, New Zealandi
Regional Level Types
Puhipuhi- not defined -
Whangarei DistrictDistrict
Northland RegionRegion
New ZealandCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
35° 28' 50'' South , 174° 16' 29'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Kawakawa1,399 (2011)21.7km
Opua360 (2011)23.2km
Moerewa1,662 (2011)24.4km
Ngunguru1,358 (2011)25.4km
Paihia1,944 (2013)27.8km


Hot springs type epithermal silver and mercury deposit.

From 1910 to 1921 a succession of companies attempted under-ground mining operations: the Whangarei Cinnabar Company, the Auckland Cinnabar Mining Company and New Zealand Quicksilver Mines Limited (NZQM). NZQM continued to produce mercury until 1921 when mining virtually ceased.

Ferrar et. al.(1925) describe a main adit (passage) and inclined drift totalling 260 feet in length, with passages to the right and left which followed the ore. By 1925, a total of 1558 tons of ore had been processed, yielding more than 15.5 tons of mercury. However, the ore extracted was not enough to keep the treatment plant operating continuously. The loose nature of the ore-body caused problems, and timbering was necessary throughout the workings. (More information under Puhipuhi Mine).

Note that the sinter deposit is overlain by basalt flows that are zeolitised.

Reference needed regarding species listed.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

30 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Cervantite
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+O4
Reference: Collection of Rod Martin
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Reference: Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Reference: Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.; Mineralogical Magazine; February 2004; v. 68; no. 1; p. 191-198
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: J. Thornton Puhipuhi area in Essence of Microscope (NZ)
'K Feldspar'
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
'K Feldspar var. Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Livingstonite
Formula: HgSb4S6(S2)
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine; February 2004; v. 68; no. 1; p. 191-198
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Metacinnabar
Formula: HgS
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Metastibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Reference: Collection of Rod Martin
Miargyrite
Formula: AgSbS2
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Mogánite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine; February 2004; v. 68; no. 1; p. 191-198
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Gary Leske specimen, 1984.
Opal var. Opaline
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Hampton, W.A., White, G.P., Hoskin, P.W.O., Browne, P.R.L., Rodgers , K.A. (2004) Cinnabar, livingstonite, stibnite and pyrite in Pliocene silica sinter from Northland, New Zealand. Mineralogical Magazine 68:1, 191-198.
Orpiment
Formula: As2S3
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Proustite
Formula: Ag3AsS3
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine; February 2004; v. 68; no. 1; p. 191-198; R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
'Pyrochlore Group'
Formula: A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Reference: Collection of Rod Martin
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Realgar
Formula: As4S4
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
'Roméite'
Reference: Collection of Rod Martin
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Senarmontite
Formula: Sb2O3
Reference: J. Thornton Puhipuhi area in Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
'Stibiconite'
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+2O6(OH)
Reference: J. Thornton Puhipuhi area in Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Reference: Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.; Mineralogical Magazine; February 2004; v. 68; no. 1; p. 191-198
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: J. Thornton Puhipuhi area in Essence of Microscope (NZ)
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4X2+2)Sb4S12S
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup var. Argentian Tetrahedrite'
Formula: (Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: R. Martin, More Puhipuhi. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Tripuhyite
Formula: Fe3+Sb5+O4
Reference: Collection of Rod Martin
Valentinite
Formula: Sb2O3
Reference: Collection of Rod Martin

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cinnabar2.CD.15aHgS
Livingstonite2.JA.05iHgSb4S6(S2)
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Metacinnabar2.CB.05aHgS
Metastibnite2.DB.05Sb2S3
Miargyrite2.HA.10AgSbS2
Orpiment2.FA.30As2S3
Proustite2.GA.05Ag3AsS3
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Realgar2.FA.15aAs4S4
Stibnite2.DB.05Sb2S3
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4X2+2)Sb4S12S
'var. Argentian Tetrahedrite'2.GB.05(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 3 - Halides
Chlorargyrite3.AA.15AgCl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cervantite4.DE.30Sb3+Sb5+O4
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Mogánite4.DA.20SiO2
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var. Opaline4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
'Pyrochlore Group'4.00.A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Senarmontite4.CB.50Sb2O3
'Stibiconite'4.DH.20Sb3+Sb5+2O6(OH)
Tripuhyite4.DB.05Fe3+Sb5+O4
Valentinite4.CB.55Sb2O3
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'K Feldspar'-
'var. Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Roméite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Metacinnabar2.8.2.3HgS
Realgar2.8.21.1As4S4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Metastibnite2.11.3.1Sb2S3
Orpiment2.11.1.1As2S3
Stibnite2.11.2.1Sb2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'3.3.6.1Cu6(Cu4X2+2)Sb4S12S
ø = 3
Proustite3.4.1.1Ag3AsS3
ø = 2
Livingstonite3.7.11.1HgSb4S6(S2)
Miargyrite3.7.3.2AgSbS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Senarmontite4.3.9.2Sb2O3
Valentinite4.3.11.1Sb2O3
AX2
Cervantite4.4.16.1Sb3+Sb5+O4
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
'Pyrochlore Group'8.2.1.1A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Chlorargyrite9.1.4.1AgCl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 44 - ANTIMONATES
A2X2O6(O,OH,F)
'Stibiconite'44.1.1.1Sb3+Sb5+2O6(OH)
AX2O6
Tripuhyite44.2.1.3Fe3+Sb5+O4
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'K Feldspar'-
'var. Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Mogánite-SiO2
Opal
var. Opaline
-SiO2 · nH2O
'Roméite'-
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup
var. Argentian Tetrahedrite'
-(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H StibiconiteSb3+Sb25+O6(OH)
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
H Opal var. OpalineSiO2 · nH2O
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O MogániteSiO2
O StibiconiteSb3+Sb25+O6(OH)
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O SenarmontiteSb2O3
O K Feldspar var. AdulariaKAlSi3O8
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O QuartzSiO2
O RutileTiO2
O SideriteFeCO3
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O TripuhyiteFe3+Sb5+O4
O CervantiteSb3+Sb5+O4
O ValentiniteSb2O3
O Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
O Opal var. OpalineSiO2 · nH2O
AlAluminium
Al K Feldspar var. AdulariaKAlSi3O8
SiSilicon
Si MogániteSiO2
Si K Feldspar var. AdulariaKAlSi3O8
Si QuartzSiO2
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si Opal var. OpalineSiO2 · nH2O
SSulfur
S CinnabarHgS
S StibniteSb2S3
S PyriteFeS2
S LivingstoniteHgSb4S6(S2)
S SulphurS8
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S Tetrahedrite Subgroup var. Argentian Tetrahedrite(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MetacinnabarHgS
S MiargyriteAgSbS2
S OrpimentAs2S3
S ProustiteAg3AsS3
S RealgarAs4S4
S Tetrahedrite SubgroupCu6(Cu4X22+)Sb4S12S
S MetastibniteSb2S3
ClChlorine
Cl ChlorargyriteAgCl
KPotassium
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K K Feldspar var. AdulariaKAlSi3O8
CaCalcium
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca CalciteCaCO3
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Tetrahedrite Subgroup var. Argentian Tetrahedrite(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe TripuhyiteFe3+Sb5+O4
CuCopper
Cu Tetrahedrite Subgroup var. Argentian Tetrahedrite(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu Tetrahedrite SubgroupCu6(Cu4X22+)Sb4S12S
ZnZinc
Zn Tetrahedrite Subgroup var. Argentian Tetrahedrite(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As OrpimentAs2S3
As ProustiteAg3AsS3
As RealgarAs4S4
NbNiobium
Nb Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
AgSilver
Ag ChlorargyriteAgCl
Ag Tetrahedrite Subgroup var. Argentian Tetrahedrite(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Ag MiargyriteAgSbS2
Ag ProustiteAg3AsS3
SbAntimony
Sb StibniteSb2S3
Sb LivingstoniteHgSb4S6(S2)
Sb StibiconiteSb3+Sb25+O6(OH)
Sb SenarmontiteSb2O3
Sb Tetrahedrite Subgroup var. Argentian Tetrahedrite(Cu,Ag)6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Sb MiargyriteAgSbS2
Sb Tetrahedrite SubgroupCu6(Cu4X22+)Sb4S12S
Sb TripuhyiteFe3+Sb5+O4
Sb CervantiteSb3+Sb5+O4
Sb MetastibniteSb2S3
Sb ValentiniteSb2O3
AuGold
Au GoldAu
HgMercury
Hg CinnabarHgS
Hg LivingstoniteHgSb4S6(S2)
Hg MetacinnabarHgS

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
J. Thornton Puhipuhi area in Essence of Microscope (NZ)
Railton, G.L., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand, New Zealand Geological Survey Bull. #104.
Hampton, W., White, G., O. Hoskin, P., L. Browne, P., & Rodgers, K. (2004). Cinnabar, livingstonite, stibnite and pyrite in Pliocene silica sinter from Northland, New Zealand. Mineralogical Magazine, 68(1), 191-198.
W. A. Hampton, K. A. Rodgers, J. M. Seakins & P. R. L. Browne (2001). The Detection and Significance of Moganite in Pliocene Sinter at Plumduff, Northland. Conference Proceedings of the 2001 New Zealand Geothermal Workshop, University of Auckland.

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