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Manus Basin, Bismarck Sea, Papua New Guineai
Regional Level Types
Manus BasinBasin
Bismarck SeaSea
Papua New GuineaCountry

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Four active vent fields and one inactive field have been discovered in Manus Basin, three of which occupy an area of approximately 4,000 km2 in the eastern Manus Basin (Binns et al. 1997). The inactive deposit is located in the Willaumez transfer zone and consists primarily of iron oxide mounds (Binns 1994). The Vienna Woods hydrothermal field occurs at a depth of 2,500 meters on the central Manus spreading center. The first reports of hydrothermal activity in the region resulted from deep camera tows, which photographed vent fauna and inactive chimneys (Both et al. 1986). Active hydrothermal venting was discovered on the central Manus spreading center during the OLGA II research cruise of the RV Sonne (Tufar 1990). Both black and white smoker chimneys with abundant vent fauna were found. The vent field consists predominantly of zinc rich chimneys, venting 285° to 300°C fluid, sitting atop a sulfide mound, with fewer anhydrite-rich chimneys sitting directly on the seafloor (Auzende et al. 1996a, b). Hydrothermal precipitates are enriched in zinc sulfide (sphalerite and wurtzite) and silica with an average base-metal content of 29.7% Zn, 2.2% Cu and 0.6% Pb (n = 25, Tufar 1990). These sulfides also are enriched in gold (average 30 ppm) and silver, which ranges from 25 ppm to 1036 ppm (Binns 1994).

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

36 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

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Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Denis Martin Schlatter (2007) Volcanic Stratigraphy and Hydrothermal Alteration of the Petiknäs South Zn-Pb-Cu-Au-Ag Volcanic-hosted Massive Sulfide Deposit, Sweden. PhD Thesis Luleå University of Technology
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: New Data on Minerals (2004): 39: 91-98
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Reference: Moss R., and Scott, S., (2001) GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD-RICH HYDROTHERMAL PRECIPITATES FROM THE EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 39, pp. 957-978
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: New Data on Minerals (2004): 39: 91-98
Birnessite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Reference: Zhigang Zeng, Shuai Chen and Xiaoyuan Wang. 2012 Mineralogical and micromorphological characteristics of Si-Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides from the PACMANUS hydrothermal field, Eastern Manus Basin. Science China Earth Science 55(12)
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Moss R., and Scott, S., (2001) GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD-RICH HYDROTHERMAL PRECIPITATES FROM THE EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 39, pp. 957-978
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: New Data on Minerals (2004): 39: 91-98
'Chlorite Group'
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Moss R., and Scott, S., (2001) GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD-RICH HYDROTHERMAL PRECIPITATES FROM THE EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 39, pp. 957-978
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
Dufrénoysite
Formula: Pb2As2S5
Reference: Moss R., and Scott, S., (2001) GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD-RICH HYDROTHERMAL PRECIPITATES FROM THE EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 39, pp. 957-978
Ferrihydrite
Formula: Fe3+10O14(OH)2
Reference: Moss R., and Scott, S., (2001) GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD-RICH HYDROTHERMAL PRECIPITATES FROM THE EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 39, pp. 957-978
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Moss R., and Scott, S., (2001) GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD-RICH HYDROTHERMAL PRECIPITATES FROM THE EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 39, pp. 957-978
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Moss R., and Scott, S., (2001) GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD-RICH HYDROTHERMAL PRECIPITATES FROM THE EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 39, pp. 957-978
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Moss R., and Scott, S., (2001) GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD-RICH HYDROTHERMAL PRECIPITATES FROM THE EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 39, pp. 957-978
Gordaite
Formula: NaZn4(SO4)(OH)6Cl · 6H2O
Reference: Steger, S. (2015): Mineralogical characterisation of a black smoker from the "Vienna woods" hydrothermal field, Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea: complex sulphide ores from a deep-sea hydrothermal system. Master Thesis, University of Vienna, Austria, 50 pp.
Goslarite
Formula: ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: Steger, S. (2015): Mineralogical characterisation of a black smoker from the "Vienna woods" hydrothermal field, Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea: complex sulphide ores from a deep-sea hydrothermal system. Master Thesis, University of Vienna, Austria, 50 pp.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Moss R., and Scott, S., (2001) GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD-RICH HYDROTHERMAL PRECIPITATES FROM THE EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 39, pp. 957-978
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Moss R., and Scott, S., (2001) GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD-RICH HYDROTHERMAL PRECIPITATES FROM THE EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 39, pp. 957-978
Jôkokuite
Formula: MnSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Steger, S. (2015): Mineralogical characterisation of a black smoker from the "Vienna woods" hydrothermal field, Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea: complex sulphide ores from a deep-sea hydrothermal system. Master Thesis, University of Vienna, Austria, 50 pp.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: R Moss 2000. GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD IN THE PACMANUS AND SUSU KNOLLS HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEMS, EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PNG. Unpublished PhD thesis Univ of Toronto.
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Denis Martin Schlatter (2007) Volcanic Stratigraphy and Hydrothermal Alteration of the Petiknäs South Zn-Pb-Cu-Au-Ag Volcanic-hosted Massive Sulfide Deposit, Sweden. PhD Thesis Luleå University of Technology
'Manganese Oxides'
Reference: Collection of RJ Martin
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: Steger, S. (2015): Mineralogical characterisation of a black smoker from the "Vienna woods" hydrothermal field, Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea: complex sulphide ores from a deep-sea hydrothermal system. Master Thesis, University of Vienna, Austria, 50 pp.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Moss R., and Scott, S., (2001) GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD-RICH HYDROTHERMAL PRECIPITATES FROM THE EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 39, pp. 957-978
Metavoltine
Formula: Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Reference: Steger, S. (2015): Mineralogical characterisation of a black smoker from the "Vienna woods" hydrothermal field, Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea: complex sulphide ores from a deep-sea hydrothermal system. Master Thesis, University of Vienna, Austria, 50 pp.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Natroalunite
Formula: NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Gena, K. (2013). Deep sea mining of submarine hydrothermal deposits and its possible environmental impact in Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 6, 226-233.
Nontronite
Formula: Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Zhigang Zeng, Shuai Chen and Xiaoyuan Wang. 2012 Mineralogical and micromorphological characteristics of Si-Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides from the PACMANUS hydrothermal field, Eastern Manus Basin. Science China Earth Science 55(12)
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: New Data on Minerals (2004): 39: 91-98
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Moss R., and Scott, S., (2001) GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD-RICH HYDROTHERMAL PRECIPITATES FROM THE EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 39, pp. 957-978
Pyrophyllite
Formula: Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
'Silica'
Reference: Gena, K. (2013). Deep sea mining of submarine hydrothermal deposits and its possible environmental impact in Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 6, 226-233.
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Moss R., and Scott, S., (2001) GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD-RICH HYDROTHERMAL PRECIPITATES FROM THE EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 39, pp. 957-978
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Tennantite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Reference: Moss R., and Scott, S., (2001) GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD-RICH HYDROTHERMAL PRECIPITATES FROM THE EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 39, pp. 957-978
Todorokite
Formula: (Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Reference: Zhigang Zeng, Shuai Chen and Xiaoyuan Wang. 2012 Mineralogical and micromorphological characteristics of Si-Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides from the PACMANUS hydrothermal field, Eastern Manus Basin. Science China Earth Science 55(12)
Wurtzite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Reference: Chuck Adan; New Data on Minerals (2004): 39: 91-98

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Dufrénoysite2.HC.05dPb2As2S5
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Tennantite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Wurtzite2.CB.45(Zn,Fe)S
Group 3 - Halides
Atacamite3.DA.10aCu2(OH)3Cl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Birnessite4.FL.45(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Cristobalite4.DA.15SiO2
Ferrihydrite4.FE.35Fe3+10O14(OH)2
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Manganite4.FD.15Mn3+O(OH)
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Todorokite4.DK.10(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Gordaite7.DF.50NaZn4(SO4)(OH)6Cl · 6H2O
Goslarite7.CB.40ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jôkokuite7.CB.20MnSO4 · 5H2O
Metavoltine7.DF.35Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Natroalunite7.BC.10NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Nontronite9.EC.40Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Pyrophyllite9.EC.10Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'K Feldspar'-
'Manganese Oxides'-
'Silica'-
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Wurtzite2.8.7.1(Zn,Fe)S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tennantite3.3.6.2Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
2.5 < ø < 3
Dufrénoysite3.5.9.3Pb2As2S5
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Ferrihydrite4.3.2.2Fe3+10O14(OH)2
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Manganite6.1.3.1Mn3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
(AB)2X3
Birnessite7.5.3.1(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
AB3X7
Todorokite7.8.1.1(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A2(O,OH)3Xq
Atacamite10.1.1.1Cu2(OH)3Cl
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AmBn(XO4)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p < 3:2 and > 1:1
Metavoltine29.4.6.1Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
AXO4·xH2O
Goslarite29.6.11.2ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jôkokuite29.6.7.4MnSO4 · 5H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Pyrophyllite71.2.1.1Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Nontronite71.3.1a.3Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Cristobalite75.1.1.1SiO2
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
Gordaite-NaZn4(SO4)(OH)6Cl · 6H2O
'K Feldspar'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Manganese Oxides'-
Natroalunite-NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
'Silica'-
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H FerrihydriteFe103+O14(OH)2
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
H MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
H JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2O
H GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
H GordaiteNaZn4(SO4)(OH)6Cl · 6H2O
H ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
H PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
H NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
OOxygen
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O BaryteBaSO4
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O FerrihydriteFe103+O14(OH)2
O HematiteFe2O3
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
O JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2O
O GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
O GordaiteNaZn4(SO4)(OH)6Cl · 6H2O
O ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
O PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
O CristobaliteSiO2
O QuartzSiO2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O AnglesitePbSO4
O NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
O NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Na GordaiteNaZn4(SO4)(OH)6Cl · 6H2O
Na NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Na Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Na NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
AlAluminium
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SiSilicon
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
Si CristobaliteSiO2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SSulfur
S Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
S BaryteBaSO4
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S PyriteFeS2
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
S DufrénoysitePb2As2S5
S MarcasiteFeS2
S CovelliteCuS
S GalenaPbS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
S JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2O
S GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
S GordaiteNaZn4(SO4)(OH)6Cl · 6H2O
S SulphurS8
S AnglesitePbSO4
S NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
ClChlorine
Cl AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cl GordaiteNaZn4(SO4)(OH)6Cl · 6H2O
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
CaCalcium
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Ca Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
MnManganese
Mn JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2O
Mn ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Mn Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe FerrihydriteFe103+O14(OH)2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Fe NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Cu CovelliteCuS
ZnZinc
Zn Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
Zn GordaiteNaZn4(SO4)(OH)6Cl · 6H2O
AsArsenic
As TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
As DufrénoysitePb2As2S5
SrStrontium
Sr Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb DufrénoysitePb2As2S5
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb AnglesitePbSO4

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Tufar, W. (1990) Modern hydrothermal activity, formation of complex massive sulfide deposits and associated vent communities in the Manus Back-Arc Basin (Bismarck Sea, Papua New Guinea). Mitt. Österr. Geol. Ges. 82, 183–210.
Tufar, W. (1992) OLGA II – Rezente Komplexmassivsulfiderze (»Schwarze Raucher«) in der Bismarck-See (Papua-Neuguinea). Alma mater philippina, Marburger Universitätsbund e.V., Wintersemester 1992/93, pp 25–33.
Lein, A. Y., Ul'yanova, N. V., Grinenko, V. A., Bibikova, Y. V., & Lisitsyn, A. P. (1993). Mineralogical and geochemical features of the Manus Basin hydrothermal sulfide ores, Bismarck Sea. Geochemistry International, 30(11), 57-71.
Binns (1994).
Binns, et al. (1997).
Moss, R. and Scott, S.D. (2001) Geochemistry and mineralogy of gold-rich hydrothermal precipitates from the eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea. The Canadian Mineralogist 39, 957-978.
New Data on Minerals (2004) 39: 91-98.

External Links

http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/cm/vol39/CM39_957.pdf

http://robertthornettgeography.blogspot.co.at/2014/03/deep-sea-mining_21.html

http://dsm.gsd.spc.int/public/files/meetings/01_Terrestrial_Mining_and_Mineral_Resources_Potential_of_the_Pacific_Islands_Region_Akuila_Tawake.pdf [Akuila Tawake (2012) Mineral Resources Potential and Mining in the Pacific Islands Region - Lessons Learned. Pacific-ACP States Regional Training Workshop on Geological, Technological, Biological and Environmental Aspects of Deep Sea Minerals. Tanoa International Hotel, Nadi Fiji. 13th–17th August 2012]

Localities in this Region
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