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Martha Mine (Waihi Mine), Waihi, Hauraki District, Waikato Region, New Zealandi
Regional Level Types
Martha Mine (Waihi Mine)Mine
Waihi- not defined -
Hauraki DistrictDistrict
Waikato RegionRegion
New ZealandCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
37° 23' 20'' South , 175° 50' 30'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Waihi4,619 (2011)1.0km
Waihi Beach2,014 (2011)8.2km
Athenree563 (2011)10.9km
Paeroa3,994 (2011)15.7km
Katikati3,232 (2011)19.1km
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
Waihi gold mine


An operating gold mine, in the centre of the town of Waihi, located at the foot of the Coromandel Peninsula.

Named after the Martha Lode which is an epithermal gold-silver orebody which is giant by world standards. This reef system is at least 1.6km long, 600m deep and up to 30m wide. This and other reefs and veins were extensively mined by the Martha Mine’s underground operation between the 1880s and 1952.

However, many smaller veins stayed untouched and have been mined by open-pit methods since 1987. Rock with as little as one gram of gold per tonne can be mined economically using open pit modern technology. Similar reef systems are being mined at Favona and at Trio as underground operations. In 2014 it was announced that underground mining would begin on the Correnso deposit (so named for the presence of corrensite in the ore).

In 1878, John McCombie and Robert Lee discovered gold at Pukewa (Martha Hill). The following year, William Nichol pegged the 5 acre claim over the prospector workings, named it Martha after one of his family members, and began underground mining. The first stamp battery was erected in 1882, near the No. 4 shaft and Junction Road. In 1890, the Waihi Gold Mining Company was formed in London to take over the mine. The Victoria battery was built by the company in 1897 at nearby Waikino, and a hydro electric power station was built at Horahora in 1913 to supply it and the mine with power. The Cornish pumphouse now seen next to the open pit was built in 1904, and moved to its present site in 2006.

The Waihi Gold Mining Company continued to mine the deposit until 1952, employing on average 600 men, producing across this time 5.6 million ounces of gold, and 38.4 million ounces of silver, from 11 932 000 tonnes of ore. The underground workings extended to a depth of 600 metres. The mine closed in 1952, then subsequently some ground subsided on Martha Hill above the old Royal workings in 1961, 1999, and 2001.

In 1976, the Waihi Mining and Development Ltd entered a joint venture with Amax Exploration New Zealand Inc to explore the deposit further. They were joined in 1985 by Goodman Mining, and United Gold Mines, and two years later these companies formed a new Waihi Gold Mining Company, and began an open pit development to access near surface ore.

Newmont Mining Corporation took over the company and mine in 2002, and a name change occurred to the Newmont Waihi Gold Ltd in 2004. With the pit having a limited lifespan, the Favona underground portal was opened also in 2004, while the Trio deposit started in 2012, and the Golden Links/Correnso deposit started production in 2014. The company and mine was purchased by Oceanagold in 2015. Part of the northern side of the pit wall collapsed in 2015 and 2016.

A short walk from the car park on Seddon Street in central Waihi leads to the Cornish pumphouse, interpretative signs, and view points over the open pit. Across the road is the Waihi Gold Discovery Centre, a high tech museum explaining the history of the area, and how gold is mined. Tours also go from the discovery centre visiting the new mine portal to the south-east, the processing plant, conveyor belt, and tailings area (no access is available to the pit due to its unstable nature).

Gold-silver was formed during a Miocene volcanic period, where earthquakes formed fractures, as a conduit for geothermal fluids precipitating metals, and hydrothermal alteration of the host rocks producing a variety of other species. The host rocks are andesite, rhyolite and dacite, overlain by post mineralisation volcanic andesite and rhyolite volcanics, and sediments like ignimbrite, tephras, and lacustrine sediments.

Mineralisation is controlled by the major north-east trending Waihi Fault, and Golden Valley Fault. There are four main quartz veins at Martha named Martha, Welcome, Empire and Royal, and two cross cutting veins called Edward and Albert. The main veins are enveloped by a stock work of subsidiary veins. Mineralisation extends 1600 metres along strike, up to 500 metres wide, and mined to a depth of 600 metres.

The Martha deposit is a low sulphidation adularia-sericite epithermal quartz vein system, associated with north-east trending faults. The main Au-Ag ore is electrum, and associated with pervasive pyrite, and more minor sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite. Silver is also found in acanthite, which is associated with pyrite and galena. Electrum is found as inclusions within the base metal sulphides. Gold is rarely visible. Base metal sulphides tend to increase with depth. The quartz veins range from chalcedonic to coarsely crystalline crustiform banded. Most ore is found in crustiform banded quartz, the veins also locally containing calcite, chlorite, rhodochrosite, and adularia.

The andesite has been hydrothermally altered near the veins to quartz, albite, adularia, carbonate, pyrite, and smectite, chlorite, illite clays. Pyrite has broken down into limonite near surface.

Subsidiary veins are found to the south-east by up to 3 kilometres distance, and has been the focus of more recent underground mining. Some of this is under houses of the Waihi town site. The north-south Correnso vein, has three west south-west extensions at its southern end called Union, Trio, and Amaranth. The northern section of the Correnso vein is cut by a barren structure, and gold values are lower, having been flooded by post mineralisation bands and lobes of low value quartz-calcite. Further east is the north north-east trending Favona vein, also being brought into production.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


24 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
Aguilarite
Formula: Ag4SeS
Reference: Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
Alabandite
Formula: MnS
Reference: Morgan, 1924
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Description: Associated with adularia, replaces lava plagioclase.
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Description: Apatite overgrowth on lava primary apatite.
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Description: Calcite + illite replace adularia.
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
Corrensite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
Reference: Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, Volume I, 834pp.: 93.
Inesite
Formula: Ca2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Description: Associated with amethyst in quartz-sulfides bands.
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Description: Supergene acidic sulfate alteration.
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
'K Feldspar'
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.
Mckinstryite
Formula: Ag5-xCu3+xS4
Reference: Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Description: In quartz-adularia-pyrite veins.
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
Naumannite
Formula: Ag2Se
Reference: Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
'Psilomelane'
Formula: Mn, O
Reference: Alfredo Petrov collection
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Description: - Microcrystalline quartz asoociated with adularia - Quartz pseudomorphs after calcite
Reference: Alfredo Petrov collection; Rough Country Minerals specimens; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
Quartz var: Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Description: - Smectite replacing lava glass - Mixed layer illite/smectite
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
Stromeyerite
Formula: AgCuS
Reference: Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series'
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.; Simpson, M. P., & Mauk, J. L. (2011). Hydrothermal alteration and veins at the epithermal Au-Ag deposits and prospects of the Waitekauri area, Hauraki goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106(6), 945-973.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Description: Associated with pyrite, replaces lava magnetite.
Reference: R.L. Brathwaite and K. Faure, Economic Geology, Vol. 97, 2002, pp. 269-290.
'Wad'
Reference: Rough Country Minerals specimens

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Electrum'1.AA.05(Au, Ag)
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Acanthite2.BA.35Ag2S
Aguilarite2.BA.55Ag4SeS
Alabandite2.CD.10MnS
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Mckinstryite2.BA.40Ag5-xCu3+xS4
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Naumannite2.BA.55Ag2Se
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stromeyerite2.BA.40AgCuS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Corrensite9.EC.60(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Inesite9.DL.05Ca2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Chlorite Group'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Psilomelane'-Mn, O
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series'-
'Wad'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
Aguilarite2.4.1.3Ag4SeS
Mckinstryite2.4.5.1Ag5-xCu3+xS4
Naumannite2.4.1.2Ag2Se
Stromeyerite2.4.6.1AgCuS
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Alabandite2.8.1.4MnS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Ca-Na subgroup
Inesite66.3.3.1Ca2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Corrensite71.4.2.5(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Chlorite Group'-
'Electrum'-(Au, Ag)
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Psilomelane'-Mn, O
Quartz
var: Amethyst
-SiO2
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series'-
'Wad'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
H Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O QuartzSiO2
O PsilomelaneMn, O
O Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
O CalciteCaCO3
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
O InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
O Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
FFluorine
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
AlAluminium
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
Si InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Si Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
SSulfur
S AlabanditeMnS
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S AcanthiteAg2S
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S AguilariteAg4SeS
S MckinstryiteAg5-xCu3+xS4
S StromeyeriteAgCuS
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
Ca Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
MnManganese
Mn AlabanditeMnS
Mn PsilomelaneMn, O
Mn InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2O
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu MckinstryiteAg5-xCu3+xS4
Cu StromeyeriteAgCuS
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
SeSelenium
Se AguilariteAg4SeS
Se NaumanniteAg2Se
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
AgSilver
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
Ag Electrum(Au, Ag)
Ag AguilariteAg4SeS
Ag NaumanniteAg2Se
Ag MckinstryiteAg5-xCu3+xS4
Ag StromeyeriteAgCuS
AuGold
Au GoldAu
Au Electrum(Au, Ag)
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, Volume I, 834pp.: 93.
Brathwaite, R.L. and Christie, A.B. (2000) Deposit types and paleo-depth extents of Coromandel epithermal Au-Ag deposits in 2000 New Zealand Minerals & Mining Conference Proceedings
Brathwaite, R.L., Mazengarb, C.M., Richards, L., Beetham, R.D. (2002) Ground collapses related to abandoned underground workings at Waihi, New Zealand.
Simpson, M.P., Mauk, J.L. (2011) Hydrothermal Alteration and Veins at the Epithermal Au-Ag Deposits and Prospects of the Waitekauri Area, Hauraki Goldfield, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 106:6, 945-973.
Oceangold (2015) NI43-101 Technical Report for the Waihi Gold Mine, 23 November 2015.

External Links


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