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Virulundo, Tombwa City Council, Namibe Province, Angolai
Regional Level Types
Virulundo- not defined -
Tombwa City CouncilCouncil
Namibe ProvinceProvince
AngolaCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 16° 18' South , 12° 56' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -16.30000,12.93333
GeoHash:G#: km15q29v8
Köppen climate type:BSh : Hot semi-arid (steppe) climate


REE occurrence.
Potassic carbonatite and fenite.


Regions containing this locality

African PlatePlate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


22 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
'Apatite'
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Britholite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
'Britholite-(La)'
Formula: Ca2(La,Ce,Ca)3(SiO4,PO4)3(OH,F)
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Cerite-(Ce)
Formula: (Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hollandite
Formula: Ba(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
'Parisite'
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
'Pyrochlore Group'
Formula: A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Rhabdophane-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4) · H2O
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Rutile var: Niobian Rutile
Formula: (Ti,Nb)O2
Strontianite
Formula: SrCO3
Synchysite-(Ce)
Formula: CaCe(CO3)2F
Synchysite-(Y)
Formula: CaY(CO3)2F
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hollandite4.DK.05aBa(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
'Pyrochlore Group'4.00.A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
var: Niobian Rutile4.DB.05(Ti,Nb)O2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Strontianite5.AB.15SrCO3
Synchysite-(Ce)5.BD.20cCaCe(CO3)2F
Synchysite-(Y)5.BD.20cCaY(CO3)2F
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Rhabdophane-(Ce)8.CJ.45Ce(PO4) · H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Britholite-(Ce)9.AH.25(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Cerite-(Ce)9.AG.20(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Britholite-(La)'-Ca2(La,Ce,Ca)3(SiO4,PO4)3(OH,F)
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Parisite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
AB8X16
Hollandite7.9.1.1Ba(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
'Pyrochlore Group'8.2.1.1A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Strontianite14.1.3.3SrCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Synchysite-(Ce)16a.1.3.1CaCe(CO3)2F
Synchysite-(Y)16a.1.3.2CaY(CO3)2F
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Rhabdophane-(Ce)40.4.7.1Ce(PO4) · H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Britholite-(Ce)52.4.9.1(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Cerite-(Ce)52.4.6.1(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Britholite-(La)'-Ca2(La,Ce,Ca)3(SiO4,PO4)3(OH,F)
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Parisite'-
Rutile
var: Niobian Rutile
-(Ti,Nb)O2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
H Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
H Britholite-(La)Ca2(La,Ce,Ca)3(SiO4,PO4)3(OH,F)
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Rhabdophane-(Ce)Ce(PO4) · H2O
CCarbon
C Synchysite-(Y)CaY(CO3)2F
C StrontianiteSrCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
OOxygen
O Synchysite-(Y)CaY(CO3)2F
O Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
O StrontianiteSrCO3
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O HollanditeBa(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
O Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
O Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
O Britholite-(La)Ca2(La,Ce,Ca)3(SiO4,PO4)3(OH,F)
O BaryteBaSO4
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O Rhabdophane-(Ce)Ce(PO4) · H2O
O Rutile (var: Niobian Rutile)(Ti,Nb)O2
O RutileTiO2
FFluorine
F Synchysite-(Y)CaY(CO3)2F
F FluoriteCaF2
F Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
F Britholite-(La)Ca2(La,Ce,Ca)3(SiO4,PO4)3(OH,F)
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Si Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Si Britholite-(La)Ca2(La,Ce,Ca)3(SiO4,PO4)3(OH,F)
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
PPhosphorus
P Britholite-(La)Ca2(La,Ce,Ca)3(SiO4,PO4)3(OH,F)
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P Rhabdophane-(Ce)Ce(PO4) · H2O
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
S PyriteFeS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
KPotassium
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Synchysite-(Y)CaY(CO3)2F
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
Ca Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Ca Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Ca Britholite-(La)Ca2(La,Ce,Ca)3(SiO4,PO4)3(OH,F)
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
TiTitanium
Ti Rutile (var: Niobian Rutile)(Ti,Nb)O2
Ti RutileTiO2
MnManganese
Mn HollanditeBa(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
FeIron
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
CuCopper
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
SrStrontium
Sr StrontianiteSrCO3
YYttrium
Y Synchysite-(Y)CaY(CO3)2F
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
NbNiobium
Nb Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Nb Rutile (var: Niobian Rutile)(Ti,Nb)O2
BaBarium
Ba HollanditeBa(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
Ba BaryteBaSO4
LaLanthanum
La Britholite-(La)Ca2(La,Ce,Ca)3(SiO4,PO4)3(OH,F)
CeCerium
Ce Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
Ce Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Ce Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Ce Britholite-(La)Ca2(La,Ce,Ca)3(SiO4,PO4)3(OH,F)
Ce Rhabdophane-(Ce)Ce(PO4) · H2O

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Paleoproterozoic
1600 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3192095
Paleoproterozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Grootfontein Mafic Complex

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Paleoproterozoic
1600 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3311744

Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)

Lithology: Plutonic and metamorphic

Reference: Thiéblemont, D. (ed.). New edition of the 1:10,000,000 geological map of Africa. CGMW-BRGM. [190]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
- Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): Rare earth element mines, deposits, and occurrences. USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
- L. Torró, C. Villanova, M. Castillo, M. Campeny, A. O. Gonçalves and J. C. Melgarejo (2012): Niobium and rare earth minerals from the Virulundo carbonatite, Namibe, Angola. Mineralogical Magazine 76, 393-409.


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