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Cryo-Genie Mine (Cindy B-Cryogenie claim; Lost Valley Truck Trail prospect), Warner Springs, Warner Springs District, San Diego Co., California, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 33° 18' 43'' North , 116° 38' 20'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 33.3119444444, -116.638888889

The Cryo-Genie mine is located in the N½ Sec. 14, T10S, R3E, SBM, approximately 2 miles north-northwest of Warner Springs, and several hundred feet east of Lost Valley road.

The deposit consists of a granite pegmatite dike, enclosed in hybrid rocks, which is exposed just southwest of the crest of a small hill. The dike strikes northward, dips about 30 degrees west, is about 10 feet thick, and can be traced laterally for at least 200 feet. The dike can be divided into 3 zones: (1) a lower zone, about 4 to 5 feet thick, which is chiefly graphic granite; (2) a core, about 1 ft. thick, which is composed of quartz, albite (including variety cleavelandite), muscovite, lepidolite, tourmaline, garnet, and allanite; and (3) an upper zone, 4 to 5 feet thick, which is medium- to coarse-grained graphic granite with muscovite, and black tourmaline crystals as long as 9 inches. The tourmaline crystals of the core commonly range in color from solid black to crystals with black cores and grass green exteriors. Weber also noted in 1958 that core zone produced tourmalines which were pale blue, pale pink, and colorless crystals. These pale crystals were described as thin and averaged less than 1/2 inch to 1 inch in length, with the smallest crystals being gemmy. The discovery in 2001 proved that these smaller crystals in the core zone were exposed along the outer margins of much larger mineralization further down dip. The remarkable 1.8 x 1.5 x 0.9-meter pocket yielded bright pink tourmaline crystals to 25 cm long and 10 cm across.

A miarolitic tourmaline-bearing granitic pegmatite located near the town of Warner Springs in northeastern San Diego County. First referenced to as the Lost Valley Truck Trail prospect in 1958, the deposit was probably worked during the 1910s or 1920s when it was explored by shallow cuts and trenches along the outcrop. Periodic hand work was performed by hobbyists and amateur collectors during the 1960s. The current name was bestowed by Bart Cannon, who held the claim during the 1970s and 1980s. The mine was acquired in the late 1980s by current owner Dana Gochenhour, who along with the assistance of mine engineer Jim Clanin, began underground development of the site in 2001. A major discovery of pink elbaite was made in the spring of 2001, dubbed the B.A.T. or BAT pocket, which is an abbreviation or acronym meaning 'Big Ass Tourmaline' pocket. Another large tourmaline discovery was made in September of 2002, and a major beryl pocket was discovered in 2003.

Mineral List

24 valid minerals.

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Schaller, W. T. (1904), The tourmaline localities of S California. Science 19, p. 266–268.

Sterrett, D. B. (1904), Tourmaline from San Diego County, California. American Journal of Science, Vol.17, p. 459–465.

Sterrett, D. B. (1907), Precious stones. Mineral Resources U.S., 1906. Department of Interior, US Geol. Survey, Gov. Printing Office, Washington; p. 1213; p. 1239–1941.

Schaller, W. T. (1916), Mineral Resources of the US, Gems and Precious Stones, 1915, Part II. Dep. Interior, Geol. Survey: p. 846.

Schaller, W. T. (1919), Gems & Precious Stones. Mineral Resources U.S., 1916, Part II - Nonmetals. Dep. Interior, US Geol. Survey, Governm. Printing Office, Washington; p. 888–889.

Tucker, W. B., Reed, C. H. (1939), Los Angeles Field District - Mineral Resources of San Diego County. California Journal of Mines and Geology, quarterly chapter of the State Mineralogist Report Vol 35, p. 37–40.

Jahns, R. H. (1948), Gem deposits of southern California. Gems and Gemology, Vol. 6, No. 1, p. 6–30.

Weber, F. H. (1963a), Mines and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: 102, 106; illus., maps.

Pourade, R. F. (1964), The History of San Diego, Chapter Three: Who Could Have Guessed These Stones Were Gems?

Sinkankas, J. (1979), Turmalinreiches Südkalifornien. In: Lapis, Vol. 4, No.1, p.33-37.

Johnston, J. (1980?), An Introduction and History of Tourmaline. In: Gemmology, Canada, Special Issue.

Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 364, 431, 486, 504.

London, D. (1986), Formation of tourmalin-rich pockets in miarolitic pegmatites. In: American Mineralogist, Vol. 71, p. 386–405.

Bancroft, P. (1989), Gem Mining in San Diego Co. Environment SW, San Diego Natural History Museum, Nr. 525, p. 14-20.

Keller, P. C. (1989), The Gems of San Diego Co. Environment SW, San Diego Natural History Museum, Nr. 525, p. 11-13.

Foord, E. E., Starkey, H. C., and Taggart, J. E., Jr. (1986), Mineralogy and paragenesis of "pocket" clays and associated minerals in complex granitic pegmatites, San Diego, California. American Mineralogist, 7 I, p. 428-439.

Fisher, J. (2002), Gem and rare-element pegmatites of southern California. Mineralogical Record 33(5), p. 363-407.

Kampf, A. R., et al (2003), Tourmaline Discovery at the Cryo-Genie Mine, San Diego County, California, Rocks & Minerals 78(3), p. 156-168.

Patterson, J. E. (2003), Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) at the Cryo-Genie Gem Pegmatite Mine, San Diego County, California. University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Clanin, R. J. (2004), The Cryo-Genie Pegmatite: a complexly zoned, LCT pegmatite in the Peninsular Ranges Batholith, San Diego County, California. Geological Society of America, Vol. 36(5), p. 44–45.

United States Geological Survey (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, Deposit ID 10262337 (Mineral Availability System (MAS/MILS ID) database file # 0060730115).

Lyter, M. and Sirbescu, M. (2006), Fluid evolution in a gem-bearing pocket pegmatite at the Cryo-Genie Mine, San Diego County, California. A novel method of gemstone exploration, Geological Society of America, Vol. 38(7), p. 558.

Clanin, R. J. (2006), Mining of Pegmatite-related Primary Gem Deposits. In: Gems & Gemology, Vol. 42, Issue 3, p. 145.

Bureau of Land Management (2007), Cindy B-Cryogenie Lode Claim, San Diego County, California: Serial Number Index of Claims, United States Department of Interior; Sept.

Maloney, J. (2007), Lithium and Lithium Isotopes in Tourmaline as indicators of crystallization processes: A study of San Diego County Pegmatites, California. Thesis at University of Missouri-Columbia.

Maloney, J. et al (2008), Lithium and its isotopes in tourmaline as indicators of the crystallization process in the San Diego County pegmatites, California, USA. In: European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 20, p. 906–916.

Symons, D. T. A. et al (2009), Paleomagnetism of the mid-cretaceous gem-bearing dikes of San Diego County, California, USA. In: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 46, No. 9, p. 675–687.

Fisher, J. (2011), Mines and Minerals of the Southern California Pegmatite Province. Rocks & Minerals, Vol. 86, p. 14-34.

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