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Kota-Kota meteorite (Marimba meteorite), Nkhotakota District, Malawi

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 13° 1' South , 34° 12' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -13.01667,34.20000

Enstatite Chondrite, high-iron (EH3; S4)
1905 find, 334 g, weathered

A stone ‘from the sky’ was presented to a district commissioner and after eventually reaching the Acting Commissioner for British Central African Office in 1905, the stone was duly transferred to the British Museum. In 1914 Prior noted the presence of chondrules, pyroxene, and rust. He further stated: “Owing to the weathered and rusted condition of the stone no chemical analysis was made, as it would have been of little value.”

The Enstatite Chondrite Class is defined by specific elemental ratios and by earthlike isotopic ratios. Mineralogically Enstatite Chondrites are characterized by the presence of iron-poor Enstatite, Fe-Ni metal, and a number of very reduced mineral phases (sulfides, nitrides, silicides) which are either unknown or very rare in terrestrial settings. The EH (high iron) chemical group is further characterized by abundant iron (~10-20 vol%) and the mineral niningerite. Type EH3 chondrites, the most abundant EH petrologic type, often contain perryite as well. They are additionally characterized by abundant chondrules, low degrees of aqueous alteration, and unequilibrated mineral assemblages. Kota-Kota’s Shock level [S4] indicates strong pre-terrestrial shock — a frequent complication in interpreting Enstatite Chondrite metamorphic histories. As the extremely reduced mineralogy of Enstatite meteorites makes several phases particularly susceptible to destructive weathering, it is all the more remarkable that the previously unknown mineral Djerfisherite, an alkali-containing sulfide, was discovered in 1965 amidst the chondrules, pyroxenes, and rust.

Mineral List

12 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

0 - 2.588 Ma
Quaternary sedimentary rocks

Age: Pleistocene (0 - 2.588 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Geological Survey of Canada. Generalized geological map of the world and linked databases. doi:10.4095/195142. Open File 2915d. [18]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Prior, G. T. (1914) The Meteorites of Uwet, Kota Kota, and Angela: redeterminations of nickel and iron in the Baroti and Wittekrantz meteoric stones. Mineralogical Magazine 17 (80): 127-134 & 2 plates.

Mason, B. H. (1966). The Enstatite Chondrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 30, 23-30. (Jan 1966)

Fuchs, L. H. (1966) Djerfisherite, A new Mineral from the Kota-Kota and St. Mark’s enstatite chondrite. Science 153: 166-167.

Keil, K. (1968). Mineralogical and Chemical Relationships among the Enstatite Chondrites. Journal of Geophysical Research 73 (22): 6945-6976. (Nov 1968)

Brearley, A. J. & Jones, R. H. (1998): Chondritic Meteorites. In: Planetary Materials (Papike, J. J., Editor): Chapter 3, 398 pages. Mineralogical Society of America: Washington, DC, USA.

Grady, M. M. (2000). Catalogue of Meteorites (5/e). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, New York, Oakleigh, Madrid, Cape Town. 690 pages.

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