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Mineral Hill Mine, Louisville, Carroll Co., Maryland, USAi
Regional Level Types
Mineral Hill MineMine
Louisville- not defined -
Carroll Co.County
MarylandState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
39° 26' 12'' North , 76° 55' 53'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Eldersburg30,531 (2011)4.0km
Sykesville4,412 (2017)7.7km
Reisterstown25,968 (2015)9.3km
Owings Mills30,622 (2011)13.1km
Randallstown32,430 (2011)14.0km


A former Fe-Cu occurrence/mine located less than 1 mile S of Louisville on the edge of the Liberty Lake reservoir. Originally an iron mine featuring a 2½ foot (0.9 meter) thick hematite ore vein. Started around the time of the American Revolution. Later, it was exploited for copper and achieved a depth of over 400 feet with a shaft to that depth. Employed up to 100 miners at its peak.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


36 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Rocks & Min.:26:111,121.; Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Mines of the Washington D.C Area
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: Stuart Herring
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Ostrander, C. W. & W. E. Price (1940) Minerals of Maryland: Natural History Society of Maryland , 92 p.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Mines of the Washington D.C Area; Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Mines of the Washington D.C Area
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Mines of the Washington D.C Area
Carrollite
Formula: Cu(Co,Ni)2S4
Reference: Mines of the Washington D.C Area
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Ostrander, C. W. & W. E. Price (1940) Minerals of Maryland: Natural History Society of Maryland , 92 p.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Mines of the Washington D.C Area
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Rocks & Min.:26:111,121.; Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Mines of the Washington D.C Area; Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Stuart Herring
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Mines of the Washington D.C Area
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Rocks & Min.:26:111,121.
Gahnite
Formula: ZnAl2O4
Reference: Dana 7:I:264.; Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Ostrander, C. W. & W. E. Price (1940) Minerals of Maryland: Natural History Society of Maryland , 92 p.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Stuart Herring
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Mines of the Washington D.C Area
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: MD Geol. Sur., Vol IX:310.
'Heulandite subgroup'
Reference: Stuart Herring
'Hornblende'
Reference: Mines of the Washington D.C Area
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Mines of the Washington D.C Area
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Mines of the Washington D.C Area
Linnaeite
Formula: Co2+Co3+2S4
Description: A copper-bearing variety.
Reference: Dana 7:I:264.; Machlan, L. A., & Barnes, I. L. (1989). The absolute isotopic composition and atomic weight of terrestrial nickel. News Briefs, 94(6), 357.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Rocks & Min.:26:111,121.; Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Mines of the Washington D.C Area
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Reference: Ostrander, C. W. & W. E. Price (1940) Minerals of Maryland: Natural History Society of Maryland , 92 p.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Ostrander, C. W. & W. E. Price (1940) Minerals of Maryland: Natural History Society of Maryland , 92 p.
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Mines of the Washington D.C Area
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Rocks & Min.:26:111,121.; Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Mines of the Washington D.C Area; Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Mines of the Washington D.C Area
Siegenite
Formula: CoNi2S4
Reference: Mines of the Washington D.C Area; Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Mines of the Washington D.C Area; Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
'Stilbite subgroup'
Reference: Stuart Herring
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Rocks & Min.:26:111,121.
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Reference: Ostrander, C. W. & W. E. Price (1940) Minerals of Maryland: Natural History Society of Maryland , 92 p.
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Ostrander, C. W. & W. E. Price (1940) Minerals of Maryland: Natural History Society of Maryland , 92 p.
Violarite
Formula: Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Reference: Econ Geol (1989) 84:663-675
Zoisite
Formula: Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Reference: Ostrander, C. W. & W. E. Price (1940) Minerals of Maryland: Natural History Society of Maryland , 92 p.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Carrollite2.DA.05Cu(Co,Ni)2S4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Linnaeite2.DA.05Co2+Co3+2S4
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Siegenite2.DA.05CoNi2S4
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Violarite2.DA.05Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Gahnite4.BB.05ZnAl2O4
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Tenorite4.AB.10CuO
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Chalcanthite7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Melanterite7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Pseudomalachite8.BD.05Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Zoisite9.BG.10Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Heulandite subgroup'-
'Hornblende'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
'Stilbite subgroup'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Carrollite2.10.1.2Cu(Co,Ni)2S4
Linnaeite2.10.1.1Co2+Co3+2S4
Siegenite2.10.1.6CoNi2S4
Violarite2.10.1.8Fe2+Ni3+2S4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX
Tenorite4.2.3.1CuO
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Gahnite7.2.1.4ZnAl2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Pseudomalachite41.4.3.1Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Zoisite58.2.1b.1Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Heulandite subgroup'-
'Hornblende'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
'Stilbite subgroup'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
H Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C SideriteFeCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
OOxygen
O CalciteCaCO3
O HematiteFe2O3
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O GahniteZnAl2O4
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
O QuartzSiO2
O SideriteFeCO3
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
O TenoriteCuO
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
FFluorine
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
MgMagnesium
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
AlAluminium
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al GahniteZnAl2O4
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
Al Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
SiSilicon
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
PPhosphorus
P PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
SSulfur
S CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4
S PyriteFeS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S ChalcociteCu2S
S CovelliteCuS
S SiegeniteCoNi2S4
S SphaleriteZnS
S ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
ClChlorine
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
MnManganese
Mn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
FeIron
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
Fe Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
CoCobalt
Co CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4
Co LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
Co SiegeniteCoNi2S4
NiNickel
Ni CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4
Ni SiegeniteCoNi2S4
Ni ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
Ni Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
CuCopper
Cu CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu TenoriteCuO
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
ZnZinc
Zn GahniteZnAl2O4
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
AuGold
Au GoldAu

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Singewald, J. T. (1911) Report on the iron ores of Maryland: Maryland Geological Survey Vol. 9 Part 3: 310.
Ostrander, C. W. & W. E. Price (1940) Minerals of Maryland: Natural History Society of Maryland : 42-44.
Palache, C., Berman, H. & Frondel, C. (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 264.
Heyl, A. & Pearre, N (1965) Copper, zinc, lead, iron cobalt and barite deposits of the Piedmont Upland in Maryland: Maryland Geological Survey: Bulletin 28: 56-57.


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