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Vuonos Mine, Outokumpu Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au ore field, North Karelia, Finlandi
Regional Level Types
Vuonos MineMine
Outokumpu Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au ore fieldOre Field
North KareliaRegion
FinlandCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 62° 45' 40'' North , 29° 5' 33'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 62.76111,29.09250
GeoHash:G#: uehtn129b
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Dfc : Subarctic climate


A Cu-Zn-Co mine in the Vuonos deposit. Owned by Outokumpu Oy, active 1967-86.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


33 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Argentopentlandite
Formula: Ag(Fe,Ni)8S8
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Reference: Lips, ALW (2006) A review of non-ferrous mineral deposits in Europe - Finalised initial database BRGM/RP -54957 - FR
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Peltonen, P., Kontinen, A., Huhma, H., and Kuronen, U. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 559-617.; Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Hytönen, Kai: Suomen Mineraalit. GTK. Jysväskylä 1999.
Clinochlore var: Chromian Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
Reference: Hytönen, Kai: Suomen Mineraalit. GTK. Jysväskylä 1999.
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Cobaltpentlandite
Formula: (Co,Ni,Fe)9S8
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Peltonen, P., Kontinen, A., Huhma, H., and Kuronen, U. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 559-617.; Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Eskolaite
Formula: Cr2O3
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Lips, ALW (2006) A review of non-ferrous mineral deposits in Europe - Finalised initial database BRGM/RP -54957 - FR
Graphite
Formula: C
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Mackinawite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)9S8
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: J. Dyer Collection; Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Lips, ALW (2006) A review of non-ferrous mineral deposits in Europe - Finalised initial database BRGM/RP -54957 - FR
Maucherite
Formula: Ni11As8
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Reference: Peltonen, P., Kontinen, A., Huhma, H., and Kuronen, U. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 559-617.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Peltonen, P., Kontinen, A., Huhma, H., and Kuronen, U. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 559-617.; Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Peltonen, P., Kontinen, A., Huhma, H., and Kuronen, U. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 559-617.; Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Saponite
Formula: Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Uusinoka, R. 1975. A study of composition of rock-gouge in fractures of Finnish Precambrian bedrock. Commentationes Physico-Mathematicae Societas Scientiarum Fennica, 45 (1). 101 s.
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Siegenite
Formula: CoNi2S4
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Peltonen, P., Kontinen, A., Huhma, H., and Kuronen, U. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 559-617.; Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Stannite
Formula: Cu2FeSnS4
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Peltonen, P., Kontinen, A., Huhma, H., and Kuronen, U. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 559-617.; Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Reference: Geological Survey of Finland 2011. Vuonos - Copper Database
Uvarovite
Formula: Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3
Reference: Joel Dyer photo & specimen
Violarite
Formula: Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Reference: Lips, ALW (2006) A review of non-ferrous mineral deposits in Europe - Finalised initial database BRGM/RP -54957 - FR

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Bismuth'1.CA.05Bi
Gold1.AA.05Au
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Argentopentlandite'2.BB.15Ag(Fe,Ni)8S8
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cobaltite2.EB.25CoAsS
Cobaltpentlandite2.BB.15(Co,Ni,Fe)9S8
Cubanite2.CB.55aCuFe2S3
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Gersdorffite2.EB.25NiAsS
Mackinawite2.CC.25(Fe,Ni)9S8
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Maucherite2.AB.15Ni11As8
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pentlandite2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Siegenite2.DA.05CoNi2S4
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stannite2.CB.15aCu2FeSnS4
Violarite2.DA.05Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Cassiterite'4.DB.05SnO2
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Eskolaite4.CB.05Cr2O3
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
Group 9 - Silicates
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
var: Chromian Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Saponite9.EC.45Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Uvarovite9.AD.25Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Serpentine Subgroup-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Semi-metals and non-metals
Bismuth1.3.1.4Bi
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Argentopentlandite2.7.1.2Ag(Fe,Ni)8S8
Cobaltpentlandite2.7.1.3(Co,Ni,Fe)9S8
Mackinawite2.7.2.1(Fe,Ni)9S8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Cubanite2.9.13.1CuFe2S3
Stannite2.9.2.1Cu2FeSnS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Siegenite2.10.1.6CoNi2S4
Violarite2.10.1.8Fe2+Ni3+2S4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Cobaltite2.12.3.1CoAsS
Gersdorffite2.12.3.2NiAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Miscellaneous
Maucherite2.16.16.1Ni11As8
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Eskolaite4.3.1.3Cr2O3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Uraninite5.1.1.1UO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Uvarovite51.4.3b.3Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Saponite71.3.1b.2Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Clinochlore
var: Chromian Clinochlore
-Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Clinochlore (var: Chromian Clinochlore)Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
CCarbon
C GraphiteC
OOxygen
O CassiteriteSnO2
O Clinochlore (var: Chromian Clinochlore)Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O EskolaiteCr2O3
O HematiteFe2O3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O QuartzSiO2
O SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O UraniniteUO2
O UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
NaSodium
Na SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Clinochlore (var: Chromian Clinochlore)Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Clinochlore (var: Chromian Clinochlore)Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
SiSilicon
Si Clinochlore (var: Chromian Clinochlore)Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
SSulfur
S ArgentopentlanditeAg(Fe,Ni)8S8
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CobaltiteCoAsS
S Cobaltpentlandite(Co,Ni,Fe)9S8
S CubaniteCuFe2S3
S GalenaPbS
S GersdorffiteNiAsS
S Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SiegeniteCoNi2S4
S SphaleriteZnS
S StanniteCu2FeSnS4
S ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
CaCalcium
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
CrChromium
Cr Clinochlore (var: Chromian Clinochlore)Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Cr EskolaiteCr2O3
Cr UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
MnManganese
Mn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
FeIron
Fe ArgentopentlanditeAg(Fe,Ni)8S8
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe CubaniteCuFe2S3
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Fe Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Fe StanniteCu2FeSnS4
Fe ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
CoCobalt
Co CobaltiteCoAsS
Co Cobaltpentlandite(Co,Ni,Fe)9S8
Co SiegeniteCoNi2S4
NiNickel
Ni ArgentopentlanditeAg(Fe,Ni)8S8
Ni GersdorffiteNiAsS
Ni Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
Ni MaucheriteNi11As8
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Ni Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Ni SiegeniteCoNi2S4
Ni ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CubaniteCuFe2S3
Cu StanniteCu2FeSnS4
ZnZinc
Zn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As CobaltiteCoAsS
As GersdorffiteNiAsS
As MaucheriteNi11As8
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
AgSilver
Ag ArgentopentlanditeAg(Fe,Ni)8S8
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
Sn StanniteCu2FeSnS4
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthBi
UUranium
U UraniniteUO2

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Paleoproterozoic
1600 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3160222
Proterozoic I meta-sandstone

Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)

Description: undifferentiated metamorphic

Lithology: Major:{meta-sandstone}, Minor{mica schist,gneiss,amphibolite}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Paleoproterozoic
1600 - 2500 Ma



ID: 658571
Sedimentary; Slope and deep water

Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)

Description: Northern Europe, Svecofennian and Lapland-Kola orogens

Comments: Orogen, fold-thrust belt, folded region; Koistinen et al., 2001; Sigmond, 2002; Solli, unpublished compilation, 2007-08; Bergman et al., unpublished revisions, 2007-08

Lithology: Greywacke, phyllite, mica schist, meta-arkose, graphitic schist, paragneiss, conglomerate, amphibolite

Reference: J.C. Harrison, M.R. St-Onge, O.V. Petrov, S.I. Strelnikov, B.G. Lopatin, F.H. Wilson, S. Tella, D. Paul, T. Lynds, S.P. Shokalsky, C.K. Hults, S. Bergman, H.F. Jepsen, and A. Solli. Geological map of the Arctic. doi:10.4095/287868. Geological Survey of Canada Map 2159A. [2]

Paleoproterozoic
1600 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3185055
Paleoproterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)

Lithology: Mica schist; metasedimentary schist

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Mining Annual Review (1985): 56, 506.

External Links

en.gtk.fi/informationservices/commodities/Copper/vuonos.html


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