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Naica Mine, Naica, Mun. de Saucillo, Chihuahua, Mexicoi
Regional Level Types
Naica MineMine
Naica- not defined -
Mun. de SaucilloMunicipality
Chihuahua- not defined -
MexicoCountry

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Geologic Plan and Section, Naica Mine

Naica Mine, Naica, Mun. de Saucillo, Chihuahua, Mexico
Naica mine, Mina de Toledo gallery entrance, 1911

Naica Mine, Naica, Mun. de Saucillo, Chihuahua, Mexico
Naica mine, ore loading bridge for railway wagons, 1911

Naica Mine, Naica, Mun. de Saucillo, Chihuahua, Mexico
Geologic Plan and Section, Naica Mine

Naica Mine, Naica, Mun. de Saucillo, Chihuahua, Mexico
Naica mine, Mina de Toledo gallery entrance, 1911

Naica Mine, Naica, Mun. de Saucillo, Chihuahua, Mexico
Naica mine, ore loading bridge for railway wagons, 1911

Naica Mine, Naica, Mun. de Saucillo, Chihuahua, Mexico
Geologic Plan and Section, Naica Mine

Naica Mine, Naica, Mun. de Saucillo, Chihuahua, Mexico
Naica mine, Mina de Toledo gallery entrance, 1911

Naica Mine, Naica, Mun. de Saucillo, Chihuahua, Mexico
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 27° 51' North , 105° 34' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 27.85000,-105.56667
GeoHash:G#: 9suymvbwn
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:BSh : Hot semi-arid (steppe) climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Naica4,938 (2018)7.4km
Santa Gertrudis (La Hacienda)759 (2013)17.9km
Monte Redondo125 (2013)25.5km
Colonia Nicolás Bravo (Kilómetro Noventa y Dos)1,772 (2013)27.2km
Estación Conchos1,670 (2018)30.6km


Mine Information: Naica began operations in 1794 and was taken over by Grupo Peñoles in 1952. The underground mine is serviced by a number of shafts, declines, and spiral ramps. Processes are highly automated. Ore is crushed underground and transported to the surface by conveyer.

Water is the big challenge for the mine; 60,000 l/min is pumped out to avoid flooding. The groundwater is 110 m below the surface: current [2013] production is 740m below that.

Geology: The mine is situated on a structural dome measuring about 12 km by 7 km. Country rock is a thickly bedded Cretaceous limestone. The ore deposits occur in reef-facies carbonates of the Aurora Formation, which is about 800m thick. Overlying the Aurora limestones are calcareous shales of the Benavides Formation and limestones of the Lorna de Plata Formation. Hydrothermally altered Tertiary felsites occur as thin discontinuous dikes and sills that localize the ore and cut the limestone. Here, the Aurora Formation limestone has been metamorphosed to white/light grey marble.

The deposit consists of mantos and chimneys, but unlike most replacement massive sulfide deposits in Mexico where mantos and chimneys are distinguished by their geometry, at Naica the difference is by ore silica content. True skams consisting of calc-silicates with disseminated sulfides make up the mantos, whereas the opposite is true for the chimneys. Many of the mantos are cored by felsite dikes which seem to be replaced by mineralization. There is a clear relationship between the silicate-rich mantos and the silicate-poor chimneys; the chimneys originate from mantos.

The area is cut by 3 main faults, and the ore is found between these structures. Generally, the chimneys are controlled by the fractures and the mantos seem to be localized by the dikes. While mineralization is largely structurally controlled, the geometry of certain chimneys indicates that some limestone horizons are more favorable for mineralization. Post-mineralization faults are sometimes lined with large (up to a few feet) gypsum crystals.

Sulfide minerals are mostly pyrite, galena and sphalerite with lesser amounts of chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, matildite, cosalite, and molybdenite. Scheelite occurs in economic concentrations. Fluorite, quartz, adularia and calcite seem to be in part contemporaneous with the sulfides but also occur as crystals in vugs in the sulfide and silicate ore. The ores are gold, silver, lead, zinc, and much smaller amounts of copper.



In 2000, a cave was encountered while driving a communication tunnel. The cave hosts selenite crystals up to 14m x 2m in length and width, respectively. These crystals formed underwater where the hot and calcium carbonate and sulfides saturated fluids transported through the Naica fault, mixed with colder fluids originating from the surface. It is estimated that the crystals have been growing for about one million years.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

88 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
'Apophyllite'
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Boulangerite
Formula: Pb5Sb4S11
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Bustamite
Formula: CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
'Chlorite Group'
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Conichalcite
Formula: CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Copper
Formula: Cu
Cosalite
Formula: Pb2Bi2S5
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Galena
Formula: PbS
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Gold
Formula: Au
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Gypsum var: Selenite
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hedenbergite
Formula: CaFe2+Si2O6
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Hydroniumjarosite
Formula: (H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Ilvaite
Formula: CaFe3+Fe2+2(Si2O7)O(OH)
Jamesonite
Formula: Pb4FeSb6S14
'K Feldspar'
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Kobellite
Formula: Pb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Mackinawite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)9S8
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Matildite
Formula: AgBiS2
Mercury
Formula: Hg
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Nontronite
Formula: Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Nuffieldite
Formula: Cu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Palygorskite
Formula: (Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Pearceite
Formula: [Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Plumbojarosite
Formula: Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Polybasite
Formula: [(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Powellite
Formula: Ca(MoO4)
Proustite
Formula: Ag3AsS3
Pyrargyrite
Formula: Ag3SbS3
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Rhodonite ?
Formula: Mn2+SiO3
Rhodonite var: Fowlerite ?
Formula: (Mn2+,Zn,Ca)SiO3
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Silver
Formula: Ag
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Stephanite
Formula: Ag5SbS4
Tennantite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Tintinaite
Formula: Pb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69
Todorokite
Formula: (Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ullmannite
Formula: NiSbS
Vesuvianite
Formula: (Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Zoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Gold1.AA.05Au
Mercury1.AD.05Hg
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Acanthite2.BA.35Ag2S
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Boulangerite2.HC.15Pb5Sb4S11
Bournonite2.GA.50PbCuSbS3
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cinnabar2.CD.15aHgS
Cosalite2.JB.10Pb2Bi2S5
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Gersdorffite2.EB.25NiAsS
Jamesonite2.HB.15Pb4FeSb6S14
Kobellite2.HB.10aPb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
Mackinawite2.CC.25(Fe,Ni)9S8
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Matildite2.JA.20AgBiS2
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Nuffieldite2.JB.25gCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Pearceite2.GB.15[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Polybasite2.GB.15[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Proustite2.GA.05Ag3AsS3
Pyrargyrite2.GA.05Ag3SbS3
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stephanite2.GB.10Ag5SbS4
Tennantite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Tintinaite2.HB.10aPb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69
Ullmannite2.EB.25NiSbS
Group 3 - Halides
Chlorargyrite3.AA.15AgCl
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Todorokite4.DK.10(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aurichalcite5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Copiapite7.DB.35Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
var: Selenite7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hydroniumjarosite7.BC.10(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Linarite7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite7.BC.10Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Powellite7.GA.05Ca(MoO4)
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Conichalcite8.BH.35CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Andradite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Bustamite9.DG.05CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Hedenbergite9.DA.15CaFe2+Si2O6
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Ilvaite9.BE.07CaFe3+Fe2+2(Si2O7)O(OH)
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Nontronite9.EC.40Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Palygorskite9.EE.20(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Rhodonite ?9.DK.05Mn2+SiO3
var: Fowlerite ?9.DK.05(Mn2+,Zn,Ca)SiO3
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Vesuvianite9.BG.35(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Wollastonite9.DG.05CaSiO3
Zoisite9.BG.10{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apophyllite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Mercury1.1.7.1Hg
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Mackinawite2.7.2.1(Fe,Ni)9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Gersdorffite2.12.3.2NiAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Ullmannite2.12.3.3NiSbS
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø > 4
Pearceite3.1.8.1[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Polybasite3.1.7.2[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
ø = 4
Stephanite3.2.4.1Ag5SbS4
3 <ø < 4
Nuffieldite3.3.4.1Cu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Tennantite3.3.6.2Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ø = 3
Bournonite3.4.3.2PbCuSbS3
Proustite3.4.1.1Ag3AsS3
Pyrargyrite3.4.1.2Ag3SbS3
2.5 < ø < 3
Boulangerite3.5.2.1Pb5Sb4S11
Cosalite3.5.9.1Pb2Bi2S5
2 < ø < 2.49
Jamesonite3.6.7.1Pb4FeSb6S14
Kobellite3.6.19.1Pb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
Tintinaite3.6.19.2Pb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69
ø = 2
Matildite3.7.1.1AgBiS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
AB3X7
Todorokite7.8.1.1(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Chlorargyrite9.1.4.1AgCl
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite30.2.5.6Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Miscellaneous
Copiapite31.10.5.1Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Conichalcite41.5.1.2CaCu(AsO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Powellite48.1.2.2Ca(MoO4)
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and/or >[4] coordination
Ilvaite56.2.3.3CaFe3+Fe2+2(Si2O7)O(OH)
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Zoisite58.2.1b.1{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Hedenbergite65.1.3a.2CaFe2+Si2O6
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Bustamite65.2.1.2CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Wollastonite65.2.1.1cCaSiO3
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=5
Rhodonite ?65.4.1.1Mn2+SiO3
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Nontronite71.3.1a.3Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Palygorskite74.3.1a.1(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apophyllite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
Gypsum
var: Selenite
-CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hydroniumjarosite-(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Rhodonite
var: Fowlerite ?
-(Mn2+,Zn,Ca)SiO3

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H IlvaiteCaFe3+Fe22+(Si2O7)O(OH)
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
H PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
BBoron
B Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C SideriteFeCO3
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C CerussitePbCO3
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
OOxygen
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O BaryteBaSO4
O WollastoniteCaSiO3
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O CupriteCu2O
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O RutileTiO2
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
O Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
O SideriteFeCO3
O AnglesitePbSO4
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
O Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O CassiteriteSnO2
O CerussitePbCO3
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O HematiteFe2O3
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O IlvaiteCaFe3+Fe22+(Si2O7)O(OH)
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
O PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O PowelliteCa(MoO4)
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Rhodonite (var: Fowlerite)(Mn2+,Zn,Ca)SiO3
O RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
F Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
NaSodium
Na Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Mg Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Al Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Al Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si WollastoniteCaSiO3
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
Si Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Si BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si IlvaiteCaFe3+Fe22+(Si2O7)O(OH)
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Rhodonite (var: Fowlerite)(Mn2+,Zn,Ca)SiO3
Si RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
SSulfur
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S BaryteBaSO4
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S BournonitePbCuSbS3
S GalenaPbS
S CovelliteCuS
S Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
S MatilditeAgBiS2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
S CosalitePb2Bi2S5
S AcanthiteAg2S
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S CinnabarHgS
S CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S KobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
S MarcasiteFeS2
S NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
S Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
S PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
S StephaniteAg5SbS4
S TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
S TintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69
S ProustiteAg3AsS3
S PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
S GersdorffiteNiAsS
S UllmanniteNiSbS
ClChlorine
Cl ChlorargyriteAgCl
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
KPotassium
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca WollastoniteCaSiO3
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
Ca Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Ca BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca IlvaiteCaFe3+Fe22+(Si2O7)O(OH)
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca PowelliteCa(MoO4)
Ca Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Rhodonite (var: Fowlerite)(Mn2+,Zn,Ca)SiO3
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
MnManganese
Mn BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
Mn Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Mn Rhodonite (var: Fowlerite)(Mn2+,Zn,Ca)SiO3
Mn RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
FeIron
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Fe HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
Fe Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe IlvaiteCaFe3+Fe22+(Si2O7)O(OH)
Fe KobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
Fe Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Fe PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
NiNickel
Ni Mackinawite(Fe,Ni)9S8
Ni GersdorffiteNiAsS
Ni UllmanniteNiSbS
CuCopper
Cu BournonitePbCuSbS3
Cu ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
Cu CopperCu
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu KobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Cu Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Cu Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Cu TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Cu TintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn Rhodonite (var: Fowlerite)(Mn2+,Zn,Ca)SiO3
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
As Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
As TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
As ProustiteAg3AsS3
As GersdorffiteNiAsS
SrStrontium
Sr Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
Mo PowelliteCa(MoO4)
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag MatilditeAgBiS2
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
Ag ChlorargyriteAgCl
Ag Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Ag Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Ag SilverAg
Ag StephaniteAg5SbS4
Ag ProustiteAg3AsS3
Ag PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
SbAntimony
Sb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Sb JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Sb BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
Sb KobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
Sb NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Sb Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Sb Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Sb StephaniteAg5SbS4
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Sb TintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69
Sb PyrargyriteAg3SbS3
Sb UllmanniteNiSbS
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
AuGold
Au GoldAu
HgMercury
Hg CinnabarHgS
Hg MercuryHg
PbLead
Pb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Pb CosalitePb2Bi2S5
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb KobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Pb PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb TintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
BiBismuth
Bi MatilditeAgBiS2
Bi CosalitePb2Bi2S5
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
Bi KobellitePb22Cu4(Bi,Sb)30S69
Bi NuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7
Bi TintinaitePb22Cu4(Sb,Bi)30S69

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Quaternary
0 - 2.588 Ma



ID: 2434495

Age: Pleistocene (0 - 2.588 Ma)

Lithology: Conglomerate

Reference: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática. Conjunto de Datos Vectoriales Geológicos. Continuo Nacional. Escala 1:1’000,000. [63]

Miocene - Oligocene
5.333 - 33.9 Ma



ID: 3184329
Cenozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Cenozoic (5.333 - 33.9 Ma)

Comments: Sierra Madre Occidental

Lithology: Ignimbrite(s); felsic volcanic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10111567 & 10181941.
Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): International Strategic Mineral Issues Summary Report - Tungsten. US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.
Panczner(1987): 98, 109, 121, 166, 168, 171, 182, 195, 201, 221, 267, 277, 311, 351
Mining Annual Review (1985): 332-333.
Geology and Geochemistry of Naica, Chihuahua, Mexico, Ruiz, Barton, SME-AIME, 1985
Lauritzen, S.-E. (2009): Krystallgrotta i Naica. Stein 36 (3): 6-14 ( in Norwegian)

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