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Nevoria Gold Mine, Marvel Loch, Yilgarn Shire, Western Australia, Australia

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 31° 30' 21'' South , 119° 35' 8'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -31.50576,119.58551
GeoHash:G#: qdmhc0x98
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:BSk : Cold semi-arid (steppe) climate

A gold mine started 1984.
Skarn deposit in a banded iron formation.

Nevoria is a reduced skarn assemblage containing major amounts of ferrous iron in garnet and pyroxene formed from Fe rich rocks at great depth (10 to 15 kilometres) in regional metamorphic terranes. Skarns are interesting and Nevoria has possibly the most complex geology of any gold mine in Western Australia. Nevoria is 10 kilometres south-east of Marvel Loch. No specimens have been seen from the mine which is a shame.

Early historic information is difficult as it was described as an area containing many leases and workings of individual prospectors. The name 'Nevoria' in this sense first appears in 1917, although mining is noted in the general area from 1905. Leases were consolidated in 1933 by the Nevoria Gold Mine Company, which was initially a British concern but was later taken over by South Africans. What followed was decades of procrastination, as the company sought funds to develop the mine. Drilling and minor building construction began in 1947, and dragged on till 1952 when the company went into liquidation. In 1956 the lease was purchased by Western Mining Corporation under its subsidiary Great Western Consolidated, who operated many gold mines in the region in the 1950's and 1960's. They opened a mine here till 1966. The mine was operated by the Sons of Gwalia Limited in the 1980's. Later St Barbara Limited mined here at what it called the Norton Pit till at least 2008, but presently (2013), it only operates at the Marvel Loch mine.

Most skarns are associated with shallow Phanerozoic plutons intruding unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks. However Nevoria is a mesothermal gold lode deposit with skarn alteration in a regional metamorphic terrane. The reference states little is known about the development of these skarns, but appear to be hybrid between a regional metamorphic environment and the more typical Phanerozoic plutonism. They include very Fe rich rocks, and reduced assemblages of garnet and pyroxene, but also have Au-As-Bi-Te of younger gold skarn deposits.

The mine occurs in the Southern Cross Greenstone Belt of greenschist to amphibolite, underlain by the Ghooli Dome, a composite grandiorite-granite batholith. Under the Nevoria open pit, this also contains massive pegmatites, and post mineral pegmatite dykes cut ore bodies also in higher levels in the mine. The ore-bodies are contained in three steeply dipping horizons of grunerite-quartz in iron formations, interbedded with fine grained ultramafic to mafic amphibolites. The iron formation hosted skarn contains 6.7 g/t Au, 2-3 g/t Ag and less than 0.1 wt base metals. Au is also present in the iron formation itself and ultramafic/mafic rocks, but at sub-economic grades in the latter. Au distribution is variable with high grades in skarns near contacts with metamorphic rocks.

The skarn ore-bodies at Nevoria occurs as stratabound replacements of grunerite-quartz iron formations adjacent to flattly dipping quartz veins. Major prograde minerals are hedenbergite, locally intergrown with minor calcite and rarely scheelite, medium grained ferro-actinolite and ferro-hornblende. Parrallel to the iron formation mesobands and at the margins of cross-cutting quartz veins is almandine with ferro-hornblende, biotite, ilmenite and tourmaline. Veins of garnet-pyroxene-actinolite-hornblende occur in tholeiitic and komatiitic amphibolites but not in the iron formation. Retrograde alteration minerals include Fe rich chlorite, muscovite and stilpnomelane. Gangue minerals are intergrown with disseminated to massive pyrrhotite, and minor chalcopyrite, loellingite, arsenopyrite, pyrite and scheelite. Gold occurs in native form either enclosed by pyrrhotite, or in skarn silicates like hedenbergite, actinolite, almandine and quartz; often associated with tsumoite, Bi-Te sulphides and maldonite alloy, locally exsolved to native bismuth and native gold.

The skarn is also found in the ultramafic/mafic amphibolites with zoned garnet-pyroxene replacement veins with irregular boundaries. The veins consist of a core of grossular garnet, and outer margin of diopside, or dark orange-red grossular-almandine garnet, with an outer rim of the very uncommon vanadium rich goldmanite garnet. Goldmanite is also found rarely as isolated crystals enclosed in clinozoisite. Minor plagioclase, microcline and scheelite is intergrown with the garnet and pyroxene. These zones are comprised of numerous alterating bands of reduced diopside-hornblende, almandine-hornblende and almandine-cummingtonite-plagioclase skarn. Retrograde minerals in the veins include clinozoisite-calcite-quartz assemblage, filling cracks in the grossular garnet, and aggregates of muscovite and prehnite are found replacing feldspar. Pyrite and chalcopyite is rarely found disseminated through the assemblages.

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.

Mineral List

39 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

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Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

0 - 66 Ma

ID: 758315
sand plain 38499

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 66 Ma)

Description: Sand or gravel plains; may include some residual alluvium; quartz sand sheets commonly with ferruginous pisoliths or pebbles; local clay, calcrete, laterite, silcrete, silt, colluvium

Comments: regolith; synthesis of multiple published descriptions

Lithology: Regolith

Reference: Raymond, O.L., Liu, S., Gallagher, R., Zhang, W., Highet, L.M. Surface Geology of Australia 1:1 million scale dataset 2012 edition. Commonwealth of Australia (Geoscience Australia). [5]

Neoarchean - Mesoarchean
2500 - 3200 Ma

ID: 3189632
Archean volcanic rocks

Age: Archean (2500 - 3200 Ma)

Comments: Yilgarn Craton

Lithology: Greenstone belt; mafic-ultramafic volcanic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

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The Kalgoorlie Miner newspaper (1940): Nevoria Still Seeks Capital, (14 Oct 1940)
The Kalgoorlie Miner newspaper (1947): Nevoria Advances Preliminary Work (10 Jul 1947)
The Kalgoorlie Miner newspaper (1949): Nevoria Mine Plans (21 Oct 1949)
Mining Annual Review (1985): 41.
Mueller, A.G., Delor, C.P(1991): Goldmanite Rich Garnet in Skarn Veins Southern Cross Greenstone Belt Yilgarn Block Western Australia, Mineralogical Magazine (Dec 1991):55: 617-620
Meinert, L.(1992): All About Skarns (Nov 1992)
Mueller, A.G.(1997): The Nevoria Gold Skarn Deposit in Archaean Iron Formation Southern Cross Greenstone Belt Western Australia, I, Tectonic Setting, Petrography and Classification, Economic Geology (Apr 1997): 181-209
Mueller, A. G., Nemchin, A. A., & Frei, R. (2004). The Nevoria gold skarn deposit, Southern Cross greenstone belt, Western Australia: II. Pressure-temperature-time path and relationship to postorogenic granites. Economic Geology, 99(3), 453-478.
St Barbara Limited (2008): Southern Cross Operations 2008/2009 Annual Environmental Report (2008/2009)
The Argus newspaper (Melbourne) (1956): Great Western Buys Nevoria, (01 May 1956)
The West Australian newspaper (Perth) (1949): Nevoria Goldmine,
(08 Nov 1949)
The West Australian newspaper (Perth) (1952): Nevoria Leases Drilled (28/08/1952)
The Western Mail newspaper (Perth) (1917): The Nevoria Find, (09 Nov 1917)

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