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Christmas Island, Australiai
Regional Level Types
Christmas IslandIsland
AustraliaCountry

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Locality type:Island


Christmas Island is a small Territory of Australia (proclaimed on 1 October 1958) purchased from the British for £2.9 million.

The island is located in the Indian Ocean, about 2,650 kms North-West of Perth and 380 kms South of Jakarta (Indonesia).

The Island was named 25 December 1643 when Captain William Mynors was passing by on his way home from the East Indies on the "Royal Mary".

The Scottish-Canadian oceanographer John Murray sailed with the Challenger Expedition between 1872 to 1876 and while sailing on the Indonesian leg of the voyage recognised the possibility of phosphate mining. He went on to help establish the industry on the island.

Phosphate mining since the 1890s, closed in 1987, but reopened in 1991.

The Island was used for atomic bomb testing by the United Kingdom in the 1950s and 1960s, including above ground testing.

Correct locality name is: Territory of Christmas Island.

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

13 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

'Apatite'
Reference: Trueman, N. A. (1965). The phosphate, volcanic and carbonate rocks of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Journal of the Geological Society of Australia, 12(2), 261-283. Muller, F. B. (1970). Agronomic use of calcined Christmas Island iron/aluminium phosphates I. Field trials. New Zealand journal of agricultural research, 13(3), 453-464.
'Apatite var: Collophane'
Reference: Trueman, N. A. (1966). Substitutions for phosphate ions in apatite. Nature, 210, 937-938.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Morrison, R. J. (1990). Pacific Atoll Soils: Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Classification. National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
'Barrandite'
Reference: Trueman, N. A. (1965): The phosphate, volcanic, and carbonate rocks of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. J. Geol. Soc. Australia 12, 261-283. ; Trueman, N. A. (1965). The phosphate, volcanic and carbonate rocks of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Journal of the Geological Society of Australia, 12(2), 261-283.
'Basalt'
Reference: Grimes, K.G. (2001) Karst Features of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Elictite 37(2): 41-58.
'Breccia'
Reference: Grimes, K.G. (2001) Karst Features of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Elictite 37(2): 41-58.; Trueman, N.A. (1965) The Geology and Mineralogy of the Phosphate Deposits of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Unpublished MSc. Thesis, University of Adelaide, 125 pages plus plates.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Morrison, R. J. (1990). Pacific Atoll Soils: Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Classification. National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
Chlorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3Cl
Crandallite
Formula: CaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Reference: Trueman, N. A. (1965): The phosphate, volcanic, and carbonate rocks of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. J. Geol. Soc. Australia 12, 261-283. ; Doak, B. W., Gallagher, P. J., Evans, L., & Muller, F. B. (1965). Low-temperature calcination of “C”-grade phosphate from christmas island: I. Growth and yield characteristics. New Zealand journal of agricultural research, 8(1), 15-29.; Trueman, N. A. (1965). The phosphate, volcanic and carbonate rocks of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Journal of the Geological Society of Australia, 12(2), 261-283.; Trueman, N.A. (1965) The Geology and Mineralogy of the Phosphate Deposits of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Unpublished MSc. Thesis, University of Adelaide, 125 pages plus plates.
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Steve Sorrell Collection
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Muller, F. B. (1970). Agronomic use of calcined Christmas Island iron/aluminium phosphates I. Field trials. New Zealand journal of agricultural research, 13(3), 453-464.
Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Hydroxylapatite var: Carbonate-fluorhydroxyapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Reference: Trueman, N. A. (1965): The phosphate, volcanic, and carbonate rocks of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. J. Geol. Soc. Australia 12, 261-283.
Hydroxylapatite var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Reference: Trueman, N. A. (1966). Substitutions for phosphate ions in apatite. Nature, 210, 937-938.
Isoclasite ?
Formula: Ca2(PO4)(OH) · 2H2O
Reference: Steve Sorrell Collection
'Limestone'
Reference: Grimes, K.G. (2001) Karst Features of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Elictite 37(2): 41-58.
Millisite
Formula: (Na,K)CaAl6(PO4)4(OH)9 · 3H2O
Reference: Doak, B. W., Gallagher, P. J., Evans, L., Muller, F. B. (1965) Low-temperature calcination of “C”-grade phosphate from christmas island: I. Growth and yield characteristics. New Zealand journal of agricultural research, 8(1), 15-29. Trueman, N. A. (1965) The phosphate, volcanic and carbonate rocks of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Journal of the Geological Society of Australia, 12(2), 261-283.
Montgomeryite
Formula: Ca4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
Reference: Trueman, N. A. (1965): The phosphate, volcanic, and carbonate rocks of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. J. Geol. Soc. Australia 12, 261-283.
Strengite
Formula: FePO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Trueman, N.A. (1965) The Geology and Mineralogy of the Phosphate Deposits of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Unpublished MSc. Thesis, University of Adelaide, 125 pages plus plates.
'Tufa'
Reference: Grimes, K.G. (2001) Karst Features of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Elictite 37(2): 41-58.
Variscite
Formula: AlPO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Trueman, N.A. (1965) The Geology and Mineralogy of the Phosphate Deposits of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Unpublished MSc. Thesis, University of Adelaide, 125 pages plus plates.
Wavellite
Formula: Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Reference: Trueman, N. A. (1965): The phosphate, volcanic, and carbonate rocks of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. J. Geol. Soc. Australia 12, 261-283.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Goethite'4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Aragonite'5.AB.15CaCO3
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Chlorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3Cl
'Crandallite'8.BL.10CaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
'Fluorapatite'8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
'Hydroxylapatite'8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
var: Carbonate-fluorhydroxyapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
'Isoclasite' ?8.DN.10Ca2(PO4)(OH) · 2H2O
'Millisite'8.DL.10(Na,K)CaAl6(PO4)4(OH)9 · 3H2O
'Montgomeryite'8.DH.25Ca4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
'Strengite'8.CD.10FePO4 · 2H2O
'Variscite'8.CD.10AlPO4 · 2H2O
'Wavellite'8.DC.50Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'var: Collophane'-
'Barrandite'-
'Basalt'-
'Breccia'-
'Limestone'-
'Tufa'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Strengite40.4.1.2FePO4 · 2H2O
Variscite40.4.1.1AlPO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Chlorapatite41.8.1.2Ca5(PO4)3Cl
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Hydroxylapatite41.8.1.3Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Isoclasite ?42.6.2.1Ca2(PO4)(OH) · 2H2O
(AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Crandallite42.7.3.1CaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Millisite42.7.9.1(Na,K)CaAl6(PO4)4(OH)9 · 3H2O
A3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Wavellite42.10.2.1Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Montgomeryite42.11.8.1Ca4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'var: Collophane'-
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Barrandite'-
'Basalt'-
'Breccia'-
Hydroxylapatite
var: Carbonate-fluorhydroxyapatite
-Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite-Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
'Limestone'-
'Tufa'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-fluorhydroxyapatite)Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
H Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
H CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
H IsoclasiteCa2(PO4)(OH) · 2H2O
H Millisite(Na,K)CaAl6(PO4)4(OH)9 · 3H2O
H MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
H StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
H VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
H WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
CCarbon
C AragoniteCaCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
OOxygen
O AragoniteCaCO3
O CalciteCaCO3
O Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-fluorhydroxyapatite)Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
O Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
O ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3Cl
O CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
O IsoclasiteCa2(PO4)(OH) · 2H2O
O Millisite(Na,K)CaAl6(PO4)4(OH)9 · 3H2O
O MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
O StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
O VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
O WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
FFluorine
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
NaSodium
Na Millisite(Na,K)CaAl6(PO4)4(OH)9 · 3H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
AlAluminium
Al CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Al Millisite(Na,K)CaAl6(PO4)4(OH)9 · 3H2O
Al MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
Al VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
Al WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
PPhosphorus
P Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-fluorhydroxyapatite)Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
P Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
P ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3Cl
P CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
P IsoclasiteCa2(PO4)(OH) · 2H2O
P Millisite(Na,K)CaAl6(PO4)4(OH)9 · 3H2O
P MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
P StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
P VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
P WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
ClChlorine
Cl ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3Cl
CaCalcium
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-fluorhydroxyapatite)Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Ca Hydroxylapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Ca ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3Cl
Ca CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
Ca IsoclasiteCa2(PO4)(OH) · 2H2O
Ca Millisite(Na,K)CaAl6(PO4)4(OH)9 · 3H2O
Ca MontgomeryiteCa4MgAl4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2O
FeIron
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Trueman, N.A. (1965) The phosphate, volcanic, and carbonate rocks of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Journal of the Geological Society of Australia 12(2) January 1965, pp. 261-283.
Trueman, N.A. (1965) The Geology and Mineralogy of the Phosphate Deposits of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Unpublished MSc. Thesis, University of Adelaide, 125 pages plus plates.
Warin, O.N. (1958) Notes on the Geology and the Phosphate Deposits of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics, Records 1958/98, 6 pages plus map.
Grimes, K.G. (2001) Karst Features of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Elictite 37:2, 41-58.
Muller, F.B. (1970) Agronomic use of calcined Christmas Island iron/aluminium phosphates in field trials. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 13:3, 453-464.

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