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Zambiai
Regional Level Types
ZambiaCountry

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Key
Lock Map
Map of major mineral resources

Zambia
Geological map of Zambia

Zambia
View of the Luanshya copper mining area, ca. 1950.

Luanshya Mine, Luanshya, Luanshya, Copperbelt, Zambia
A view of the pit, July 2011

Mansa District, Luapula Province, Zambia
Map of major mineral resources

Zambia
Geological map of Zambia

Zambia
View of the Luanshya copper mining area, ca. 1950.

Luanshya Mine, Luanshya, Luanshya, Copperbelt, Zambia
A view of the pit, July 2011

Mansa District, Luapula Province, Zambia
Map of major mineral resources

Zambia
Geological map of Zambia

Zambia
Name in French:Zambie
Name in German:Sambia
Name in Italian:Zambia
Name in Russian:Замбия
Name in Simplified Chinese:赞比亚
Name in Spanish:Zambia
Name in Afrikaans:Zambië
Name in Albanian:Zambia
Name in Arabic:زامبيا
Name in Belarusian:Замбія
Name in Bulgarian:Замбия
Name in Catalan:Zàmbia
Name in Czech:Zambie
Name in Danish:Zambia
Name in Dutch:Zambia
Name in Estonian:Sambia
Name in Farsi/Persian:زامبیا
Name in Finnish:Sambia
Name in Galician:Zambia
Name in Greek:Ζάμπια
Name in Hebrew:זמביה
Name in Hindi:ज़ाम्बिया
Name in Hungarian:Zambia
Name in Icelandic:Sambía
Name in Indonesian:Zambia
Name in Irish Gaelic:An tSaimbia
Name in Japanese:ザンビア
Name in Korean:잠비아
Name in Latvian:Zambija
Name in Lithuanian:Zambija
Name in Macedonian:Замбија
Name in Norwegian:Zambia
Name in Polish:Zambia
Name in Portuguese:Zâmbia
Name in Romanian:Zambia
Name in Serbian:Замбија
Name in Slovak:Zambia
Name in Slovenian:Zambija
Name in Swahili:Zambia
Name in Swedish:Zambia
Name in Tagalog:Sambya
Name in Thai:แซมเบีย
Name in Turkish:Zambiya
Name in Ukrainian:Замбія
Name in Vietnamese:Zambia
Name in Welsh:Zambia
Area:752,618 km2
Locality type:Country
Largest Settlements:
PlacePopulation
Lusaka1,267,440 (2011)
Kitwe400,914 (2012)
Ndola394,518 (2015)
Kabwe188,979 (2011)
Chingola148,564 (2016)
Mufulira120,500 (2012)


Zambia (from 1964 onwards) was formerly called Northern Rhodesia (1910–1964).
For Southern Rhodesia see Zimbabwe.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

161 valid minerals. 8 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Laurs, B.M., Simmons, W.B., Anckar, B., and Falster, A.U. (2007): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2007, A548
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Behling, S.C., Wilson, W.E. (2010) The Kagem emerald mine, Kafubu area, Zambia. The Mineralogical Record, 41:1, 59-67.
Allophane
Formula: (Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Reference: personal visits and collecting in 1996 and 1997
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: Holwell, D. A., Mitchell, C. L., Howe, G. A., Evans, D. M., Ward, L. A., & Friedman, R. (2017). The Munali Ni sulfide deposit, southern Zambia: A multi-stage, mafic-ultramafic, magmatic sulfide-magnetite-apatite-carbonate megabreccia. Ore Geology Reviews
'Amphibole Supergroup var: Uralite'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: Holwell, D. A., Mitchell, C. L., Howe, G. A., Evans, D. M., Ward, L. A., & Friedman, R. (2017). The Munali Ni sulfide deposit, southern Zambia: A multi-stage, mafic-ultramafic, magmatic sulfide-magnetite-apatite-carbonate megabreccia. Ore Geology Reviews
'Andalusite-Kanonaite Series'
Reference: S. Vrána collection
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: [MinRec 11:339]
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Annels, A. E. (1979). The genetic relevance of recent studies at Mufulira Mine, Zambia. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique 102:431-449
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Anthophyllite
Formula: ☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Apatite'
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Arfvedsonite
Formula: [Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Description: Manganoan arfvedsonite
Reference: S. Vrana et al. , Eur. J. Mineral. , 1992, 4, pp. 35-43.
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: [MinRec 11:339]
Austinite
Formula: CaZn(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: http://www.lrz.de/~mineralogische-sammlungen-dmg/analysen/austinit.htm (analysis Rubert Hochleitner)
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
'Bastnäsite'
Bastnäsite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(CO3)F
Reference: Zambezi, P., Voncken, J.H.L., Hale, M., and Touret, J.L.R. (1997): Mineralogy and Petrology 59, 239-250.
Bertrandite
Formula: Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Reference: Behling, S.C., Wilson, W.E. (2010) The Kagem emerald mine, Kafubu area, Zambia. The Mineralogical Record, 41:1, 59-67.
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 30 localities in this region.
Beryl var: Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Beryl var: Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: [MinRec 11:339]
'Biotite'
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Brannerite
Formula: UTi2O6
Braunite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy Vol II p399
'Bravoite'
Formula: (Fe,Ni)S2
Briartite
Formula: Cu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
Reference: Kamona, A. F. & Friedrich, G. H. (2007): Geology, mineralogy and stable isotope geochemistry of the Kabwe carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposit, Central Zambia. Ore Geology Reviews 30, 217-243.; Kamona, A.F., Lévêque, J., Friedrich, G., and Haack, U. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 273-283.
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: personal visits and collecting in 1996 and 1997
Brookite
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrana, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.U., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivula, J.I., Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Carrollite
Formula: Cu(Co,Ni)2S4
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 205, 870; Mineralogical Record: 11: 339.; Kamona, A.F., Lévêque, J., Friedrich, G., and Haack, U. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 273-283.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
'Chevkinite Group'
'Chlorite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Chrysoberyl
Formula: BeAl2O4
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrana, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.U., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivula, J.I., Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Claringbullite (TL)
Formula: Cu4ClF(OH)6
Type Locality:
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine(1977) 41, 433-436
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Reference: Cox, D.P., Lindsey, D.A., Singer, D.A., Moring, B.C., and Diggles, M.F. (2003): USGS Open-File Report 03-107
Cobaltpentlandite
Formula: (Co,Ni,Fe)9S8
Reference: Cox, D.P., Lindsey, D.A., Singer, D.A., Moring, B.C., and Diggles, M.F. (2003): USGS Open-File Report 03-107
Coffinite
Formula: U(SiO4) · nH2O
Columbite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Nb2O6
Reference: Behling, S.C., Wilson, W.E. (2010) The Kagem emerald mine, Kafubu area, Zambia. The Mineralogical Record, 41:1, 59-67.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Reference: A. C. Skerl, F. A. Bannister and A. W. Groves (1934): Lusakite, a Cobalt-Bearing Silicate from Northern Rhodesia. Mineralogical Magazine 23, 598-606.
Cornetite
Formula: Cu3(PO4)(OH)3
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 790.
Coronadite
Formula: Pb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy Vol II p399
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Daqingshanite-(Ce)
Formula: (Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
Reference: Appleton J.D., Bland D.J., Nancarrow P.H., Styles M.Z., Mambwe S.H., Zambezi P. (1992) The occurrence of daqinshanite-(Ce) in the Nkombwa Hill carbonatite, Zambia. - Mineralogical Magazine, 56, p. 419-422.; Hughes J M, Yunxiang N (1994) A high-precision crystal structure refinement of daqingshanite-(Ce) from Nkombwa Hill carbonatite, Zambia. Mineralogical Magazine 58, 493-496
'Davidite'
Habit: Blocky
Colour: Black
Reference: Picenza B. (1975) - Nuovo gacimento di Davidite nello Zambia - Notizie del Gruppo Min,. Lombardo, Milano, fasc. 1, March 1975,pp. 13-14
Davidite-(La)
Formula: (La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38
Reference: www.zambeziresources.com
Descloizite
Formula: PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Diamond
Formula: C
Reference: Rob Lavinsky
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Dolomite var: Ferroan Dolomite
Formula: Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Reference: Broughton, D. w., Valorose, C. p., Coker, S. a., Spera, S. l., Venendaal, J. F., & Hitzman, M. w. (2004, November). Congolese-style Hypogene and Supergene Copper Mineralization at the Kalengwa Deposit, Zambia. In 2004 Denver Annual Meeting GSA.
Dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Drysdallite (TL)
Formula: Mo(Se,S)2
Type Locality:
Reference: American Mineralogist: 59: 1139
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
'Ellestadite'
Reference: Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, p. 502.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrana, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.U., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivula, J.I., Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
'Fluor-buergerite-Dravite Series'
Reference: Grew, E.S., Pertsev, N.N., Vrána, S., Yates, M.G., Shearer, C.K., and Wiedenbeck, M. (1998): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 131, 22-38.
Fluor-elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Description: In “fluor-elbaite”, the fluorine ranges from 0.344 to 0.614 apfu F (Simmons et al 2011)
Reference: Simmons, W.B., Falster A.U. & Laurs, B.M. (2011): A survey of Mn-rich yellow tourmaline from worldwide localities and implications for the petrogenesis of granitic pegmatites. Canadian Mineralogist. 49: 301-319
Fluorellestadite
Formula: Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
Reference: American Mineralogist: 59: 1139
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Fluorstrophite
Formula: SrCaSr3(PO4)3F
Foitite
Formula: (□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Reference: ONDRUŠ P, VRÁNA S, MAŠLÁŇ M (2002) Chemical composition and crystal structure refinement of schorl from the Lundazi pegmatite field, Zambia. Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey, Vol. 77, No. 1, 23–28
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Reference: Holwell, D. A., Mitchell, C. L., Howe, G. A., Evans, D. M., Ward, L. A., & Friedman, R. (2017). The Munali Ni sulfide deposit, southern Zambia: A multi-stage, mafic-ultramafic, magmatic sulfide-magnetite-apatite-carbonate megabreccia. Ore Geology Reviews, 90, 553-575.
Franklinite
Formula: Zn2+Fe3+2O4
Gahnite
Formula: ZnAl2O4
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Genthelvite
Formula: Be3Zn4(SiO4)3S
'Glauconite'
Formula: (K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Reference: Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrana, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.U., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivula, J.I., Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Kampunzu, A.B., Cailteux, J.L.H., Kamona, A.F., Intiomale, M.M., and Melcher, F. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 263-297.
Goslarite
Formula: ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: [MinRec 11:339]
Graphite
Formula: C
Reference: Hainschwang, T., Notari, F., & Anckar, B. (2007). Trapiche tourmaline from Zambia. Gems & Gemology, XLIII, 36-46.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hejtmanite (TL)
Formula: Ba2(Mn2+,Fe2+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
Type Locality:
Reference: European Journal of Mineralogy(1992) 4, 35-43
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 734, 736, 870; Mineralogical Record: 11: 339.
Heterogenite
Formula: Co3+O(OH)
Hopeite
Formula: Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 736, 870.
'Hornblende'
Hydrocerussite
Formula: Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Mike Leppington collection (visual identification)
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Kampunzu, A.B., Cailteux, J.L.H., Kamona, A.F., Intiomale, M.M., and Melcher, F. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 263-297.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Ilmenite var: Manganoan Ilmenite
Formula: (Fe,Mn)2+TiO3
'Ilmenite-Pyrophanite Series'
Reference: S. Vrana et al. , Eur. J. Mineral. , 1992, 4, pp. 35-43.
Iron
Formula: Fe
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Iron var: Kamacite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Isocubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Isokite (TL)
Formula: CaMg(PO4)F
Type Locality:
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine(1955) 30, 681-691, http://www.minersoc.org/pages/Archive-MM/Volume_30/30-230-681.pdf
Kanonaite (TL)
Formula: Mn3+Al(SiO4)O
Type Locality:
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy Vol II p399
'K Feldspar'
Kornerupine
Formula: Mg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Reference: Grew, E.S., Pertsev, N.N., Vrána, S., Yates, M.G., Shearer, C.K., and Wiedenbeck, M. (1998): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 131, 22-38.
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Lepidolite'
Reference: http://www.jagodagems.com/ourmine.htm
Libethenite
Formula: Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Libethenite var: Zincian Libethenite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(PO4)(OH)
Reference: [MinRec 11:346]
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Kampunzu, A.B., Cailteux, J.L.H., Kamona, A.F., Intiomale, M.M., and Melcher, F. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 263-297.
Linnaeite
Formula: Co2+Co3+2S4
Maghemite
Formula: Fe3+2O3
Reference: Brotherton, R. L. (1979). The geochemistry and mineralogy of gossans overlying nickel-copper sulphide mineralisation. PhD Thesis University of London
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Malachite var: Zincian Malachite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Kampunzu, A.B., Cailteux, J.L.H., Kamona, A.F., Intiomale, M.M., and Melcher, F. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 263-297.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Brotherton, R. L. (1979). The geochemistry and mineralogy of gossans overlying nickel-copper sulphide mineralisation. PhD Thesis University of London
Margarite
Formula: CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Reference: Zwaan, J.C., Seifert, A.V., Vrana, S., Laurs, B.M., Anckar, B., Simmons, W.B., Falster, A.U., Lustenhouwer, W.J., Muhlmeister, S., Koivula, J.I., Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005) Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
'Maskelynite'
Reference: Dodd, R.T. & Jarosewich, E. (1979) Incipient melting in and shock classification of L-Group chondrites: Earth and Planetary Science Letters 44:335-340.
Masuyite
Formula: Pb(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2O
Reference: American Mineralogist: 59: 1139
Melonite
Formula: NiTe2
Reference: Meneghel (1981) Methodology and history o uranium exploration in the northwestern province of Zambia . In Proceedings of an Advisory Group Meeting on Case Histories of Uranium Exploration, IAEA-AG (Vol. 250, No. 14, pp. 75-97).
Metatorbernite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Scovil, J. A. (2016). Some African Beauties: A Pictorial. Rocks & Minerals, 91(4), 308-315.
'Mica Group'
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
'Microlite Group'
Formula: A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Reference: Behling, S.C., Wilson, W.E. (2010) The Kagem emerald mine, Kafubu area, Zambia. The Mineralogical Record, 41:1, 59-67.
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Reference: Capistrant, P.L., Hitzman, M.W., Wood, D., Kelly, N.M., Williams, G., Zimba, M., Kuiper, Y., Jack, D., Stein, H. (2015) Geology of the Enterprise hydrothermal nickel deposit, North-Western Province, Zambia. Economic Geology, 110:1, 9-38.
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Reference: Kampunzu, A.B., Cailteux, J.L.H., Kamona, A.F., Intiomale, M.M., and Melcher, F. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 263-297.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
'Molybdenite-3R'
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Stanislav Vrána
'Monazite'
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Reference: Zambezi, P., Voncken, J.H.L., Hale, M., and Touret, J.L.R. (1997): Mineralogy and Petrology 59, 239-250.
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Brotherton, R. L. (1979). The geochemistry and mineralogy of gossans overlying nickel-copper sulphide mineralisation. PhD Thesis University of London
Mottramite
Formula: PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 814; Mineralogical Record: 11: 339.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Muscovite var: Alurgite
Formula: K2(Mg,Al)4-5(Al,Si)8O20(OH)4
Description: White, closely associated with kanonaite. (Method of identification unknown.)
Reference: specimen label from Munich Micromount Group kanonaite specimen.
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Description: Abundant Ca-poor orthopyroxene ('hypersthene') a defining characteristic of the well-equilibrated L6 ordinary chondrites.
Reference: Graham, A. L., Bevan, A. W. R. & Hutchison, B. (1985) Catalogue of Meteorites (4/e). University of Arizona Press: Tucson.
Parahopeite (TL)
Formula: Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Nature (1907) 77, 143; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 734; Mineralogical Record: 11: 339.
Parascholzite
Formula: CaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Joe Cilen
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Reference: Holwell, D. A., Mitchell, C. L., Howe, G. A., Evans, D. M., Ward, L. A., & Friedman, R. (2017). The Munali Ni sulfide deposit, southern Zambia: A multi-stage, mafic-ultramafic, magmatic sulfide-magnetite-apatite-carbonate megabreccia. Ore Geology Reviews, 90, 553-575.; Brotherton, R. L. (1979). The geochemistry and mineralogy of gossans overlying nickel-copper sulphide mineralisation. PhD Thesis University of London
Perovskite
Formula: CaTiO3
Reference: Jordi Fabre
Phenakite
Formula: Be2SiO4
Reference: Behling, S.C., Wilson, W.E. (2010) The Kagem emerald mine, Kafubu area, Zambia. The Mineralogical Record, 41:1, 59-67.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phosphophyllite
Formula: Zn2Fe(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Geological Survey, Lusaka:XRD 1975
Plancheite
Formula: Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
'Plumbomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)'
Reference: Behling, S.C., Wilson, W.E. (2010) The Kagem emerald mine, Kafubu area, Zambia. The Mineralogical Record, 41:1, 59-67.
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
'Psilomelane'
Reference: Kampunzu, A.B., Cailteux, J.L.H., Kamona, A.F., Intiomale, M.M., and Melcher, F. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 263-297.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Pyrite var: Cobaltoan Pyrite
Formula: (Fe,Co)S2
'Pyrochlore Group'
Formula: A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Reference: Zambezi, P., Voncken, J.H.L., Hale, M., and Touret, J.L.R. (1997): Mineralogy and Petrology 59, 239-250.
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Pyrope
Formula: Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: The 1995 ICA World Gemstone Mining Report/Part 1 ICA Gazette
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 38 localities in this region.
Quartz var: Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Quartz var: Citrine
Formula: SiO2
Quartz var: Jasper
Reference: Kamona, A. F. & Friedrich, G. H. (2007): Geology, mineralogy and stable isotope geochemistry of the Kabwe carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposit, Central Zambia. Ore Geology Reviews 30, 217-243.
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Picenza B. (1975) - Nuovo gacimento di Davidite nello Zambia - Notizie del Gruppo Min,. Lombardo, Milano, fasc. 1, March 1975,pp. 13-14
Renierite
Formula: (Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
Reference: Kamona, A. F. & Friedrich, G. H. (2007): Geology, mineralogy and stable isotope geochemistry of the Kabwe carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposit, Central Zambia. Ore Geology Reviews 30, 217-243.; Kamona, A.F., Lévêque, J., Friedrich, G., and Haack, U. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 273-283.
Rhodonite
Formula: Mn2+SiO3
Reference: Mineralogical Record General Index 11:317n
Rosasite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: [MinRec 11:339]
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Samarskite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
Reference: Picenza B. (1975) - Nuovo gacimento di Davidite nello Zambia - Notizie del Gruppo Min,. Lombardo, Milano, fasc. 1, March 1975,pp. 13-14
'Scapolite'
Scholzite
Formula: CaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: [MinRec 11:339]
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Sellaite
Formula: MgF2
Reference: Zambezi, P., Voncken, J.H.L., Hale, M., and Touret, J.L.R. (1997): Mineralogy and Petrology 59, 239-250.
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: Holwell, D. A., Mitchell, C. L., Howe, G. A., Evans, D. M., Ward, L. A., & Friedman, R. (2017). The Munali Ni sulfide deposit, southern Zambia: A multi-stage, mafic-ultramafic, magmatic sulfide-magnetite-apatite-carbonate megabreccia. Ore Geology Reviews, 90, 553-575.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Siegenite
Formula: CoNi2S4
Reference: Exploration and Mining Geology; July 2000; v. 9; no. 3-4; p. 277-287; DOI: 10.2113/0090277 / Economic Geology, August 1, 2003; 98(5): 893 - 909
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: Kampunzu, A.B., Cailteux, J.L.H., Kamona, A.F., Intiomale, M.M., and Melcher, F. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 263-297.
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 736, 870; Mineralogical Record: 11: 179, 339.; Kamona, A.F., Lévêque, J., Friedrich, G., and Haack, U. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 273-283.
Smythite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)3+xS4 (x=0-0.3)
Reference: Brotherton, R. L. (1979). The geochemistry and mineralogy of gossans overlying nickel-copper sulphide mineralisation. PhD Thesis University of London
Spencerite
Formula: Zn4(PO4)2(OH)2 · 3H2O
Reference: Braithwaite R.S.W., Spencerite from Kabwe, Zambia, and the infrared spectroscopy of Kabwe zinc phosphates, MinMag, March 1988, vol.82, pp.126-9.
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Spherocobaltite
Formula: CoCO3
Reference: Torremans, K., Gauquie, J., Boyce, A. J., Barrie, C. D., Dewaele, S., Sikazwe, O., & Muchez, P. (2013). Remobilisation features and structural control on ore grade distribution at the Konkola stratiform Cu–Co ore deposit, Zambia. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 79, 10-23.
Staurolite
Formula: Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Reference: A. C. Skerl, F. A. Bannister and A. W. Groves (1934): Lusakite, a Cobalt-Bearing Silicate from Northern Rhodesia. Mineralogical Magazine 23, 598-606.
Staurolite var: Lusakite
Formula: (Fe,Mg,Co)2Al9Si4O23OH
Reference: A. C. Skerl, F. A. Bannister and A. W. Groves (1934): Lusakite, a Cobalt-Bearing Silicate from Northern Rhodesia. Mineralogical Magazine 23, 598-606.
Strontianite
Formula: SrCO3
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Surinamite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)3Al4BeSi3O16
Reference: American Mineralogist, Volume 70, pages 710-713, 1985
Taenite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Tantalite-(Mn)
Formula: Mn2+Ta2O6
Reference: Behling, S.C., Wilson, W.E. (2010) The Kagem emerald mine, Kafubu area, Zambia. The Mineralogical Record, 41:1, 59-67.
Tarbuttite (TL)
Formula: Zn2(PO4)(OH)
Type Locality:
Reference: Nature (1907) 76, 215; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 734, 736, 870.
Tennantite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Reference: Cox, D.P., Lindsey, D.A., Singer, D.A., Moring, B.C., and Diggles, M.F. (2003): USGS Open-File Report 03-107
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Thorite
Formula: Th(SiO4)
Reference: Picenza B. (1975) - Nuovo gacimento di Davidite nello Zambia - Notizie del Gruppo Min,. Lombardo, Milano, fasc. 1, March 1975,pp. 13-14
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Reference: Stanislav Vrána photo 364440, Bruce Cairncross (pers. comment)
Topaz var: Imperial Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Reference: Stanislav Vrána photo 364440, Bruce Cairncross (pers. comment)
Torbernite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Le Sueur minerals samples at Tucson 2015
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Troilite
Formula: FeS
Reference: Lambert, H.H.J. (1951) Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of South Africa 10: 33-38.; Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Uraninite var: Pitchblende
Formula: UO2
'Uvite Series'
Formula: Ca(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
Description: Green "trapiche" habit. Vanadium-bearing.
Reference: Hori Mineralogy specimens (Tokyo); Hainschwang, T. et al. (2007): Gems & Gemology, XLIII, 36-46.
Vaesite
Formula: NiS2
Reference: Capistrant, P.L., Hitzman, M.W., Wood, D., Kelly, N.M., Williams, G., Zimba, M., Kuiper, Y., Jack, D., Stein, H. (2015) Geology of the Enterprise hydrothermal nickel deposit, North-Western Province, Zambia. Economic Geology, 110:1, 9-38.
Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Veszelyite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2Zn(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 917.
Violarite
Formula: Fe2+Ni3+2S4
'Wad'
Willemite
Formula: Zn2SiO4
Woodwardite
Formula: Cu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Reference: No reference listed
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Reference: [MinRec 11:347]
Wurtzite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Reference: [MinRec 11:339]
'Xenotime'
Reference: Behling, S.C., Wilson, W.E. (2010) The Kagem emerald mine, Kafubu area, Zambia. The Mineralogical Record, 41:1, 59-67.
Zincite
Formula: ZnO
Reference: [MinRec 12:394]
Zincolibethenite (TL)
Formula: CuZn(PO4)(OH)
Type Locality:
Reference: R. S. W. Braithwaite, R. G. Pritchard, W. H. Paar & R. A. D. Pattrick (2005): A new mineral, zincolibethenite, CuZnPO4OH, a stoichiometric species of specific site occupancy. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 145-153; Am Min 90:1950
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Diamond1.CB.10aC
Gold1.AA.05Au
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Iron1.AE.05Fe
var: Kamacite1.AE.05(Fe,Ni)
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Taenite1.AE.10(Fe,Ni)
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Briartite2.KA.10Cu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
Carrollite2.DA.05Cu(Co,Ni)2S4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cobaltite2.EB.25CoAsS
Cobaltpentlandite2.BB.15(Co,Ni,Fe)9S8
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Digenite2.BA.10Cu9S5
Drysdallite (TL)2.EA.30Mo(Se,S)2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Isocubanite2.CB.55bCuFe2S3
Linnaeite2.DA.05Co2+Co3+2S4
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Melonite2.EA.20NiTe2
Millerite2.CC.20NiS
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pentlandite2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
var: Cobaltoan Pyrite2.EB.05a(Fe,Co)S2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Renierite2.CB.35a(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
Siegenite2.DA.05CoNi2S4
Smythite2.CC.10(Fe,Ni)3+xS4 (x=0-0.3)
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Tennantite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Troilite2.CC.10FeS
Vaesite2.EB.05aNiS2
Violarite2.DA.05Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Wurtzite2.CB.45(Zn,Fe)S
Group 3 - Halides
Claringbullite (TL)3.DA.15Cu4ClF(OH)6
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Sellaite3.AB.15MgF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Brannerite4.DH.05UTi2O6
Brookite4.DD.10TiO2
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Chrysoberyl4.BA.05BeAl2O4
Columbite-(Mn)4.DB.35Mn2+Nb2O6
Coronadite4.DK.05aPb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Davidite-(La)4.CC.40(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38
Franklinite4.BB.05Zn2+Fe3+2O4
Gahnite4.BB.05ZnAl2O4
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Heterogenite4.FE.20Co3+O(OH)
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
var: Manganoan Ilmenite4.CB.05(Fe,Mn)2+TiO3
Maghemite4.BB.15Fe3+2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Masuyite4.GB.35Pb(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2O
'Microlite Group'4.00.A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Perovskite4.CC.30CaTiO3
'Plumbomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)'4.DH.15
'Pyrochlore Group'4.00.A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
var: Citrine4.DA.05SiO2
var: Jasper4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Samarskite-(Y)4.DB.25(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
Tantalite-(Mn)4.DB.35Mn2+Ta2O6
Tenorite4.AB.10CuO
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
var: Pitchblende4.DL.05UO2
Zincite4.AB.20ZnO
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Aurichalcite5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bastnäsite-(Ce)5.BD.20aCe(CO3)F
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Daqingshanite-(Ce)5.BF.15(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
var: Ferroan Dolomite5.AB.10Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Hydrocerussite5.BE.10Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Magnesite5.AB.05MgCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
var: Zincian Malachite5.BA.10(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite5.BA.10(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Spherocobaltite5.AB.05CoCO3
Strontianite5.AB.15SrCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Goslarite7.CB.40ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Linarite7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Woodwardite7.DD.35Cu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Austinite8.BH.35CaZn(AsO4)(OH)
Beudantite8.BL.05PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Cornetite8.BE.15Cu3(PO4)(OH)3
Descloizite8.BH.40PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Fluorstrophite8.BN.05SrCaSr3(PO4)3F
Hopeite8.CA.30Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Isokite (TL)8.BH.10CaMg(PO4)F
Libethenite8.BB.30Cu2(PO4)(OH)
var: Zincian Libethenite8.BB.30(Cu,Zn)2(PO4)(OH)
Metatorbernite8.EB.10Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Monazite-(Ce)8.AD.50Ce(PO4)
Mottramite8.BH.40PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Parahopeite (TL)8.CA.70Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Parascholzite8.CA.45CaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Phosphophyllite8.CA.40Zn2Fe(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Pseudomalachite8.BD.05Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Scholzite8.CA.45CaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Spencerite8.DA.40Zn4(PO4)2(OH)2 · 3H2O
Tarbuttite (TL)8.BB.35Zn2(PO4)(OH)
Torbernite8.EB.05Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Vanadinite8.BN.05Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Veszelyite8.DA.30(Cu,Zn)2Zn(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Zincolibethenite (TL)8.BB.30CuZn(PO4)(OH)
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Aegirine9.DA.25NaFe3+Si2O6
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Cleavelandite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Allophane9.ED.20(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Anthophyllite9.DD.05☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Arfvedsonite9.DE.25[Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Bertrandite9.BD.05Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Aquamarine9.CJ.05Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Emerald9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Braunite9.AG.05Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Chrysotile9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Coffinite9.AD.30U(SiO4) · nH2O
Cordierite9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Dravite9.CK.05Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fluor-elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Fluorellestadite9.AH.25Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
Foitite9.CK.05(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Forsterite9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
Genthelvite9.FB.10Be3Zn4(SiO4)3S
Hejtmanite (TL)9.BE.55Ba2(Mn2+,Fe2+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Kanonaite (TL)9.AF.10Mn3+Al(SiO4)O
Kornerupine9.BJ.50Mg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Kyanite9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
Margarite9.EC.30CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Alurgite9.EC.15K2(Mg,Al)4-5(Al,Si)8O20(OH)4
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phenakite9.AA.05Be2SiO4
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Plancheite9.DB.35Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Pyrope9.AD.25Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Rhodonite9.DK.05Mn2+SiO3
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Spessartine9.AD.25Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Staurolite9.AF.30Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
var: Lusakite9.AF.30(Fe,Mg,Co)2Al9Si4O23OH
Surinamite9.DH.55(Mg,Fe)3Al4BeSi3O16
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Thorite9.AD.30Th(SiO4)
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
var: Imperial Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Uvite Series'9..Ca(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
Willemite9.AA.05Zn2SiO4
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'var: Uralite'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Andalusite-Kanonaite Series'-
'Apatite'-
'Bastnäsite'-
'Biotite'-
'Bravoite'-(Fe,Ni)S2
'Chevkinite Group'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Davidite'-
'Ellestadite'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Fluor-buergerite-Dravite Series'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Glauconite'-(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
'Hornblende'-
'Ilmenite-Pyrophanite Series'-
'K Feldspar'-
'Lepidolite'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Maskelynite'-
'Mica Group'-
'Molybdenite-3R'-MoS2
'Monazite'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Psilomelane'-
'Scapolite'-
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Wad'-
'Xenotime'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Iron
var: Kamacite
1.1.11.1(Fe,Ni)
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Taenite1.1.11.2(Fe,Ni)
Semi-metals and non-metals
Diamond1.3.6.1C
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Digenite2.4.7.3Cu9S5
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Cobaltpentlandite2.7.1.3(Co,Ni,Fe)9S8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Millerite2.8.16.1NiS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Smythite2.8.10.2(Fe,Ni)3+xS4 (x=0-0.3)
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Troilite2.8.9.1FeS
Wurtzite2.8.7.1(Zn,Fe)S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Briartite2.9.2.3Cu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Isocubanite2.9.13.3CuFe2S3
Renierite2.9.4.1(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Carrollite2.10.1.2Cu(Co,Ni)2S4
Linnaeite2.10.1.1Co2+Co3+2S4
Siegenite2.10.1.6CoNi2S4
Violarite2.10.1.8Fe2+Ni3+2S4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Cobaltite2.12.3.1CoAsS
Drysdallite (TL)2.12.10.2Mo(Se,S)2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Melonite2.12.14.1NiTe2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Vaesite2.12.1.2NiS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tennantite3.3.6.2Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX
Tenorite4.2.3.1CuO
Zincite4.2.2.1ZnO
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Maghemite4.3.7.1Fe3+2O3
Perovskite4.3.3.1CaTiO3
AX2
Brookite4.4.5.1TiO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Uraninite5.1.1.1UO2
AXO3·xH2O
Masuyite5.2.2.1Pb(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2O
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Heterogenite6.1.4.2Co3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Chrysoberyl7.2.9.1BeAl2O4
Franklinite7.2.2.4Zn2+Fe3+2O4
Gahnite7.2.1.4ZnAl2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
(AB)2X3
Braunite7.5.1.3Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
AB8X16
Coronadite7.9.1.4Pb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
ABO4
Samarskite-(Y)8.1.11.1(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
'Microlite Group'8.2.2.1A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
'Plumbomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)'8.2.2.3
'Pyrochlore Group'8.2.1.1A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
AB2O6
Brannerite8.3.4.1UTi2O6
Columbite-(Mn)8.3.2.4Mn2+Nb2O6
Tantalite-(Mn)8.3.2.3Mn2+Ta2O6
AB21O38
Davidite-(La)8.5.1.5(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Sellaite9.2.2.1MgF2
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
Am(O,OH)pXq
Claringbullite (TL)10.5.6.1Cu4ClF(OH)6
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Magnesite14.1.1.2MgCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
Spherocobaltite14.1.1.5CoCO3
Strontianite14.1.3.3SrCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Bastnäsite-(Ce)16a.1.1.1Ce(CO3)F
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Hydrocerussite16a.2.2.1Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite16a.3.1.2(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 17 - COMPOUND CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Daqingshanite-(Ce)17.1.10.1(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Goslarite29.6.11.2ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)6(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Woodwardite31.2.2.1Cu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Monazite-(Ce)38.4.3.1Ce(PO4)
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Metatorbernite40.2a.13.2Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Parascholzite40.2.5.1CaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Phosphophyllite40.2.7.1Zn2Fe(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Scholzite40.2.6.1CaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Torbernite40.2a.13.1Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Hopeite40.3.4.1Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Parahopeite (TL)40.3.3.1Zn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)3(XO4)Zq
Cornetite41.3.2.1Cu3(PO4)(OH)3
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Pseudomalachite41.4.3.1Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Austinite41.5.1.3CaZn(AsO4)(OH)
Descloizite41.5.2.1PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Isokite (TL)41.5.6.2CaMg(PO4)F
Mottramite41.5.2.2PbCu(VO4)(OH)
A2(XO4)Zq
Libethenite41.6.6.2Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Tarbuttite (TL)41.6.7.1Zn2(PO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Fluorstrophite41.8.1.7SrCaSr3(PO4)3F
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Vanadinite41.8.4.3Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)3(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Veszelyite42.2.3.1(Cu,Zn)2Zn(PO4)2 · 2H2O
A2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Spencerite42.6.4.2Zn4(PO4)2(OH)2 · 3H2O
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Beudantite43.4.1.1PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Phenakite51.1.1.1Be2SiO4
Willemite51.1.1.2Zn2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Forsterite51.3.1.2Mg2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Pyrope51.4.3a.1Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Spessartine51.4.3a.3Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Coffinite51.5.2.4U(SiO4) · nH2O
Thorite51.5.2.3Th(SiO4)
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Kanonaite (TL)52.2.2b.2Mn3+Al(SiO4)O
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Staurolite52.2.3.1Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Fluorellestadite52.4.9.3Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Bertrandite56.1.1.1Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and/or >[4] coordination
Hejtmanite (TL)56.2.6b.2Ba2(Mn2+,Fe2+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [4] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n=1, 2)
Kornerupine58.1.1.1Mg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Dravite61.3.1.9Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Elbaite61.3.1.8Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Foitite61.3.1.1(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
'Uvite Series'61.3.1.3Ca(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Aegirine65.1.3c.2NaFe3+Si2O6
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=5
Rhodonite65.4.1.1Mn2+SiO3
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Anthophyllite66.1.2.1☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Amphiboles - Ca subgroup
Plancheite66.2.1.1Cu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Group 69 - INOSILICATES Chains with Side Branches or Loops
Chains with Side Branches or Loops with P>2
Surinamite69.2.1b.2(Mg,Fe)3Al4BeSi3O16
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Allophane71.1.5.1(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Chrysotile71.1.5.1Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
'Glauconite'71.2.2a.5(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Margarite71.2.2c.1CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Genthelvite76.2.4.3Be3Zn4(SiO4)3S
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite
var: Cleavelandite
-Na(AlSi3O8)
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'var: Uralite'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Andalusite-Kanonaite Series'-
'Apatite'-
Arfvedsonite-[Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
'Bastnäsite'-
Beryl
var: Aquamarine
-Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Emerald-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Biotite'-
'Bravoite'-(Fe,Ni)S2
'Chevkinite Group'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Davidite'-
Dolomite
var: Ferroan Dolomite
-Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
'Ellestadite'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Fluor-buergerite-Dravite Series'-
Fluor-elbaite-Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-
Ilmenite
var: Manganoan Ilmenite
-(Fe,Mn)2+TiO3
'Ilmenite-Pyrophanite Series'-
Iron-Fe
'K Feldspar'-
'Lepidolite'-
Libethenite
var: Zincian Libethenite
-(Cu,Zn)2(PO4)(OH)
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Malachite
var: Zincian Malachite
-(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
'Maskelynite'-
'Mica Group'-
'Molybdenite-3R'-MoS2
'Monazite'-
Muscovite
var: Alurgite
-K2(Mg,Al)4-5(Al,Si)8O20(OH)4
var: Sericite-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Psilomelane'-
Pyrite
var: Cobaltoan Pyrite
-(Fe,Co)S2
Quartz
var: Amethyst
-SiO2
var: Citrine-SiO2
var: Jasper-SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz-SiO2
'Scapolite'-
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Staurolite
var: Lusakite
-(Fe,Mg,Co)2Al9Si4O23OH
Topaz
var: Imperial Topaz
-Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Uraninite
var: Pitchblende
-UO2
'Wad'-
'Xenotime'-
Zincolibethenite (TL)-CuZn(PO4)(OH)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ParahopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
H TarbuttiteZn2(PO4)(OH)
H ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6
H HejtmaniteBa2(Mn2+,Fe2+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
H ZincolibetheniteCuZn(PO4)(OH)
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3
H HopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
H LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H MetatorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
H ParascholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
H PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
H PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
H WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
H Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
H ScholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
H DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
H MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
H BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H Libethenite (var: Zincian Libethenite)(Cu,Zn)2(PO4)(OH)
H KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
H MasuyitePb(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2O
H Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
H Staurolite (var: Lusakite)(Fe,Mg,Co)2Al9Si4O23OH
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H HeterogeniteCo3+O(OH)
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H Veszelyite(Cu,Zn)2Zn(PO4)2 · 2H2O
H Muscovite (var: Alurgite)K2(Mg,Al)4-5(Al,Si)8O20(OH)4
H SpenceriteZn4(PO4)2(OH)2 · 3H2O
H Davidite-(La)(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38
H PhosphophylliteZn2Fe(PO4)2 · 4H2O
H HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H Malachite (var: Zincian Malachite)(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H AustiniteCaZn(AsO4)(OH)
H CoffiniteU(SiO4) · nH2O
H BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
H Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
H Anthophyllite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Topaz (var: Imperial Topaz)Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
H Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
H MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
H ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
H Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
H StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
H Amphibole Supergroup (var: Uralite)AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
LiLithium
Li ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Li Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
BeBeryllium
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Be Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Surinamite(Mg,Fe)3Al4BeSi3O16
Be BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Be PhenakiteBe2SiO4
Be GenthelviteBe3Zn4(SiO4)3S
Be ChrysoberylBeAl2O4
BBoron
B KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
B Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
CCarbon
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
C CalciteCaCO3
C Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
C HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C Malachite (var: Zincian Malachite)(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
C DiamondC
C StrontianiteSrCO3
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C MagnesiteMgCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
C GraphiteC
C SpherocobaltiteCoCO3
C Dolomite (var: Ferroan Dolomite)Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
OOxygen
O ParahopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
O TarbuttiteZn2(PO4)(OH)
O KanonaiteMn3+Al(SiO4)O
O ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6
O HejtmaniteBa2(Mn2+,Fe2+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
O IsokiteCaMg(PO4)F
O ZincolibetheniteCuZn(PO4)(OH)
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O WillemiteZn2SiO4
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3
O CupriteCu2O
O HopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
O LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MetatorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
O ParascholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
O PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
O PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
O WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O ZinciteZnO
O CerussitePbCO3
O Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O ScholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
O DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
O MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
O AnglesitePbSO4
O BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O Libethenite (var: Zincian Libethenite)(Cu,Zn)2(PO4)(OH)
O Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O RutileTiO2
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O QuartzSiO2
O Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
O FluorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O ThoriteTh(SiO4)
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
O Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
O Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
O Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O Ilmenite (var: Manganoan Ilmenite)(Fe,Mn)2+TiO3
O AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
O MasuyitePb(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2O
O GahniteZnAl2O4
O CoronaditePb(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
O BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
O BaryteBaSO4
O Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
O Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
O FluorstrophiteSrCaSr3(PO4)3F
O Staurolite (var: Lusakite)(Fe,Mg,Co)2Al9Si4O23OH
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O HeterogeniteCo3+O(OH)
O UraniniteUO2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O Quartz (var: Citrine)SiO2
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O Veszelyite(Cu,Zn)2Zn(PO4)2 · 2H2O
O Muscovite (var: Alurgite)K2(Mg,Al)4-5(Al,Si)8O20(OH)4
O PerovskiteCaTiO3
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O Surinamite(Mg,Fe)3Al4BeSi3O16
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O SpenceriteZn4(PO4)2(OH)2 · 3H2O
O Davidite-(La)(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38
O PhosphophylliteZn2Fe(PO4)2 · 4H2O
O Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
O HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O Malachite (var: Zincian Malachite)(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O TenoriteCuO
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O BranneriteUTi2O6
O ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
O AustiniteCaZn(AsO4)(OH)
O StrontianiteSrCO3
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O MagnesiteMgCO3
O SideriteFeCO3
O Uraninite (var: Pitchblende)UO2
O CoffiniteU(SiO4) · nH2O
O BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
O Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
O Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
O PhenakiteBe2SiO4
O Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
O Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
O FrankliniteZn2+Fe23+O4
O GenthelviteBe3Zn4(SiO4)3S
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O Anthophyllite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O ChrysoberylBeAl2O4
O Topaz (var: Imperial Topaz)Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
O MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
O BrookiteTiO2
O ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
O Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O SpherocobaltiteCoCO3
O Dolomite (var: Ferroan Dolomite)Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
O StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O Amphibole Supergroup (var: Uralite)AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O ForsteriteMg2SiO4
O MaghemiteFe23+O3
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
FFluorine
F ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6
F HejtmaniteBa2(Mn2+,Fe2+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
F IsokiteCaMg(PO4)F
F FluorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
F Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
F SellaiteMgF2
F FluorstrophiteSrCaSr3(PO4)3F
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F Davidite-(La)(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38
F FluoriteCaF2
F Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
F Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
F Topaz (var: Imperial Topaz)Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
F Amphibole Supergroup (var: Uralite)AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
NaSodium
Na Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Na AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Na Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Na Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg IsokiteCaMg(PO4)F
Mg KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
Mg SellaiteMgF2
Mg Staurolite (var: Lusakite)(Fe,Mg,Co)2Al9Si4O23OH
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Mg Muscovite (var: Alurgite)K2(Mg,Al)4-5(Al,Si)8O20(OH)4
Mg Surinamite(Mg,Fe)3Al4BeSi3O16
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg MagnesiteMgCO3
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Mg Anthophyllite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Mg ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg Dolomite (var: Ferroan Dolomite)Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Mg Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mg ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
AlAluminium
Al KanonaiteMn3+Al(SiO4)O
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Al Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Al Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
Al GahniteZnAl2O4
Al Staurolite (var: Lusakite)(Fe,Mg,Co)2Al9Si4O23OH
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Muscovite (var: Alurgite)K2(Mg,Al)4-5(Al,Si)8O20(OH)4
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al Surinamite(Mg,Fe)3Al4BeSi3O16
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Al Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al ChrysoberylBeAl2O4
Al Topaz (var: Imperial Topaz)Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Al MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Al Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Al StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Al Amphibole Supergroup (var: Uralite)AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
SiSilicon
Si KanonaiteMn3+Al(SiO4)O
Si HejtmaniteBa2(Mn2+,Fe2+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si WillemiteZn2SiO4
Si PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
Si KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Si FluorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si ThoriteTh(SiO4)
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Si Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
Si BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
Si Staurolite (var: Lusakite)(Fe,Mg,Co)2Al9Si4O23OH
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Quartz (var: Citrine)SiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Alurgite)K2(Mg,Al)4-5(Al,Si)8O20(OH)4
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si Surinamite(Mg,Fe)3Al4BeSi3O16
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
Si CoffiniteU(SiO4) · nH2O
Si BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Si PhenakiteBe2SiO4
Si Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Si Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Si GenthelviteBe3Zn4(SiO4)3S
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si Anthophyllite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Topaz (var: Imperial Topaz)Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Si MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Si ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Si StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Si Amphibole Supergroup (var: Uralite)AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Si ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
PPhosphorus
P ParahopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
P TarbuttiteZn2(PO4)(OH)
P IsokiteCaMg(PO4)F
P ZincolibetheniteCuZn(PO4)(OH)
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
P CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3
P HopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
P LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
P MetatorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
P ParascholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
P PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
P ScholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
P Libethenite (var: Zincian Libethenite)(Cu,Zn)2(PO4)(OH)
P Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
P Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
P FluorstrophiteSrCaSr3(PO4)3F
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P Veszelyite(Cu,Zn)2Zn(PO4)2 · 2H2O
P SpenceriteZn4(PO4)2(OH)2 · 3H2O
P PhosphophylliteZn2Fe(PO4)2 · 4H2O
P TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
SSulfur
S DrysdalliteMo(Se,S)2
S PyriteFeS2
S WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
S Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S ChalcociteCu2S
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S FluorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S CovelliteCuS
S BaryteBaSO4
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
S SiegeniteCoNi2S4
S DigeniteCu9S5
S CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4
S Renierite(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
S BriartiteCu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
S CobaltiteCoAsS
S Cobaltpentlandite(Co,Ni,Fe)9S8
S LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
S Pyrite (var: Cobaltoan Pyrite)(Fe,Co)S2
S GenthelviteBe3Zn4(SiO4)3S
S Molybdenite-3RMoS2
S MilleriteNiS
S Bravoite(Fe,Ni)S2
S VaesiteNiS2
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S TroiliteFeS
S IsocubaniteCuFe2S3
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
S MarcasiteFeS2
S Smythite(Fe,Ni)3+xS4 (x=0-0.3)
ClChlorine
Cl ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Cl VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl Amphibole Supergroup (var: Uralite)AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Alurgite)K2(Mg,Al)4-5(Al,Si)8O20(OH)4
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca IsokiteCaMg(PO4)F
Ca ParascholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Ca ScholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca FluorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5F
Ca Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
Ca Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
Ca FluorstrophiteSrCaSr3(PO4)3F
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca PerovskiteCaTiO3
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca AustiniteCaZn(AsO4)(OH)
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca Dolomite (var: Ferroan Dolomite)Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
TiTitanium
Ti HejtmaniteBa2(Mn2+,Fe2+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti Ilmenite (var: Manganoan Ilmenite)(Fe,Mn)2+TiO3
Ti PerovskiteCaTiO3
Ti Davidite-(La)(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38
Ti BranneriteUTi2O6
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ti BrookiteTiO2
Ti Amphibole Supergroup (var: Uralite)AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
VVanadium
V VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
V DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
V MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
V Davidite-(La)(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38
CrChromium
Cr Davidite-(La)(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
MnManganese
Mn KanonaiteMn3+Al(SiO4)O
Mn HejtmaniteBa2(Mn2+,Fe2+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
Mn Ilmenite (var: Manganoan Ilmenite)(Fe,Mn)2+TiO3
Mn CoronaditePb(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
Mn BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
Mn RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
Mn Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
Mn Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Mn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe42+Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
Fe Ilmenite (var: Manganoan Ilmenite)(Fe,Mn)2+TiO3
Fe AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe Staurolite (var: Lusakite)(Fe,Mg,Co)2Al9Si4O23OH
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Renierite(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
Fe BriartiteCu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe Surinamite(Mg,Fe)3Al4BeSi3O16
Fe Davidite-(La)(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38
Fe PhosphophylliteZn2Fe(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe Pyrite (var: Cobaltoan Pyrite)(Fe,Co)S2
Fe FrankliniteZn2+Fe23+O4
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Fe Bravoite(Fe,Ni)S2
Fe Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Fe Dolomite (var: Ferroan Dolomite)Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Fe StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Fe TroiliteFeS
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe IsocubaniteCuFe2S3
Fe Iron (var: Kamacite)(Fe,Ni)
Fe Taenite(Fe,Ni)
Fe IronFe
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Fe MaghemiteFe23+O3
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe Smythite(Fe,Ni)3+xS4 (x=0-0.3)
CoCobalt
Co Staurolite (var: Lusakite)(Fe,Mg,Co)2Al9Si4O23OH
Co SiegeniteCoNi2S4
Co HeterogeniteCo3+O(OH)
Co CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4
Co CobaltiteCoAsS
Co Cobaltpentlandite(Co,Ni,Fe)9S8
Co LinnaeiteCo2+Co23+S4
Co Pyrite (var: Cobaltoan Pyrite)(Fe,Co)S2
Co SpherocobaltiteCoCO3
NiNickel
Ni ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
Ni SiegeniteCoNi2S4
Ni CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4
Ni MeloniteNiTe2
Ni MilleriteNiS
Ni Bravoite(Fe,Ni)S2
Ni VaesiteNiS2
Ni Iron (var: Kamacite)(Fe,Ni)
Ni Taenite(Fe,Ni)
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Ni Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Ni Smythite(Fe,Ni)3+xS4 (x=0-0.3)
CuCopper
Cu ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6
Cu ZincolibetheniteCuZn(PO4)(OH)
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu CopperCu
Cu LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu MetatorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Cu PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2O
Cu PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Cu WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Cu MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu Libethenite (var: Zincian Libethenite)(Cu,Zn)2(PO4)(OH)
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu DigeniteCu9S5
Cu CarrolliteCu(Co,Ni)2S4
Cu Renierite(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
Cu BriartiteCu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
Cu Veszelyite(Cu,Zn)2Zn(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Cu Malachite (var: Zincian Malachite)(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu TenoriteCuO
Cu TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Cu TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Cu IsocubaniteCuFe2S3
ZnZinc
Zn ParahopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Zn TarbuttiteZn2(PO4)(OH)
Zn ZincolibetheniteCuZn(PO4)(OH)
Zn WillemiteZn2SiO4
Zn HopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Zn ParascholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn ZinciteZnO
Zn Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn ScholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Zn DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
Zn GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn Libethenite (var: Zincian Libethenite)(Cu,Zn)2(PO4)(OH)
Zn GahniteZnAl2O4
Zn Renierite(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
Zn SpenceriteZn4(PO4)2(OH)2 · 3H2O
Zn PhosphophylliteZn2Fe(PO4)2 · 4H2O
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn Malachite (var: Zincian Malachite)(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Zn AustiniteCaZn(AsO4)(OH)
Zn FrankliniteZn2+Fe23+O4
Zn GenthelviteBe3Zn4(SiO4)3S
Zn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
GeGermanium
Ge Renierite(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
Ge BriartiteCu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
AsArsenic
As BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As Renierite(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As AustiniteCaZn(AsO4)(OH)
As TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
As CobaltiteCoAsS
SeSelenium
Se DrysdalliteMo(Se,S)2
SrStrontium
Sr Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
Sr FluorstrophiteSrCaSr3(PO4)3F
Sr StrontianiteSrCO3
YYttrium
Y Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
Y Davidite-(La)(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
NbNiobium
Nb Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
Nb Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Nb Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
MoMolybdenum
Mo DrysdalliteMo(Se,S)2
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
Mo Molybdenite-3RMoS2
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
TeTellurium
Te MeloniteNiTe2
BaBarium
Ba HejtmaniteBa2(Mn2+,Fe2+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2
Ba Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
Ba BaryteBaSO4
LaLanthanum
La Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
La Davidite-(La)(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38
CeCerium
Ce Daqingshanite-(Ce)(Sr,Ca,Ba)3(Ce,La)(CO3)3-x(PO4)(OH,F)2x
Ce Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
Ce Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
TaTantalum
Ta Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
Ta Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
Ta Microlite GroupA2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
Pb MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb MasuyitePb(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2O
Pb CoronaditePb(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
Pb HydrocerussitePb3(CO3)2(OH)2
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
ThThorium
Th ThoriteTh(SiO4)
Th Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
UUranium
U MetatorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 8H2O
U Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8
U MasuyitePb(UO2)3O3(OH)2 · 3H2O
U UraniniteUO2
U Davidite-(La)(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38
U BranneriteUTi2O6
U Uraninite (var: Pitchblende)UO2
U CoffiniteU(SiO4) · nH2O
U TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O

Geochronology

Mineralization age: Neoproterozoic to Cambrian : 704 Ma to 501.8 ± 1.7 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Paleozoic
  Cambrian
   Cambrian Series 3
ⓘ Molybdenite (youngest age)501.8 ± 1.7 MaKansanshi Mine, Solwezi, North-Western Province, Zambia
   Cambrian Series 2
ⓘ Molybdenite (oldest age)512.9 ± 1.7 MaKansanshi Mine, Solwezi, North-Western Province, Zambia
   Terreneuvian
ⓘ Uraninite (youngest age)522 MaNkana Mine (Rokana Mine), Kitwe, Kitwe, Copperbelt, Zambia
Precambrian
 Proterozoic
  Neoproterozoic
   Ediacaran
ⓘ Uraninite (oldest age)550 ± 3 MaNkana Mine (Rokana Mine), Kitwe, Kitwe, Copperbelt, Zambia
   Cryogenian
ⓘ Carbonatite (youngest age)654 MaNkumbwa Hill Carbonatite (Nkombwa Hill Carbonatite), Isoka, Isoka District, Muchinga Mts., Northern Province, Zambia
ⓘ Phlogopite (youngest age)654 MaNkumbwa Hill Carbonatite (Nkombwa Hill Carbonatite), Isoka, Isoka District, Muchinga Mts., Northern Province, Zambia
ⓘ Carbonatite (oldest age)704 MaNkumbwa Hill Carbonatite (Nkombwa Hill Carbonatite), Isoka, Isoka District, Muchinga Mts., Northern Province, Zambia
ⓘ Phlogopite (oldest age)704 MaNkumbwa Hill Carbonatite (Nkombwa Hill Carbonatite), Isoka, Isoka District, Muchinga Mts., Northern Province, Zambia

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Beyli, DK. (????) Carbonatite volcanoes and subsurface intrusions of Zambia. Karbonatity, M., 'Mir', xx pp.
Daltry, V.D.C. (1992) The type mineralogy of Africa: Zambia. Zambian Journal of Applied Earth Sciences, 6(1), 68-79.
Kampunzu, A.B. et al. (2009) Sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Cu deposits in the Central African Copperbelt. Ore Geology Reviews, 35, 263-297.
Robertson, M. (2013) Kitumba - a new kind of copper deposit in a Zambian context: in Base Metals Conference 2013, 2-4 September 2013, Ingwenyama Conference & Sports Resort, Mpumalanga. The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Symposium Series S76 pp. 1-20. [http://www.saimm.co.za/Conferences/BM2013/001-Robertson.pdf]

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