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Great Hill cobalt mines, Cobalt, East Hampton (Chatham), Middlesex Co., Connecticut, USAi
Regional Level Types
Great Hill cobalt minesGroup of Mines
Cobalt- not defined -
East Hampton (Chatham)- not defined -
Middlesex Co.County
ConnecticutState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
41° 34' 40'' North , 72° 32' 59'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Group of Mines
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
East Hampton2,691 (2017)3.9km
Lake Pocotopaug3,436 (2017)4.0km
Portland5,862 (2017)7.6km
Cromwell13,750 (2017)8.2km
Middletown46,756 (2017)8.6km


This locality at the southern foot of Great Hill consists of two parallel veins, one containing cobalt and nickel, the other gold (Chomiak 1989, Gray 2005). Both are located partly on private residential properties and no longer accessible (please respect their wishes and do not trespass) and partly in the Meshomasic State Forest, where collecting is not allowed without a permit. No significant dumps remain in any case, having been hauled away by the state years ago for use as fill.

Legend had it that John Winthrop the Younger, the first Governor of Connecticut, supposedly discovered gold here in 1641 and mined it in the 1660s. Until the University of Connecticut Summer field school identified native gold at the same site in 1985 (Frahm, 1986) there was no record of anyone having mined or even seen gold at Great Hill since Winthrop's day.

Instead, in 1762 German prospector John Stephauney found a small deposit of cobalt ore. In 1770 he organized a serious mining effort, opened a major adit and actually shipped some ore. The enterprise was abandoned within a few years.

The mines were dormant until 1818 when Seth Hunt sunk a quarter-mile-long trench along the main vein and shipped some supposed cobalt ore to England. He abandoned the enterprise after assays showed mostly nickel.

Charles U. Shepard examined and described these workings (Shepard, 1837). An assay of the dressed ore indicated 28% Co + Ni. He purchased a 99-year lease of Hunt’s properties. In 1844 Shepard himself opened an inclined adit on the vein (mostly west of Gadpouch Road and called “Shepard’s Lode”) and although he abandoned all work within a year he retained the mineral rights.

In the mid 1800s interest shifted to nickel as the US Mint was looking to that metal for coinage. In 1850 Brown sunk a 38-foot-deep shaft just east of Shepard's and opened a new adit in the ravine of Mine Brook 700 feet to the east. The eastern part of the Co-Ni vein was called “Robert’s Lode” and it trends parallel to and just south of Gadpouch Road on state property. The two access points were meant to connect, but funds ran out and the workings were acquired by "The Chatham Cobalt Mining Company" organized by Eugene Francfort. Between 1853 and 1859 they sank two major shafts, one 120 feet deep, drove at least 100 meters of adits and drifts along the main ore zone, and built a stamping mill and assay lab. The Brown and Francfort workings are the primary ones still visible today. Some dressed ore containing about 10% nickel and 10% cobalt was shipped but investor interest lapsed and work ceased by 1859.

What was not documented until Chomiak (1989) is that there are two different but parallel mineralized veins lying stratigraphically within a few tens of meters of each other. Cobalt-nickel arsenides extend for 800 meters along a 1-cm-thick garnet gneiss bed just below (south of) the Clough Quartzite and Collins Hill Formation contact. Two shorter gold-bearing arsenopyrite-quartz veins are situated just above (north of) this contact. The gold bearing veins are now called Winthrop’s Lode on the west (on private property and no longer accessible - please respect their wishes and do not trespass – there’s nothing to see there now anyway) and Champion Lode on the east in the state forest. This latter arsenopyrite-quartz vein is visible where it crosses Mine Brook just downstream of where the brook flows under Gadpouch Road. The locality coordinates are for the position of this crossing and are near the major mining shafts and ruins on state land.

According to Chomiak (1989) and Gray (2005), the two Co-Ni lodes are similar, the main difference being the dominance of hornblende to the west and biotite to the east. The rock at Shepard’s Lode is essentially a banded amphibolite. Hornblende, manganous almandine-grossular garnet, sphene and anorthite make up the bulk of the rock. 5 to 10% sulphides and arsenides are intergrown with the silicates. Pyrrhotite and nickel-cobalt rich loellingite (not chloanthite (aka “chathamite”) as erroneously reported through the 7th edition of Dana's Manual of Mineralogy, and by Shannon (1921) and Foye (1922) and others) constitute the bulk of the ore minerals although chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, nickeline, and gersdorffite are reasonably common. Tailings from Robert’s Lode are gneisses containing biotite rather than hornblende, plus manganous garnet, plagioclase, quartz and staurolite. Loellingite is apparently the only ore mineral there and it is present in small amounts ranging from 1 to 5%, the other sulfides pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and niccolite are another 5% of the lode. The flashy loellingite and various brightly colored secondary minerals helped the miners follow these very thin veins. The loellingite ore was determined by optical and x-ray microprobe analyses. The origin of the sulfides/arsenides is likely from a distal ocean-floor hot spring exhalation.

Gray (2005) described the gold-bearing veins:

Gold occurs in decimeter wide quartz-arsenopyrite veins in the Silurian Clough Quartzite just above its contact with the Ordovician Collins Hill formation. Although the Clough appears to be concordant with the layering in the Robert's and Shepard's lodes the evidence suggests that the contact is tectonic and not an unconformity. The arsenopyrite in these quartz veins occurs as centimeter sized massive concentrations. Pyrrhotite, locally altered to pyrite, is the only other sulfide present in abundance. Native gold, generally as micron sized grains, is found, along with pyrite and chalcopyrite, in a network of thin fractures and veins cutting the arsenopyrite. Although much of the gold is very fine grained and is difficult to see, even with a strong hand lens, grains up to a mm are present and are quite noticeable on bright sunny days.


Concerning the gold, the following text from Gray (2005) says it best:

The biggest mystery of the Cobalt area is why all the miners, except Winthrop, failed to recognize and exploit the high-grade gold ores on their property. Some of the arsenopyrite-quartz veins, which contain no cobalt or nickel but run up to 6 oz of gold per ton were clearly explored by means of adits, shafts and trenches but there is no written or even verbal record of any gold having been extracted. Were the miners hiding the presence of gold from the owners, and all the inquisitive locals, or were they just totally incompetent?

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


41 valid minerals. 4 erroneous literature entries.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Description: Component of the host rock.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Description: Component of the host rocks.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Habit: subhedral grains
Colour: pale rose
Description: Component of Shepard and Robert's Lodes, garnets in these layers have a compositions about midway between almandine and grossular, with also a spessartine component.
Reference: Chomiak, B. A. (1989): An integrated study of the structure and mineralization at Great Hill, Cobalt, Connecticut [M.S. thesis]: University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, 288 p.
Annabergite
Formula: Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Habit: coatings
Colour: bright to pale green
Description: waxy, pale to bright green coatings on ore-bearing host rocks, particularly around bronze nickeline grains.
Reference: Schooner (1958); Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Habit: anhedral grains
Colour: greenish-gray
Description: A component of the banded amphibolite of Shepard's Lode.
Reference: Chomiak, B. A. (1989): An integrated study of the structure and mineralization at Great Hill, Cobalt, Connecticut [M.S. thesis]: University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, 288 p.
Arsenolite ?
Formula: As2O3
Habit: micro-crystalline coatings
Description: Reported as microcrystallized coatings on arsenopyrite and quartz at Shepard's Lode. Scorodite is intimately associated; at times in botryoidal crusts that are almost sub-translucent.
Reference: Schooner (1958); Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State, p. 230
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Habit: massive, striated aggregates
Description: Arsenopyrite in the Winthrop and Champion Lode quartz veins occurs as centimeter sized massive concentrations. Associated with pyrrhotite locally altered to pyrite. Native gold, generally as micron sized grains, is found, along with pyrite and chalcopyrite, in a network of thin fractures and veins cutting the arsenopyrite. The arsenopyrite is not the Co-Ni ore, earlier references to and analyses of "danaite" are probably from confusion with the loellingite ore veins.
Reference: Gray (2005); Schooner (1958)
Arsenopyrite var: Danaite
Formula: (Fe0.90Co0.10)AsS - (Fe0.65Co0.35)AsS
Habit: massive, striated aggregates
Description: The arsenopyrite is not the Co-Ni ore, earlier references to and analyses of "danaite" are probably from confusion with the loellingite ore veins.
Reference: Shannon (1921); Gray (2005)
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Description: A component of the host rocks at Robert's Lode.
Reference: Grey (2005)
Breithauptite ?
Formula: NiSb
Description: No details in reference, all others cite this one.
Reference: Shepard (1864)
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Habit: grains
Description: In the ore of Shepard's Lode and also in the arsenopyrite of the gold-bearing lodes.
Reference: Gray (2005), Schooner (1958)
'Chlorite Group'
Description: Component of the host rocks.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Cobaltite ?
Formula: CoAsS
Description: Reported by Parker Cleaveland in 1822. No one else appears to have found the mineral there.
Reference: Schooner (1958)
'Copiapite Group'
Reference: Kevin Czaja Collection
Cordierite ?
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Description: Reference provides no details. Probably a component of the host rocks.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Diopside ?
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Description: Reference provides no details, probably a component of the host rocks.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Habit: earthy incrustation or delicate needles
Colour: red
Description: Formed from the weathering of Co-rich loellingite. "Eugene Franckfort reported that the face of one lode, opened more than a century ago, was covered with, abundant erythrite crystals… as fine as any which he had seen in his native Europe." (Schooner 1958). "The Francfort mineral collection [at Wesleyan University] contains some excellent samples of erythrite from Bucks Shaft" (Gray 2005). It was common during the mining, but very scarce now. A small flake was tested in concentrated HCl and it turned the solution blue, indicating erythrite.
Reference: Schooner (1958); Gray (2005)
Fluorapatite ?
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Description: Reference provides no details, probably a component of the host rocks.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Gahnite
Formula: ZnAl2O4
Colour: green
Description: "broken green crystals, a quarter of an inch in diameter, in gneiss" (Schooner 1958)
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Galena
Formula: PbS
Habit: grains
Description: With the ore minerals at Shepard's Lode.
Reference: Schooner (1958); Shepard (1837); Gray (2005)
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Colour: hyacinth-red
Description: Gray (2005) refers to "characteristic hyacinth-red Mn rich garnets" with the ore minerals at Shepard's and Robert's Lodes. Garnet was noted by other references, species undetermined.
Reference: Gray (2005)
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Habit: grains
Description: "An analysis by Fairchild, published in 1931, and quoted in the Seventh Edition of “Dana’s System of Mineralogy”, gave: iron 3.9, cobalt 0.7, nickel 31.6, antimony 9.1, arsenic 34.9, sulfur 17.1, and bismuth 0.4%" (Schooner 1958); with the ore minerals at Shepard's Lode (Gray 2005).
Reference: Schooner (1958); Gray (2005)
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Description: common surficial alteration of ore minerals
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Gold
Formula: Au
Habit: micron to mm-sized grains
Description: "Native gold, generally as micron sized grains, is found, along with pyrite and chalcopyrite, in a network of thin fractures and veins cutting the arsenopyrite. Although much of the gold is very fine grained and is difficult to see, even with a strong hand lens, grains up to a mm are present" Gray (2005)
Reference: Chomiak, B. A. (1989): An integrated study of the structure and mineralization at Great Hill, Cobalt, Connecticut [M.S. thesis]: University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, 288 p.
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Habit: subhedral grains
Colour: pale rose
Description: Component of Shepard and Robert's Lodes, garnets in these layers have a compositions about midway between almandine and grossular, with also a spessartine component.
Reference: Chomiak, B. A. (1989): An integrated study of the structure and mineralization at Great Hill, Cobalt, Connecticut [M.S. thesis]: University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, 288 p.
'Hornblende'
Habit: elongated to acicular grains
Colour: black
Description: Component of the host amphibolite rock at Shepard's Lode. Reported as higher in aluminum that "common hornblende". Layers can have felted textures involving bundles and sprays of long needles and blades - grains whose size may exceed one centimeter.
Reference: Chomiak, B. A. (1989): An integrated study of the structure and mineralization at Great Hill, Cobalt, Connecticut [M.S. thesis]: University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, 288 p.
Jarosite ?
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Habit: Coatings
Description: Reported by Dick Schooner as "Coatings on schist" in Januzzi (1976) p. 234.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State, p 234-5.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Löllingite
Formula: FeAs2
Description: Loellingite is in fact the primary Co-Ni ore of Shepard's and Robert's Lodes. "Shepard [1837] initially identified the Co-Ni bearing arsenide as the cubic di-arsenide, smaltite but after obtaining and studying additional material from his own mine he pronounced it to be a new orthorhombic tri-arsenide for which he proposed the name "Chathamite"....In the mid 1850s Genth (in Goodrich, 1854) questioned Shepard's identification and suggested that Chathamite was simply an iron rich variety of the cubic arsenide chloanthite (a misconception that perpetuated up to, and including, the 7th edition of Dana's Manual of Mineralogy). As it turns out, Shepard's Chathamite is indeed orthorhombic, but today would be classified as a nickel-cobalt rich loellingite." Gray (2005)
Reference: Gray (2005); Chomiak (1989)
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Description: Reference provides no details, probably a surficial alteration product of the ore minerals.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Description: Reference provides no details, but a component in local pegmatites intruding area host rocks.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Description: Reference provides no details, but a component in local metamorphic rocks and in pegmatites intruding area host rocks.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: AmMin 6:88-90 (1921)
Nickeline
Formula: NiAs
Habit: grains
Colour: bronze
Description: Reported by Schairer (1931) "Found in mica schist", confirmed by Chomiak (1989). Associated with waxy, pale apple green annabergite.
Reference: Chomiak, B. A. (1989): An integrated study of the structure and mineralization at Great Hill, Cobalt, Connecticut [M.S. thesis]: University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, 288 p.
Nickelskutterudite
Formula: (Ni,Co,Fe)As3
Habit: grains
Description: "Shepard [1837] initially identified the Co-Ni bearing arsenide as the cubic di-arsenide, smaltite but after obtaining and studying additional material from his own mine he pronounced it to be a new orthorhombic tri-arsenide for which he proposed the name "Chathamite"....In the mid 1850s Genth (in Goodrich, 1854) questioned Shepard's identification and suggested that Chathamite was simply an iron rich variety of the cubic arsenide chloanthite (a misconception that perpetuated up to, and including, the 7th edition of Dana's Manual of Mineralogy). As it turns out, Shepard's Chathamite is indeed orthorhombic, but today would be classified as a nickel-cobalt rich loellingite." Gray (2005)
Reference: Gray, Norman (2005): The Historic New-Gate And Cobalt Mines Of Connecticut. Field Trip A1 in Guidebook For Field Trips in Connecticut, New England Inter Collegiate Geological Conference.
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Opal var: Opal-AN
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Description: Reference provides no details, but "orthoclase" used in early references for what has later proven to be microcline in metamorphic rocks and pegmatites in Connecticut.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Pickeringite
Formula: MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Description: Reference provides no details, probably a surficial alteration product of the ore minerals.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Pitticite ?
Formula: (Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
Description: Reported by Dick Schooner in Januzzi (1976) but no details provided.
Reference: Januzzi (1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State, p. 235.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Description: "Pyrrhotite, locally altered to pyrite, is the only other sulfide present in abundance [in the gold-bearing lodes]. Native gold, generally as micron sized grains, is found, along with pyrite and chalcopyrite, in a network of thin fractures and veins cutting the arsenopyrite." Gray (2005)
Reference: Gray (2005)
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Description: A black earthy mineral which has yet to be properly identified.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Habit: grains
Description: "Pyrrhotite and loellingite constitute the bulk of the ore minerals [at Shepard's Lode]..."Pyrrhotite, locally altered to pyrite, is the only other sulfide present in abundance [in the gold-bearing lodes]. Native gold, generally as micron sized grains, is found, along with pyrite and chalcopyrite, in a network of thin fractures and veins cutting the arsenopyrite." Gray (2005)
Reference: Gray (2005)
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Description: Component or accessory of area host rocks.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Rammelsbergite ?
Formula: NiAs2
Description: Reported by Dick Schooner in Januzzi (1976) p. 235, no details provided.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State, p 234-5.
Safflorite ?
Formula: (Co,Ni,Fe)As2
Description: Reported by Dick Schooner in Januzzi (1976) p. 235, no details provided.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State, p 234-5.
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Habit: botryoidal crusts
Colour: pale-green
Description: "in botryoidal crusts that are almost sub-translucent" associated with arsenolite (Januzzi 1976); "Common as pale-green masses resulting from the decomposition of arsenopyrite" (Schairer 1931)
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State, p. 230; Schairer (1931)
Siderite ?
Formula: FeCO3
Description: "Eugene Franckfort, in his report to the owners of one of the nearby cobalt mines, mentioned that siderite was a gangue mineral in a vein which was then being followed." (Schooner 1958)
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Sillimanite ?
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Description: The reference provides no details, but is a common accessory in area metamorphic rocks.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Skutterudite
Formula: CoAs3
Description: "Shepard [1837] initially identified the Co-Ni bearing arsenide as the cubic di-arsenide, smaltite but after obtaining and studying additional material from his own mine he pronounced it to be a new orthorhombic tri-arsenide for which he proposed the name "Chathamite"....In the mid 1850s Genth (in Goodrich, 1854) questioned Shepard's identification and suggested that Chathamite was simply an iron rich variety of the cubic arsenide chloanthite (a misconception that perpetuated up to, and including, the 7th edition of Dana's Manual of Mineralogy). As it turns out, Shepard's Chathamite is indeed orthorhombic, but today would be classified as a nickel-cobalt rich loellingite." Gray (2005)
Reference: Gray, Norman (2005): The Historic New-Gate And Cobalt Mines Of Connecticut. Field Trip A1 in Guidebook For Field Trips in Connecticut, New England Inter Collegiate Geological Conference.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Habit: grains
Description: With the ore minerals at Shepard's Lode.
Reference: Schooner (1958); Shepard (1837); Gray (2005); Schairer (1931)
Staurolite
Formula: Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Habit: prismatic
Colour: brown
Description: An accessory in the host rock at Robert's Lode, crystals to at least 1.5 cm.
Reference: Gray (2005). Former Alfred Patrie collection.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Description: Reference provides no details, but probably an accessory in local metamorphic rocks and pegmatites intruding area host rocks.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Wurtzite ?
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Habit: crust
Colour: bluish-white or greenish-white
Description: "as a bluish-white or greenish-white alteration of sphalerite" (Schooner 1958).
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Wurtzite var: Voltzite ?
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Habit: crust
Colour: bluish-white or greenish-white
Description: "as a bluish-white or greenish-white alteration of sphalerite" (Schooner 1958).
Reference: Schooner (1958)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
var: Danaite2.EB.20(Fe0.90Co0.10)AsS - (Fe0.65Co0.35)AsS
Breithauptite ?2.CC.05NiSb
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cobaltite ?2.EB.25CoAsS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Gersdorffite2.EB.25NiAsS
Löllingite2.EB.15aFeAs2
Nickeline2.CC.05NiAs
Nickelskutterudite ?2.EC.05(Ni,Co,Fe)As3
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Rammelsbergite ?2.EB.15aNiAs2
Safflorite ?2.EB.15a(Co,Ni,Fe)As2
Skutterudite ?2.EC.05CoAs3
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Wurtzite ?2.CB.45(Zn,Fe)S
var: Voltzite ?2.CB.45(Zn,Fe)S
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Arsenolite ?4.CB.50As2O3
Gahnite4.BB.05ZnAl2O4
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var: Opal-AN4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Pyrolusite ?4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Siderite ?5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Jarosite ?7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Melanterite7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Pickeringite7.CB.85MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Annabergite8.CE.40Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Erythrite8.CE.40Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Fluorapatite ?8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Pitticite ?8.DB.05(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
Scorodite8.CD.10Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Anorthite9.FA.35Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Cordierite ?9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Diopside ?9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Orthoclase ?9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Sillimanite ?9.AF.05Al2(SiO4)O
Staurolite9.AF.30Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Copiapite Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Breithauptite ?2.8.11.2NiSb
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Nickeline2.8.11.1NiAs
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Wurtzite ?2.8.7.1(Zn,Fe)S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Cobaltite ?2.12.3.1CoAsS
Gersdorffite2.12.3.2NiAsS
Löllingite2.12.2.9FeAs2
Nickelskutterudite ?2.12.17.2(Ni,Co,Fe)As3
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Rammelsbergite ?2.12.2.12NiAs2
Safflorite ?2.12.2.11(Co,Ni,Fe)As2
Skutterudite ?2.12.17.1CoAs3
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Arsenolite ?4.3.9.1As2O3
AX2
Pyrolusite ?4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Gahnite7.2.1.4ZnAl2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Siderite ?14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Pickeringite29.7.3.1MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite ?30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Annabergite40.3.6.4Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Erythrite40.3.6.3Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Scorodite40.4.1.3Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite ?41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Hydrated Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Pitticite ?43.5.3.1(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Sillimanite ?52.2.2a.1Al2(SiO4)O
Staurolite52.2.3.1Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite ?61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside ?65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase ?76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Anorthite-Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Arsenopyrite
var: Danaite
-(Fe0.90Co0.10)AsS - (Fe0.65Co0.35)AsS
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Copiapite Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Opal
var: Opal-AN
-SiO2 · nH2O
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Wurtzite
var: Voltzite ?
-(Zn,Fe)S

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
H Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Pitticite(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
O Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O GahniteZnAl2O4
O AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
O ArsenoliteAs2O3
O SideriteFeCO3
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Pitticite(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
FFluorine
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
AlAluminium
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al GahniteZnAl2O4
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
SiSilicon
Si Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si QuartzSiO2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
SSulfur
S PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S GalenaPbS
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S SphaleriteZnS
S GersdorffiteNiAsS
S Arsenopyrite (var: Danaite)(Fe0.90Co0.10)AsS - (Fe0.65Co0.35)AsS
S CobaltiteCoAsS
S Wurtzite (var: Voltzite)(Zn,Fe)S
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
KPotassium
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
MnManganese
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
FeIron
Fe ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe Arsenopyrite (var: Danaite)(Fe0.90Co0.10)AsS - (Fe0.65Co0.35)AsS
Fe LöllingiteFeAs2
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe Pitticite(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe Wurtzite (var: Voltzite)(Zn,Fe)S
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Nickelskutterudite(Ni,Co,Fe)As3
CoCobalt
Co ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Co Arsenopyrite (var: Danaite)(Fe0.90Co0.10)AsS - (Fe0.65Co0.35)AsS
Co CobaltiteCoAsS
Co Safflorite(Co,Ni,Fe)As2
Co Nickelskutterudite(Ni,Co,Fe)As3
Co SkutteruditeCoAs3
NiNickel
Ni NickelineNiAs
Ni AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Ni GersdorffiteNiAsS
Ni BreithauptiteNiSb
Ni RammelsbergiteNiAs2
Ni Nickelskutterudite(Ni,Co,Fe)As3
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn GahniteZnAl2O4
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn Wurtzite (var: Voltzite)(Zn,Fe)S
Zn Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
AsArsenic
As ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
As ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
As NickelineNiAs
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As AnnabergiteNi3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
As GersdorffiteNiAsS
As Arsenopyrite (var: Danaite)(Fe0.90Co0.10)AsS - (Fe0.65Co0.35)AsS
As LöllingiteFeAs2
As ArsenoliteAs2O3
As CobaltiteCoAsS
As Pitticite(Fe, AsO4, H2O) (?)
As RammelsbergiteNiAs2
As Safflorite(Co,Ni,Fe)As2
As Nickelskutterudite(Ni,Co,Fe)As3
As SkutteruditeCoAs3
SbAntimony
Sb BreithauptiteNiSb
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Jameson, Robert (1820). A System of Mineralogy, 3rd edition; p. 288.
Robinson, Samuel. (1825): A Catalogue of American Minerals, With Their Localities; Including All Which Are Known to Exist in the United States and British Provinces, And Having the Towns, Counties, and Districts in Each State and Province Arranged Alphabetically. With an Appendix, Containing Additional Localities and a Tabular View. Cummings, Hilliard, & Co., Boston.
Barber, J. W. (1836). Connecticut Historical Collections, p.520.
Shepard, Charles U. (1837): A Report on the Geological Survey of Connecticut.
Francfort, E. (1853): Report on the Mines of the Chatham Mining Company: Middletown Press of News and Advertiser, Middletown, Connecticut, 22 p.
Goodrich, C. R. (1854): Cobalt ores from Chatham, Middlesex County, Connecticut, in Science and Mechanism, Illustrated by Examples from the New York Exhibition 1853-1854: G. P. Putnam and Company, New York, p. 28.
Shepard, Charles U. (1864): Mineralogical Notes - Ores of Antimony. American Journal of Science, series 2, volume 37, p. 405.
Schrader, Frank C., Stone, Ralph W., and Sanford, Samuel. (1917): Useful Minerals of the United States. U. S. Geological Survey Bull. 624., pp. 97-101.
Earl V. Shannon. (1921): The Old Cobalt Mine In Chatham, Conn. American Mineralogist, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 88-90.
Foye, W. G., (1922): Mineral Localities in the Vicinity of Middletown, Connecticut. American Mineralogist, Volume 7, pages 4-12.
Schairer, J. F. (1931): The Minerals of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Hartford Conn. Bull. 51.
Montague, S. A. (1937): Some Mineral Localities Near Portland, Conn. Rocks & Minerals Vol. 12, No. 5, pg. 145.
Harte, Charles Rufus. (1945): Connecticut's Minor Metals and Her Minerals. Proceedings of the Connecticut Society of Civil Engineers, 61st Annual Report.
Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough).
Januzzi, Ronald. (1959): The Minerals of Western Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press.
Schooner, Richard. (1961): The Mineralogy of Connecticut.
Januzzi, Ronald. (1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press.
Frahm, Robert A. (1986): Hills of Cobalt Hide a Real Gold Mine, Geologist Says. The Hartford Courant, vol. CXLIX no.66 (March 7, 1986).
Chomiak, B. A. (1989): An integrated study of the structure and mineralization at Great Hill, Cobalt, Connecticut [M.S. thesis]: University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, 288 p.
Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan. (1995): Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue), Volume 70, No. 6, p. 401-2.
Gray, Norman H. (2005): The Historic New-Gate and Cobalt Mines of Connecticut. Field Trip A1 in Guidebook for Field Trips in Connecticut, New England Inter Collegiate Geological Conference, p. 9-18.
Pawloski, John A. (2006): Connecticut Mining (Mt. Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing) pp. 46-47.

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