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Cavnic (Kapnic; Kapnik), Maramureș Co., Romania

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Location is approximate, based on center of defined region.
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 47° 39' 50'' North , 23° 51' 41'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 47.66389,23.86139
Neighbouring regions:

Ancient and historic mining town, known since 1336 and in modern times extended up to its maximum by Ceausescu's mining policies.
Located 30 km east of Baia Mare and famous for its deposits of lead, zinc, manganese, as well as small quantities of gold, silver, barium and antimony.
From the mines of this locality have been extracted samples of exceptional beauty and value worldwide, in major collections.
In particular, the mines have produced the world's most beautiful tetrahedrites, by size, arrangement and lustre.

Current situation: since 2008 all the mines are closed; adits are sealed, water pumps are off and the external structures demolished or about to be demolished.

For several years rumours persist about foreign investors, but now are slow to manifest themselves in reality.

Formerly known as Kapnik, Hungary (during the Austro-Hungarian empire).

Smoky quartz specimen showing split growth ("artichoke quartz") like the one on the photo are artificially irradiated. Photos of such specimens should be labeled "quartz", not "smoky quartz".

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

58 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

0 - 66 Ma

ID: 3184425
Cenozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 66 Ma)

Lithology: Felsic volcanic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

2.588 - 23.03 Ma

ID: 3162663
Neogene andesite

Age: Neogene (2.588 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{andesite}, Minor{rhyolite,rhyodacite}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

Localities in this Region

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


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Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 963, 1101.
Huber, P. & Muresan, I. (1996): Mineralienübersicht der wichtigsten Bergbaue des Bezirkes Maramures. Lapis, 21 (7), 60. (in German).
Huber, P. and Muresan, I. (1996). Farbenprächtige Mineralien aus Cavnic: Vererzung und Mineralien von Cavnic (Kapnikbanya, Kapnik). Lapis, 21(7/8), 45-55. (in German).
Szakáll, S., Ed. (2002): Minerals of the Carpathians. Christian Weise Verlag, Munich, Germany, 480 pp.
Hîrtopanu, P., Andersen, J., Hârtopanu, I., & Udubaşa, S. Ilvaite From The Cavnic Deposit, Romania. pp62-65.

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