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Frigido Mine, Massa, Massa-Carrara Province, Tuscany, Italyi
Regional Level Types
Frigido MineMine
MassaCommune
Massa-Carrara ProvinceProvince
TuscanyRegion
ItalyCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
44° 2' 45'' North , 10° 9' 1'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Pariana403 (2014)1.1km
Bergiola Maggiore113 (2014)1.2km
Massa64,783 (2015)1.5km
Canevara340 (2014)1.8km
Altagnana173 (2014)2.1km
Other Languages:
Italian:
Miniera del Frigido, Massa, Provincia di Massa-Carrara (Provincia di Massa e Carrara), Toscana, Italia


Hydrothermal copper deposit with chalcopyrite disseminated in a siderite gangue. Located 1 km E of the city of Massa, along the banks of the stream Frigido.

The orebodies are formed of spathic siderite with disseminated chalcopyrite. Other minerals present in minor to trace quantities include tetrahedrite, pyrrhotine, pyrite, marcasite, galena, sphalerite, meneghinite, ullmannite, pentlandite, vaesite, bismuthinite, garavellite, chalcanthite, and quartz.

Frigido mine is the type locality for garavellite which appears in polished sections as small aggregates, up to 200 μm across, of anhedral crystals, usually in direct contact with tetrahedrite, Sb-rich bismuthinite, chalcopyrite, and siderite.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


20 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Gregorio, F., Lattanzi, P., Tanelli, G., and Vurro, F. (1979) Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, a new mineral from the Cu-Fe deposit of Valle del Frigido in the Apuane Alps, northern Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 99-102.
Boulangerite
Formula: Pb5Sb4S11
Reference: Carrozzini B. et al., 1993. Zinkenite and associated sulfides and sulfosalts from the Frigido mine (Apuane Alps). Period. Miner., 62: 13-28.
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Gregorio, F., Lattanzi, P., Tanelli, G., and Vurro, F. (1979) Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, a new mineral from the Cu-Fe deposit of Valle del Frigido in the Apuane Alps, northern Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 99-102.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Angelillis, R. (1973) Escursione mineralogica alla miniera del Frigido (Toscana). Notizie del Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo, 4, 3 (settembre 1973), 70; Del Caldo, A., Moro, C., Gramaccioli, C.M., and Boscardin, M. (1973) Guida ai minerali. Fratelli Fabbri Editori, Milano, 208 pp.; Gregorio, F., Lattanzi, P., Tanelli, G., and Vurro, F. (1979) Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, a new mineral from the Cu-Fe deposit of Valle del Frigido in the Apuane Alps, northern Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 99-102.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Angelillis, R. (1973) Escursione mineralogica alla miniera del Frigido (Toscana). Notizie del Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo, 4, 3 (settembre 1973), 70; Gregorio, F., Lattanzi, P., Tanelli, G., and Vurro, F. (1979) Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, a new mineral from the Cu-Fe deposit of Valle del Frigido in the Apuane Alps, northern Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 99-102.
Garavellite (TL)
Formula: FeSbBiS4
Type Locality:
Reference: Gregorio, F., Lattanzi, P., Tanelli, G., and Vurro, F. (1979) Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, a new mineral from the Cu-Fe deposit of Valle del Frigido in the Apuane Alps, northern Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 99-102.
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Reference: Carrozzini B. et al., 1991. Tetrahedrite (supposed Frigidite) and associated Ni minerals from Frigido mine (Apuane Alps). Period. Miner., 60: 5-14.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Del Caldo, A., Moro, C., Gramaccioli, C.M., and Boscardin, M. (1973) Guida ai minerali. Fratelli Fabbri Editori, Milano, 208 pp.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Gregorio, F., Lattanzi, P., Tanelli, G., and Vurro, F. (1979) Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, a new mineral from the Cu-Fe deposit of Valle del Frigido in the Apuane Alps, northern Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 99-102.
Meneghinite
Formula: Pb13CuSb7S24
Reference: Gregorio, F., Lattanzi, P., Tanelli, G., and Vurro, F. (1979) Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, a new mineral from the Cu-Fe deposit of Valle del Frigido in the Apuane Alps, northern Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 99-102.
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Reference: Gregorio, F., Lattanzi, P., Tanelli, G., and Vurro, F. (1979) Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, a new mineral from the Cu-Fe deposit of Valle del Frigido in the Apuane Alps, northern Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 99-102.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Gregorio, F., Lattanzi, P., Tanelli, G., and Vurro, F. (1979) Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, a new mineral from the Cu-Fe deposit of Valle del Frigido in the Apuane Alps, northern Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 99-102.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Gregorio, F., Lattanzi, P., Tanelli, G., and Vurro, F. (1979) Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, a new mineral from the Cu-Fe deposit of Valle del Frigido in the Apuane Alps, northern Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 99-102.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Angelillis, R. (1973) Escursione mineralogica alla miniera del Frigido (Toscana). Notizie del Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo, 4, 3 (settembre 1973), 70; Gregorio, F., Lattanzi, P., Tanelli, G., and Vurro, F. (1979) Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, a new mineral from the Cu-Fe deposit of Valle del Frigido in the Apuane Alps, northern Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 99-102.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Angelillis, R. (1973) Escursione mineralogica alla miniera del Frigido (Toscana). Notizie del Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo, 4, 3 (settembre 1973), 70; Gregorio, F., Lattanzi, P., Tanelli, G., and Vurro, F. (1979) Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, a new mineral from the Cu-Fe deposit of Valle del Frigido in the Apuane Alps, northern Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 99-102.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Gregorio, F., Lattanzi, P., Tanelli, G., and Vurro, F. (1979) Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, a new mineral from the Cu-Fe deposit of Valle del Frigido in the Apuane Alps, northern Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 99-102.
'Tetrahedrite'
Formula: Cu6Cu4(X)2Sb4S13
Reference: Angelillis, R. (1973) Escursione mineralogica alla miniera del Frigido (Toscana). Notizie del Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo, 4, 3 (settembre 1973), 70; Del Caldo, A., Moro, C., Gramaccioli, C.M., and Boscardin, M. (1973) Guida ai minerali. Fratelli Fabbri Editori, Milano, 208 pp.; Gregorio, F., Lattanzi, P., Tanelli, G., and Vurro, F. (1979) Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, a new mineral from the Cu-Fe deposit of Valle del Frigido in the Apuane Alps, northern Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 99-102; Carrozzini B., Garavelli C.L., Vurro F. (1991) - Tetrahedrite (supposed "frigidite") and associated Ni minerals from Frigido Mine (Apuane Alps). Periodico di Mineralogia, Roma,pp. 5-14
Ullmannite
Formula: NiSbS
Reference: Gregorio, F., Lattanzi, P., Tanelli, G., and Vurro, F. (1979) Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, a new mineral from the Cu-Fe deposit of Valle del Frigido in the Apuane Alps, northern Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 99-102.
Vaesite
Formula: NiS2
Reference: Gregorio, F., Lattanzi, P., Tanelli, G., and Vurro, F. (1979) Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, a new mineral from the Cu-Fe deposit of Valle del Frigido in the Apuane Alps, northern Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 99-102.
Zinkenite
Formula: Pb9Sb22S42
Reference: Carrozzini B. et al., 1993. Zinkenite and associated sulfides and sulfosalts from the Frigido mine (Apuane Alps). Period. Miner., 62: 13-28.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Boulangerite2.HC.15Pb5Sb4S11
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Garavellite (TL)2.HA.20FeSbBiS4
Gersdorffite2.EB.25NiAsS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Meneghinite2.HB.05bPb13CuSb7S24
Pentlandite2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
'Tetrahedrite'2.GB.05Cu6Cu4(X)2Sb4S13
Ullmannite2.EB.25NiSbS
Vaesite2.EB.05aNiS2
Zinkenite2.JB.35aPb9Sb22S42
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Chalcanthite7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Gersdorffite2.12.3.2NiAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Ullmannite2.12.3.3NiSbS
Vaesite2.12.1.2NiS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Meneghinite3.3.5.1Pb13CuSb7S24
'Tetrahedrite'3.3.6.1Cu6Cu4(X)2Sb4S13
2.5 < ø < 3
Boulangerite3.5.2.1Pb5Sb4S11
ø = 2
Garavellite (TL)3.7.9.4FeSbBiS4
1 < ø < 2
Zinkenite3.8.1.1Pb9Sb22S42
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
CCarbon
C SideriteFeCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O SideriteFeCO3
O QuartzSiO2
O RutileTiO2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
SSulfur
S GaravelliteFeSbBiS4
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(X)2Sb4S13
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S PyriteFeS2
S MarcasiteFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
S MeneghinitePb13CuSb7S24
S UllmanniteNiSbS
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
S VaesiteNiS2
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S GersdorffiteNiAsS
S ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42
S BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
FeIron
Fe GaravelliteFeSbBiS4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe SideriteFeCO3
NiNickel
Ni UllmanniteNiSbS
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Ni VaesiteNiS2
Ni GersdorffiteNiAsS
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(X)2Sb4S13
Cu MeneghinitePb13CuSb7S24
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As GersdorffiteNiAsS
SbAntimony
Sb GaravelliteFeSbBiS4
Sb TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(X)2Sb4S13
Sb MeneghinitePb13CuSb7S24
Sb UllmanniteNiSbS
Sb ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42
Sb BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb MeneghinitePb13CuSb7S24
Pb ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42
Pb BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
BiBismuth
Bi GaravelliteFeSbBiS4
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
D’Achiardi, A. (1881) Su di alcuni minerali della miniera del Frigido presso Massa nelle Alpi Apuane. Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Proc. Verb., 2: 171-178.
Manasse, E. (1906) Tetraedrite del Frigido (varietà Frigidite) e minerali che l'accompagnano. Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memorie, 22, 81-93.
- Monetti L., 1922. Miniera di rame e ferro detta del Frigido (Comune di Massa, Provincia di Massa-Carrara). Mem. Soc. Lunig. G. Cappellini Storia Nat. Reg., 3: 84-87
- Monetti L., 1924. La miniera di rame e ferro del Frigido. Rass. Min. Metallurg. Chim., 61: 11.
- Zaccagna D., 1932. I giacimenti ferriferi di Monte Tambura e Fondone e Fornovolasco, piombo argentifero di Bottino e Valdicastello, rame del Frigido e di Vagli, mercurifero di Levigliani e Ripa. Mem. Descr. Carta Geol. Ital.: 390-403.
Angelillis, R. (1973) Escursione mineralogica alla miniera del Frigido (Toscana). Notizie del Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo, 4, 3 (settembre 1973), 70.
Del Caldo, A., Moro, C., Gramaccioli, C.M., and Boscardin, M. (1973) Guida ai minerali. Fratelli Fabbri Editori, Milano, 208 pp.
Gregorio, F., Lattanzi, P., Tanelli, G., and Vurro, F. (1979) Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, a new mineral from the Cu-Fe deposit of Valle del Frigido in the Apuane Alps, northern Tuscany, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 99-102.
Kutufà, C., and Ruggieri, G. (1979) Notizie sulla miniera del Frigido. Notizie del Gruppo Mineralogico Fiorentino, 6, 1-4.
- Carrozzini B., Garavelli C. L., Vurro F., 1991. Tetrahedrite (supposed Frigidite) and associated Ni minerals from Frigido mine (Apuane Alps). Period. Miner., 60: 5-14.
- Carrozzini B., Garavelli C. L., Vurro F., 1993. Zinkenite and associated sulfides and sulfosalts from the Frigido mine (Apuane Alps). Period. Miner., 62: 13-28.

Other Regions, Features and Areas containg this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
Italy

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