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Penrhyn Slate Quarry, Bethesda, Gwynedd, Wales, UKi
Regional Level Types
Penrhyn Slate QuarryQuarry
Bethesda- not defined -
Gwynedd- not defined -
WalesCountry
UKCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 53° 9' 43'' North , 4° 3' 51'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 53.16212,-4.06438
GeoHash:G#: gcmn7tb7v
UK National Grid Reference:SH620648
Locality type:Quarry
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Bethesda4,735 (2017)2.2km
Tregarth1,307 (2017)3.5km
Deiniolen1,379 (2017)4.8km
Llanberis1,844 (2017)6.5km
Bangor17,988 (2017)8.5km
Other/historical names associated with this locality:Caernarvonshire


First developed in 1770 by Richard Pennant, who became the first Baron Penrhyn, Penrhyn Quarry, a huge pit a mile long and 1200 ft deep is reputedly the world's largest slate quarry.

Profits from the quarry financed the construction of Penrhyn Castle at nearby Bangor. A feature of the castle is the great four-poster bed of Penrhyn slate, which weighs four tons.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
British IslesGroup of Islands

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


9 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: National Museum of Wales database and ian jones collection
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: National Museum of Wales database
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: National Museum of Wales database
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: National Museum of Wales database
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: National Museum of Wales database
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Tangeite ?
Formula: CaCu(VO4)(OH)
Description: Green et al. (2008): "The only additional report of tangeite is at Penrhyn Quarry near Bethesda in Wales, where 'calciovolborthite' was claimed on the basis of a single specimen in the private collection of a Danish mineralogist (Bevins, 1994). This record is unconfirmed."
Reference: Bevins, R.E. (1994) A Mineralogy of Wales. National Museum of Wales, Geological Series No. 16. Cardiff.; Green, D.I., Hubbard, N., and Ince, F. (2008) A review of the occurrences of the copper vanadate minerals volborthite and tangeite in the British Isles. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 54-58.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Tangeite ?8.BH.35CaCu(VO4)(OH)
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Tangeite ?41.5.1.6CaCu(VO4)(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H TangeiteCaCu(VO4)(OH)
CCarbon
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O HematiteFe2O3
O QuartzSiO2
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O TangeiteCaCu(VO4)(OH)
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
AlAluminium
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S ChalcociteCu2S
CaCalcium
Ca TangeiteCaCu(VO4)(OH)
VVanadium
V TangeiteCaCu(VO4)(OH)
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
CuCopper
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu TangeiteCaCu(VO4)(OH)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Silurian
419.2 - 443.8 Ma



ID: 3185808
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Silurian (419.2 - 443.8 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Ordovician
443.8 - 485.4 Ma



ID: 3148570
Ordovician limestone

Age: Ordovician (443.8 - 485.4 Ma)

Lithology: Limestone

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Early Cambrian
511 - 541 Ma



ID: 2032828
Lower Cambrian Rocks (Undifferentiated)

Age: Cambrian (511 - 541 Ma)

Lithology: Mudstone, siltstone and sandstone

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Bevins, R.E. (1994) A Mineralogy of Wales. National Museum of Wales, Geological Series No. 16. Cardiff.
Green, D.I., Hubbard, N., and Ince, F. (2008) A review of the occurrences of the copper vanadate minerals volborthite and tangeite in the British Isles. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 54-58.


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