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Bi'r Tawilah, Mintaqah Makkah, Saudi Arabia

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Key
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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 22° 44' North , 42° 43' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 22.73333,42.71667
GeoHash:G#: sun3k43r6
Köppen climate type:BWh : Hot deserts climate


Vein/stockwork type tungsten deposit.
Investigated in detail and declared as not economically exploitable.

Regions containing this locality

Arabian Peninsula

Peninsula - 400 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


13 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.; Surour, A. A., Harbi, H. M., & Ahmed, A. H. (2014). The Bi’r Tawilah deposit, central western Saudi Arabia: Supergene enrichment of a Pan-African epithermal gold mineralization. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 89, 149-163.
'Biotite'
Reference: Surour, A. A., Harbi, H. M., & Ahmed, A. H. (2014). The Bi’r Tawilah deposit, central western Saudi Arabia: Supergene enrichment of a Pan-African epithermal gold mineralization. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 89, 149-163.
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.; Surour, A. A., Harbi, H. M., & Ahmed, A. H. (2014). The Bi’r Tawilah deposit, central western Saudi Arabia: Supergene enrichment of a Pan-African epithermal gold mineralization. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 89, 149-163.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Surour, A. A., Harbi, H. M., & Ahmed, A. H. (2014). The Bi’r Tawilah deposit, central western Saudi Arabia: Supergene enrichment of a Pan-African epithermal gold mineralization. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 89, 149-163.
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Reference: Surour, A. A., Harbi, H. M., & Ahmed, A. H. (2014). The Bi’r Tawilah deposit, central western Saudi Arabia: Supergene enrichment of a Pan-African epithermal gold mineralization. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 89, 149-163.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.; Surour, A. A., Harbi, H. M., & Ahmed, A. H. (2014). The Bi’r Tawilah deposit, central western Saudi Arabia: Supergene enrichment of a Pan-African epithermal gold mineralization. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 89, 149-163.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Surour, A. A., Harbi, H. M., & Ahmed, A. H. (2014). The Bi’r Tawilah deposit, central western Saudi Arabia: Supergene enrichment of a Pan-African epithermal gold mineralization. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 89, 149-163.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Surour, A. A., Harbi, H. M., & Ahmed, A. H. (2014). The Bi’r Tawilah deposit, central western Saudi Arabia: Supergene enrichment of a Pan-African epithermal gold mineralization. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 89, 149-163.
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Surour, A. A., Harbi, H. M., & Ahmed, A. H. (2014). The Bi’r Tawilah deposit, central western Saudi Arabia: Supergene enrichment of a Pan-African epithermal gold mineralization. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 89, 149-163.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.; Surour, A. A., Harbi, H. M., & Ahmed, A. H. (2014). The Bi’r Tawilah deposit, central western Saudi Arabia: Supergene enrichment of a Pan-African epithermal gold mineralization. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 89, 149-163.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Surour, A. A., Harbi, H. M., & Ahmed, A. H. (2014). The Bi’r Tawilah deposit, central western Saudi Arabia: Supergene enrichment of a Pan-African epithermal gold mineralization. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 89, 149-163.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.; Surour, A. A., Harbi, H. M., & Ahmed, A. H. (2014). The Bi’r Tawilah deposit, central western Saudi Arabia: Supergene enrichment of a Pan-African epithermal gold mineralization. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 89, 149-163.
Stannite
Formula: Cu2FeSnS4
Reference: Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Reference: Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Electrum'1.AA.05(Au, Ag)
'Gold'1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Arsenopyrite'2.EB.20FeAsS
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Galena'2.CD.10PbS
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stannite2.CB.15aCu2FeSnS4
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 3 - Halides
'Fluorite'3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Cassiterite'4.DB.05SnO2
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
'Rutile'4.DB.05TiO2
Group 9 - Silicates
'Muscovite'9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
Wolframite-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Stannite2.9.2.1Cu2FeSnS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Electrum'-(Au, Ag)
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
OOxygen
O CassiteriteSnO2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O RutileTiO2
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
AlAluminium
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SSulfur
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S StanniteCu2FeSnS4
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca FluoriteCaF2
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
MnManganese
Mn Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
FeIron
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe StanniteCu2FeSnS4
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Fe Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu StanniteCu2FeSnS4
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
AgSilver
Ag Electrum(Au, Ag)
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
Sn StanniteCu2FeSnS4
SbAntimony
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
WTungsten
W Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
AuGold
Au Electrum(Au, Ag)
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Ediacaran - Cryogenian
541 - 720 Ma



ID: 3306996

Age: Neoproterozoic (541 - 720 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary and volcaniclastic

Reference: Thiéblemont, D. (ed.). New edition of the 1:10,000,000 geological map of Africa. CGMW-BRGM. [190]

Neoproterozoic
541 - 1000 Ma



ID: 3189316
Neoproterozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks

Age: Neoproterozoic (541 - 1000 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary and volcanic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
- Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): International Strategic Mineral Issues Summary Report - Tungsten. US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.
Surour, A. A., Harbi, H. M., & Ahmed, A. H. (2014). The Bi’r Tawilah deposit, central western Saudi Arabia: Supergene enrichment of a Pan-African epithermal gold mineralization. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 89, 149-163.


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