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Tolfa Mts District, Rome Province, Latium, Italy

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Name(s) in local language(s):Distretto dei Monti della Tolfa, Provincia di Roma, Lazio, Italia
Location is approximate, estimate based on other nearby localities.
 
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 41° North , 12° East (est.)
Margin of Error:~74km
Locality type:District
Köppen climate type:Csa : Hot-summer Mediterranean climate


Tolfa Mountains district, located a few kilometres from Civitavecchia and about 60 km NW of Rome, is formed by a hilly mass that rises for 638 meters and is characterized by variable morphology. The landscape is characterised by numerous ranges mostly covered with coppice or extensive grazing land. The towns of Tolfa and Allumiere are situated on the top of these ranges which formed following a series of volcanic eruptions in the Pliocene period. The town of Allumiere owes its origins and its name to alum, a mineral substance of world-wide interest during past centuries, obtained from the large alunite deposits here discovered in the 15th century by Giovanni di Castro, a former textile merchant. Tolfa Mountains district is part of the Tolfa-Cerite (Cerveteri)-Manziana volcanic complex, which is considered the southernmost exposure of the Tuscan magmatic province.

The Tolfa-Cerite-Manziana volcanism makes up a multi-centre acid volcanic complex formed by lava flows and domes ranging from quartz-latites to high silica rhyolites. The age is 4.2 to 2.3 Ma (Fornaseri, 1985). Pinarelli (1987 and 1991) and Bertagnini et al. (1995) suggested that the Tolfa-Cerite-Manziana magmatism is generated by crustal melting and variable mixing with mafic potassic liquids. Mafic enclaves show incompatible element patterns similar to those of mafic rocks from Tuscany and for this reason the Tolfa-Cerite-Manziana volcanic complex is considered the southernmost end of the Tuscan magmatic province (Peccerillo & Donati, 2003).
The three main outcrops are located in the area Tolfa-Allumiere, at Cerveteri, and Manziana, whereas smaller outcrops are present at Tolfaccia, Roccaccia, Montagnola, and Fosso Eri. The volcanic rocks occur as a series of lava domes, often fumarolized and silicified, bearing variable amounts of magmatic enclaves, and forming a NW-SE trending uplifted structure. An explosive volcanic activity, leading to the formation of ignimbritic deposits, now eroded or intensely altered, preceded the emplacement of the lava domes.

Following volcanite emplacements, hydrothermal fluids upwelling through fault pattern metasomatised both the Cretaceous-Palaeogene flysch formation and volcanics. As regards the former terranes, hydrothermal alteration produced a heavy loss of carbonate component, while volcanic rocks were severely kaolinitised, alunitised, and silicified. Mineralising processes generated abundant deposits of phanerocrystalline calcite, while sulphide-minerals were mainly disseminated in hydrothermal calcite as well as altered flysch, only locally being concentrated in veins. The most important sulphide-minerals occurring at Tolfa Mts. are pyrite, galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite; subordinate occurrences of other minerals, however, are also reported. Mine workings at Tolfa Mts., commenced in medieval times, have been completely abandoned in the 1950s, since they were uneconomical.

Kaolinite, dickite, and halloysite (both 7Å and 10Å), in decreasing order of abundance, are among the main constituents of the altered acidic lavas and ignimbrites of the Tolfa-Cerite volcanic groups and are often associated (Lombardi & Mattias, 1979; Lombardi, 1984). Alunite is the main component of the hydrothermally-altered volcanics in the Tolfa-Allumiere area. More than 18 million tons of alunite were extracted from the area between 1465 and the beginning of the 20th century.


Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

58 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Poli, G., Perugini, D. (2003): Tolfa, Cerveteri and Manziana volcanic area. Per. Mineral., 72, 2 (Special Issue), 27-39.
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Alunite (TL)
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 559; Lombardi, G. (1967): Ricerche su rocce alunitiche del settore di Tolfa-Allumiere (Lazio). Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma, 399-462.
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Andradite var: Melanite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
'Apatite'
Reference: Pinarelli, L. (1987): Genetic and evolutive models of Tolfa-Cerveteri-Manziana volcanic complex (Italy): geochemical and petrological evidences. Rend. Soc. Ital. Mineral. Petrol., 42, 312-313.
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
'Biotite'
Reference: Poli, G., Perugini, D. (2003): Tolfa, Cerveteri and Manziana volcanic area. Per. Mineral., 72, 2 (Special Issue), 27-39.; Pinarelli, L. (1987): Genetic and evolutive models of Tolfa-Cerveteri-Manziana volcanic complex (Italy): geochemical and petrological evidences. Rend. Soc. Ital. Mineral. Petrol., 42, 312-313.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Chalcostibite
Formula: CuSbS2
'Chlorite Group'
Chondrodite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Reference: Pinarelli, L. (1987): Genetic and evolutive models of Tolfa-Cerveteri-Manziana volcanic complex (Italy): geochemical and petrological evidences. Rend. Soc. Ital. Mineral. Petrol., 42, 312-313.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Dawsonite
Formula: NaAlCO3(OH)2
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Lombardi, G., Mattias, P. (1979): Petrology and mineralogy of the kaolin and alunite mineralizations of Latium (Italy). Geol. Romana, 18, 157-214; Lombardi, G. (1984): Thermal analysis in the investigation of zeolitized and altered volcanics of Latium, Italy. Clay Minerals, 19, 789-801.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Galena
Formula: PbS
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Pinarelli, L. (1987): Genetic and evolutive models of Tolfa-Cerveteri-Manziana volcanic complex (Italy): geochemical and petrological evidences. Rend. Soc. Ital. Mineral. Petrol., 42, 312-313.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Graphite
Formula: C
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Halloysite-10Å
Formula: Al2Si2O5(OH)4 · 2H2O
Reference: Lombardi, G., Mattias, P. (1979): Petrology and mineralogy of the kaolin and alunite mineralizations of Latium (Italy). Geol. Romana, 18, 157-214; Lombardi, G. (1984): Thermal analysis in the investigation of zeolitized and altered volcanics of Latium, Italy. Clay Minerals, 19, 789-801.
Halloysite-7Å
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Lombardi, G., Mattias, P. (1979): Petrology and mineralogy of the kaolin and alunite mineralizations of Latium (Italy). Geol. Romana, 18, 157-214; Lombardi, G. (1984): Thermal analysis in the investigation of zeolitized and altered volcanics of Latium, Italy. Clay Minerals, 19, 789-801.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Lombardi, G., Mattias, P. (1979): Petrology and mineralogy of the kaolin and alunite mineralizations of Latium (Italy). Geol. Romana, 18, 157-214; Lombardi, G. (1984): Thermal analysis in the investigation of zeolitized and altered volcanics of Latium, Italy. Clay Minerals, 19, 789-801.
'K Feldspar'
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Mercury
Formula: Hg
'Mica Group'
'Monazite'
Mordenite
Formula: (Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Reference: Giovanni Scapin Collection
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: Poli, G., Perugini, D. (2003): Tolfa, Cerveteri and Manziana volcanic area. Per. Mineral., 72, 2 (Special Issue), 27-39.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Pinarelli, L. (1987): Genetic and evolutive models of Tolfa-Cerveteri-Manziana volcanic complex (Italy): geochemical and petrological evidences. Rend. Soc. Ital. Mineral. Petrol., 42, 312-313.
Rosasite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Sanidine
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Poli, G., Perugini, D. (2003): Tolfa, Cerveteri and Manziana volcanic area. Per. Mineral., 72, 2 (Special Issue), 27-39.; Pinarelli, L. (1987): Genetic and evolutive models of Tolfa-Cerveteri-Manziana volcanic complex (Italy): geochemical and petrological evidences. Rend. Soc. Ital. Mineral. Petrol., 42, 312-313.
Serpierite
Formula: Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Staurolite
Formula: Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Vesuvianite
Formula: (Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Wavellite
Formula: Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Pinarelli, L. (1987): Genetic and evolutive models of Tolfa-Cerveteri-Manziana volcanic complex (Italy): geochemical and petrological evidences. Rend. Soc. Ital. Mineral. Petrol., 42, 312-313.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Graphite'1.CB.05aC
Mercury1.AD.05Hg
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Chalcocite'2.BA.05Cu2S
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Chalcostibite'2.HA.05CuSbS2
'Cinnabar'2.CD.15aHgS
'Galena'2.CD.10PbS
'Marcasite'2.EB.10aFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stibnite2.DB.05Sb2S3
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 3 - Halides
'Fluorite'3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Cuprite'4.AA.10Cu2O
'Goethite'4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
'Hematite'4.CB.05Fe2O3
'Ilmenite'4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
'Magnetite'4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Azurite'5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
'Cerussite'5.AB.15PbCO3
'Dawsonite'5.BB.10NaAlCO3(OH)2
'Dolomite'5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
'Malachite'5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite5.BA.10(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Alunite' (TL)7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
'Anglesite'7.AD.35PbSO4
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
'Gypsum'7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Melanterite7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Serpierite7.DD.30Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Wavellite8.DC.50Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
'Almandine'9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
'Andradite'9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
var: Melanite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
'Chondrodite'9.AF.45(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
'Cordierite'9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
'Dickite'9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Epidote'9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Grossular'9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
'Halloysite-7Å'9.ED.10Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Kaolinite'9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mordenite9.GD.35(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Sanidine9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Staurolite9.AF.30Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Vesuvianite9.BG.35(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Wollastonite9.DG.05CaSiO3
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Halloysite-10Å'-Al2Si2O5(OH)4 · 2H2O
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Mica Group-
Monazite-
Pyroxene Group-
Smectite Group-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Mercury1.1.7.1Hg
Semi-metals and non-metals
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Stibnite2.11.2.1Sb2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ø = 2
Chalcostibite3.7.5.1CuSbS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Dawsonite16a.3.8.1NaAlCO3(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite16a.3.1.2(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite (TL)30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Serpierite31.6.2.1Ca(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Wavellite42.10.2.1Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Staurolite52.2.3.1Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Chondrodite52.3.2b.2(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Wollastonite65.2.1.1cCaSiO3
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Dickite71.1.1.1Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Sanidine76.1.1.2K(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Mordenite77.1.6.1(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Andradite
var: Melanite
-Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Halloysite-10Å-Al2Si2O5(OH)4 · 2H2O
Halloysite-7Å-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Mica Group'-
'Monazite'-
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H DawsoniteNaAlCO3(OH)2
H DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H Halloysite-10ÅAl2Si2O5(OH)4 · 2H2O
H Halloysite-7ÅAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
H SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
H Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
H StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
H Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
H WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
BBoron
B Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
CCarbon
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C DawsoniteNaAlCO3(OH)2
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C GraphiteC
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
C SideriteFeCO3
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
OOxygen
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O AnglesitePbSO4
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O CerussitePbCO3
O Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O CupriteCu2O
O DawsoniteNaAlCO3(OH)2
O DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O Halloysite-10ÅAl2Si2O5(OH)4 · 2H2O
O Halloysite-7ÅAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O HematiteFe2O3
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O Andradite (var: Melanite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O QuartzSiO2
O Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
O RutileTiO2
O SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
O SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
O SideriteFeCO3
O Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
O WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
O WollastoniteCaSiO3
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
FFluorine
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
F Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
F FluoriteCaF2
F Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
F WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
NaSodium
Na DawsoniteNaAlCO3(OH)2
Na Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Na Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
MgMagnesium
Mg Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
AlAluminium
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al DawsoniteNaAlCO3(OH)2
Al DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al Halloysite-10ÅAl2Si2O5(OH)4 · 2H2O
Al Halloysite-7ÅAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Al SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
Al StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Al Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Al WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
SiSilicon
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si Halloysite-10ÅAl2Si2O5(OH)4 · 2H2O
Si Halloysite-7ÅAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Andradite (var: Melanite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
Si StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Si WollastoniteCaSiO3
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
PPhosphorus
P WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
SSulfur
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BaryteBaSO4
S ChalcociteCu2S
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S ChalcostibiteCuSbS2
S CinnabarHgS
S GalenaPbS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
S SphaleriteZnS
S StibniteSb2S3
S SulphurS8
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ClChlorine
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
KPotassium
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
K Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
K SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Andradite (var: Melanite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Ca SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Ca WollastoniteCaSiO3
TiTitanium
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
MnManganese
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
FeIron
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe Andradite (var: Melanite)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Fe Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
CuCopper
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChalcostibiteCuSbS2
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ZnZinc
Zn Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Zn SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
SbAntimony
Sb ChalcostibiteCuSbS2
Sb StibniteSb2S3
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
HgMercury
Hg CinnabarHgS
Hg MercuryHg
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb GalenaPbS

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Lombardi, G. (1967): Ricerche su rocce alunitiche del settore di Tolfa-Allumiere (Lazio). Per. Mineral., 36, 399-450.
Fazzini, P., Gelmini, R., Mantovani, M.P., Pellegrini, M. (l972): Geologia dei Monti della Tolfa (Lazio settentrionale, province di Viterbo e Roma). Mem. Soc. Geol. Ital., 11, 65-144.
Field, C., Lombardi, G. (1972): Sulfur isotopic evidence for the supergene origin of alunite deposits, Tolfa district, Italy. Miner. Deposita, 7, 113-125.
Barberi, M., Ferrini, V., Lombardi, G., Penta, A. (1978): Use of strontium in carbonates for the interpretation of the deep minerogenetic fluid circulation in the Tolfa Mts. (Rome). Chem. Erde, 37, 143-153.
Lombardi, G., Mattias, P. (1979): Petrology and mineralogy of the kaolin and alunite mineralizations of Latium (Italy). Geol. Romana, 18, 157-214.
Lombardi, G. (1984): Thermal analysis in the investigation of zeolitized and altered volcanics of Latium, Italy. Clay Minerals, 19, 789-801.
Fornaseri, M. (1985): Geochronology of volcanic rocks from Latium (Italy). Rend. Soc. Ital. Mineral. Petrol., 40, 73-106.
Pinarelli, L. (1987): Genetic and evolutive models of Tolfa-Cerveteri-Manziana volcanic complex (Italy): geochemical and petrological evidences. Rend. Soc. Ital. Mineral. Petrol., 42, 312-313.
Pinarelli, L. (1991): Geochemical and isotopic (Sr, Pb) evidence of crust-mantle interaction in acidic melts - The Tolfa-Cerveteri-Manziana volcanic complex (central Italy): a case history. Chem. Geol., 92, 177–195.
Bertagnini, A., De Rita, D., Landi, P. (1995): Mafic inclusions in the silica-rich rocks of the Tolfa-Ceriti-Manziana volcanic district (Tuscan Province, Central Italy): Chemistry and mineralogy. Mineralogy and Petrology, 54, 3, 261-276.
Peccerillo, A., Donati, C. (2003): The Tuscan magmatic province. Per. Mineral., 72, 2 (Special Issue), 27-39.
Poli, G., Perugini, D. (2003): Tolfa, Cerveteri and Manziana volcanic area. Per. Mineral., 72, 2 (Special Issue), 27-39.

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