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Wheal Peevor, Redruth, Cornwall, England, UKi
Regional Level Types
Wheal PeevorMine
Redruth- not defined -
CornwallCounty
EnglandConstituent Country
UKCountry

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Wheal Peevor - Stamps Engine House

Wheal Peevor, Redruth, Cornwall, England, UK
Wheal Peevor Pumping Engine Shaft

Wheal Peevor, Redruth, Cornwall, England, UK
Wheal Peevor - Stamps Engine House

Wheal Peevor, Redruth, Cornwall, England, UK
Wheal Peevor Pumping Engine Shaft

Wheal Peevor, Redruth, Cornwall, England, UK
Wheal Peevor - Stamps Engine House

Wheal Peevor, Redruth, Cornwall, England, UK
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
50° 15' 11'' North , 5° 13' 0'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
UK National Grid Reference:
SW707443
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
North Country773 (2017)1.5km
Redruth42,690 (2017)2.3km
St. Day700 (2011)2.7km
Mount Hawke1,511 (2017)3.3km
Chacewater1,226 (2017)4.2km


At the end of the 17th century the area around Wheal Peevor North Downs was bounded (registered with the Stannary) for tin. The surface outcrops of the known lodes at the time, down to the water table, had payable tin ore (cassiterite). Right across North Downs, from Wheal Peevor in the west to Wheal Rose and Hallenbeagle in the east, copper was searched for from 1700 onwards.

The earliest registered tin bounds found at the location are the Wheal Moor Bounds. The northern part of Wheal Moor Bounds was occupied at the time by a small mine or lode working called Wheal Pevor or Wheal Peevor.

Tin bounds, called Wheal Variah (Vreagh), were being searched for copper in this area by 1701, when Sir John St Aubyn of Clowance leased the small mine there to Gabriel Wayne, a copper entrepreneur from Gloucestershire. Wheal Variah lay a short distance to the north and north-east of Wheal Peevor. The 1701 agreement granted all other copper bearing lodes to Wayne, and these included those at Wheal Peevor and West Wheal Peevor.

As the century progressed the ancient tin bounds being worked for copper were named, and by 1732 alongside Wheal Variah small mines called Wheal Christo, Wheal Widden, Wheal Pendarves and Wheal Moor were being mined for copper and tin. The northern part of Wheal Moor Bounds lay at the western end of North Downs, and as noted above, was occupied by a small tin and copper mine called Wheal Pevor (Peevor).

The Engine Shaft and Footway Shaft at the centre of that 18th century mine lay well to the east-south-east of the present 19th century mine buildings at a distance of some 270 metres 3. The early 18th century saw the shift from copper production to tin production as the mines deepened below the water table and entered the ‘tin zone’.

At Wheal Peevor, although copper was also sought, tin remained important, and continued so throughout its history.

Although occupying a very small surface area, the 18th century mine had an engine, almost certainly a water engine, fed by leats, and was at least 15 fathoms below adit level. The working appears to have been over 60 metres deep by this time, and exploited one predominantly copper ore bearing lode and one tin lode.

By December 1793 the greatest mine drainage scheme of Cornwall - the Great County Adit - was driven into Wheal Peevor, thus providing a much cheaper and efficient method for reducing water in the mine. The County Adit lay at a depth of 48-50 fathoms (87-90 metres) and vastly increased the drained ground available for mining and improved the economy and efficiency of the operation.

In 1818 the mine had been worked to the 56 fathom level, at a depth of 106 fathoms (190 metres). It had a Shallow Adit and the Deep Adit or County Adit. Five lodes were being worked, three tin and two copper lodes. These lodes were intersected and disrupted by four crosscourses and a slide (fault).

In 1819 Richard Thomas reported on his massive survey of all the mines between Chacewater and Camborne. Thomas' comprehensive description of Wheal Peevor, which accompanied his clear and detailed map, shows the mine on its present site, and describes the 18th century Engine Shaft to the east-south-east as Old Wheal Peevor Shaft. At this time Wheal Peevor was struggling and Thomas reported 'very little doing here now'. By 1843, J Y Watson in his Compendium of British Mining (p25) mentions Wheal Peevor, but does not say if it was working. Thomas Spargo in his Mines of Cornwall (1865) does not mention Wheal Peevor, unless it was part of North Downs or Great North Downs Mines.

After a period of idleness Wheal Peevor reopened in 1871/72 and began another very productive period. Between 1872-88 she sold £156,165 worth of black tin and a small quantity of copper ore. Income peaked in 1880 with £31,678 worth of black tin sold. Between 1878-82 the mine sold 2,287 tons of black tin and paid out £27,716 in dividends, after calls of £22,650.

In 1881 Wheal Peevor employed 319 workers, 183 underground and 139 at surface - making it a significant mine for the time. During 1872-93 and 1911-15 Wheal Peevor worked on its own, with West Peevor and with North Downs Mines. When the tin price rose, Wheal Peevor reopened and by 1913 employed 67 workers (20 underground/47 surface) but closed in 1915, due to shortages and costs. In 1938 Mr G A P Moorhead invetigated Peevor, but no working resulted from this trial.

During the 1960s another attempt to explore Peevor and West Peevor was attempted but abandoned when heavy rain storms flooded the workings above County Adit due to the adit's blockage. No significant activity has taken place at Wheal Peevor since 1967.


The site is marked by three prominent engine houses, the central and largest of these is the pumping engine house on Sir Fredericks Engine shaft.

To the east of this lies the old beam winding engine house that hoisted from Sir Fredericks shaft.

The third engine hous lies to the west-north-west of the engine shaft and housed the original beam engine that drove the stamps.

The remains of the dressing floors lie on the slope to the west-south-west of the stamps engine house, with the old calciners and their stack being the most obvious of these remains.

In 2005 the engine houses and other remains were conserved as part of the Cornish Mining World Heritage Site project.

During the work to make Sir Fredericks Shaft safe the dumps were partially relocated allowing some interesting specimens to be collected.

Unfortunately, despite the recommendations made in the mineralogical watching brief report that the dumps should not be covered to prevent mineral collecting, they have been covered in soil and allowed to become overgrown.

There is now considerably less opportunity to collect on the site than prior to the conservation work.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
British IslesGroup of Islands
Devon and Cornwall metalliferous mining district, England, UKMining District
Camborne-Redruth and St Day Mining District, Cornwall, England, UKMining District

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

8 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Reference: G.Curtis collection; Dale Foster specimen & photo
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, p. 376.
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, p. 376.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Dale Foster Collection
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Dale Foster Collection
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, p. 376.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Dale Foster Collection
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: G.Curtis collection
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Reference: Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, p. 376.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Anatase4.DD.05TiO2
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Group 9 - Silicates
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals for each chemical element

CCarbon
C CerussitePbCO3
OOxygen
O Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
O CassiteriteSnO2
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O AnataseTiO2
O CerussitePbCO3
SiSilicon
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
CaCalcium
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ti AnataseTiO2
MnManganese
Mn Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
WTungsten
W Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb CerussitePbCO3

Geochronology

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Paleozoic
  Permian
   Guadalupian
ⓘ Major polymetallic mineralization~270 MaCornwall, England, UK
   Cisuralian
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (latest age)~275 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (latest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (earliest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Formation of metallized pegmatites~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (earliest age)~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Emplacement of major plutons~295 MaCornwall, England, UK

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3192903
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Late Devonian
358.9 - 382.7 Ma



ID: 3135052
Late Devonian claystone

Age: Late Devonian (358.9 - 382.7 Ma)

Lithology: Claystone

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Middle Devonian
382.7 - 393.3 Ma



ID: 2035678
Middle Devonian (Undifferentiated)

Age: Middle Devonian (382.7 - 393.3 Ma)

Lithology: Mudstone, siltstone and sandstone

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
- Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 374-376.
Foster, D (2005): Wheal Peevor Mine Mineralogical Watching Brief. Crofty Consultancy Report MS16083.

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