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Bonanza Mine (Kennicott Mine; Erie; Jumbo; Mother Lode; Kennecott unpatented claims), Kennecott, Nizina District, Valdez-Cordova Borough, Alaska, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 61° 30' 54'' North , 142° 50' 12'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 61.51500,-142.83694
GeoHash:G#: bffmvwmqc
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:ET : Tundra


Location: The Bonanza mine is on the ridge between McCarthy Creek and lower Kennicott Glacier (MacKevett, 1970 [GQ 899]). It is at an elevation of about 5,950 feet, 3,000 feet north-northwest of elevation 6184, and 2,500 feet south of Bonaza Peak (elevation 6,983 feet). The mine is in the northwest corner of section 23, T4S, R14E, Copper River Meridian, and its location is shown on the McCarthy C-5 quadrangle (1993 edition). This is locality 89 of MacKevett (1976), and Cobb and MacKevett (1980) included it under the name 'Kennecott Copper Corp.'. This site is often described with the Mother Lode (MC090), Jumbo (MC091), and Erie (MC083) mines; some of the above MRDS numbers may be for these other mines. The locality is in the Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve.

Geology: The Bonanza, Erie (MC083), Mother Lode (MC090), and Jumbo (MC091) mines, all on the ridge between McCarthy Creek and Kennicott and Root Glaciers, produced significant amounts of high-grade copper ore when they were operated by Kennecott Copper Corporation between 1911 and 1938. These mines developed several different ore bodies but their underground workings were interconnected. Together they produced 4 million metric tons of ore with a grade of 13 percent copper. The estimated 536,000 tons of copper that was recovered was accompanied by about 100 tons of silver (MacKevett and others, 1997). No other metals were of economic importance in these ore bodies. Bateman and McLaughlin (1920) and Lasky (1929) provide important descriptions of the geology, mineralogy, and structure of these deposits. Cobb and MacKevett (1980) refer to the many Federal government publications, dating from the time of the Bonanza discovery in 1900, that contain information about them. MacKevett and others (1997) provide an excellent synthesis and interpretation of the structure, stratigraphy, economic geology, and geochemistry of these deposits. This record largely summarizes information provided by MacKevett and others (1997).

The Bonanza vein and other nearby ore bodies are localized in the lower part of the Upper Triassic Chitistone Limestone. The base of the mineralization was commonly 27 to 37 meters stratigraphically above the contact of the Chitistone Limestone with the underlying Upper Triassic Nikolai Greenstone. The development of intertidal carbonate-facies rocks with stromatolites, bacterial mats, gypsum, and anhydrite in the lower Chitistone Limestone is one important control on the development and location of the ore bodies. Steep, northeast-trending fissures up to 300 meters long are another important control on the location of the major ore bodies. These fissures show minor displacement of bedding in the Chitistone Limestone and localize breccia and trangressive dolomite alteration. The breccia zones, thought by MacKevett and others (1997) to be early collapse breccia along solution-enlarged fissures, laterally envelop the ore bodies and extend stratigraphically upward above them. The Bonanza vein ore body is about 580 meters long, 0.5 to 15 meters wide at its base, and 50 to 60 meters high (Bateman and McLaughlin, 1920). It strikes N 45-60 E and dips 75 SE to vertical. The width decreases upwards from a sharp base on a bedding plane in the Chitistone Limestone about 30 meters stratigraphically above the Nikolai Greenstone. The ore body merges into narrow and weakly mineralized structures both laterally and upward. Other ore bodies at the Bonanza mine include the narrow, 400 meter long and 60 meter high Birch vein that contains copper sulfide-bearing veinlets, pods, and disseminations. The Birch vein produced 125,000 tons of ore with 9.37 percent copper. The Flat ore body and other small deposits in the Bonanza mine are mineralized zones localized along bedding in the Chitistone Limestone. Typically the large high-grade copper deposits of the area, like the Bonanza vein, contain many minerals in the Cu2S-CuS system. Chalcocite and djurleite are abundant, with minor amounts of covellite, bornite, chalcopyrite, digenite, anilite, luzonite, idaite, malachite, azurite, chalcanthite, and orpiment. Other minerals reported by Bateman and McLaughlin (1920) in minor or trace amounts include tennantite, antlerite, sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and copper arsenates. Enargite reported by Bateman and McLaughlin was not identified by MacKevett and others (1997). Although the Chitistone Limestone-hosted, copper-rich ores are mostly chalcocite and djurleite, remnant clots of earlier minerals provide a definition of the mineral paragenesis. Early pyrite, now found only in traces, was replaced by chalcopyrite, which in turn was replaced by bornite and minor covellite. The temperature of sulfide deposition fell during these stages from near 200 to 150 degrees centigrade. The main-stage ore minerals, chalcocite and djurleite, made up 95 percent of the ore and were deposited at temperatures of 90 +/- 10 degrees centigrade. Later, oxidized ore fluids overwhelmed reductants in the host rock and chalcocite was partly replaced by anilite and covellite, and finally by malachite and azurite. The common alteration at the Bonanza and other Chitistone Limestone-hosted, high-grade copper deposits in the area is trangressive dolomitization. Dolomite replacement is approximately coincident with the breccia zones that laterally surround the orebodies and extend vertically above them. The replacement dolomite is coarser and lighter gray than original dolostone and it lacks any evidence of bedding (Armstrong and MacKevett, 1982; MacKevett and others, 1997). The mineralogy and geochemistry of the high-grade copper deposits combined with fluid inclusion and stable isotope data indicate that the high-grade copper ores were deposited by reactions between oxidized copper-rich brines which moved through Nikolai Greenstone and sulfur-rich fluids derived from the thermal reduction of gypsum in the presence of organic matter in the lower part of the Chitistone Limestone. The migration of the oxidized copper-rich brines to the site of deposition is thought to have accompanied regional deformation and low-grade metamorphism in the Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous (MacKevett and others, 1997). Related copper-bearing minerals were deposited in the underlying Nikolai Greenstone at about 112 Ma (Silberman and others, 1980).

Workings: The ore produced from the Bonanza mine was mined from 12 levels between surface exposures at an elevation of about 1,800 meters to a depth of about 1,450 meters in elevation.

Age: Cretaceous? The migration of the oxidized copper-rich brines to the site of deposition is thought to have accompanied regional deformation and low-grade metamorphism in the Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous (MacKevett and others, 1997). Related copper-bearing minerals were deposited in the underlying Nikolai Greenstone at about 112 Ma (Silberman and others, 1980).

Alteration: The common alteration at the Bonanza and other Chitistone Limestone-hosted, high-grade copper deposits in the area is trangressive dolomitization. Dolomite replacement is approximately coincident with the breccia zones that laterally surround the orebodies and extend vertically above them. The replacement dolomite is coarser and lighter gray than the original dolostone and it lacks any evidence of bedding (Armstrong and MacKevett, 1982; MacKevett and others, 1997). Oxidation of deposits is not related to the present land surface and practically the entire deposit has been partially oxidized, even in the deepest levels of the mine.

Production: The Bonanza mine produced 1,383,000 tons of ore containing 12.79 percent copper. The largest orebody in this mine, the Bonanza vein, produced 653,000 tons that contained 13.44 percent copper. Some of the production was from natural surface accumulations.

Commodities (Major) - Ag, Cu

Development Status: Yes; large

Deposit Model: Kennecott-type copper deposit (after MacKevett and others, 1997)

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


21 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Anilite
Formula: Cu7S4
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
Antlerite
Formula: Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
'commodity:Copper'
Formula: Cu
Reference: From USGS MRDS database
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
Djurleite
Formula: Cu31S16
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
'Greenstone'
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10308912.
Idaite
Formula: Cu5FeS6
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
'commodity:Lead'
Formula: Pb
Reference:  
'Limestone'
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10000514.
Luzonite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
Orpiment
Formula: As2S3
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
'commodity:Silver'
Formula: Ag
Reference: From USGS MRDS database
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
Tennantite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
'commodity:Zinc'
Formula: Zn
Reference:  

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Anilite'2.BA.10Cu7S4
'Bornite'2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
'Chalcocite'2.BA.05Cu2S
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Covellite'2.CA.05aCuS
'Digenite'2.BA.10Cu9S5
'Djurleite'2.BA.05Cu31S16
'Enargite'2.KA.05Cu3AsS4
'Galena'2.CD.10PbS
'Idaite'2.CB.15aCu5FeS6
'Luzonite'2.KA.10Cu3AsS4
'Orpiment'2.FA.30As2S3
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
'Sphalerite'2.CB.05aZnS
'Tennantite'2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Azurite'5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
'Dolomite'5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
'Malachite'5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Antlerite'7.BB.15Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
'Chalcanthite'7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Greenstone'-
'Limestone'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Anilite2.4.7.5Cu7S4
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Digenite2.4.7.3Cu9S5
Djurleite2.4.7.2Cu31S16
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Idaite2.9.14.1Cu5FeS6
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Orpiment2.11.1.1As2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø = 4
Enargite3.2.1.1Cu3AsS4
Luzonite3.2.2.1Cu3AsS4
3 <ø < 4
Tennantite3.3.6.2Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Antlerite30.1.12.1Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Greenstone'-
'Limestone'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
CCarbon
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
SSulfur
S AniliteCu7S4
S AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S ChalcociteCu2S
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CovelliteCuS
S DigeniteCu9S5
S DjurleiteCu31S16
S EnargiteCu3AsS4
S GalenaPbS
S IdaiteCu5FeS6
S LuzoniteCu3AsS4
S OrpimentAs2S3
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
FeIron
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe IdaiteCu5FeS6
Fe PyriteFeS2
CuCopper
Cu AniliteCu7S4
Cu AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu DigeniteCu9S5
Cu DjurleiteCu31S16
Cu EnargiteCu3AsS4
Cu IdaiteCu5FeS6
Cu LuzoniteCu3AsS4
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As EnargiteCu3AsS4
As LuzoniteCu3AsS4
As OrpimentAs2S3
As TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Holocene
0 - 0.0117 Ma



ID: 1586463
Glaciers

Age: Anthropocene (0 - 0.0117 Ma)

Reference: Wilson, F.H., Hults, C.P., Mull, C.G, and Karl, S.M. (compilers). Geologic map of Alaska. doi: 10.3133/sim3340. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3340, pamphlet 196. [21]

Late Triassic
201.3 - 237 Ma



ID: 636751
Igneous: extrusive; Extrusive: mafic

Age: Late Triassic (201.3 - 237 Ma)

Description: Okhotsk, Bering Sea, Pacific Alaska, Alaska Range

Comments: Orogen, magmatic arc/suite; Wilson & Hults, unpublished compilation, 2007-08

Lithology: Basalt, olivine basalt, tholeiite, alkali basalt, basanite, pillow basalt, flood basalt or metamorphosed equivalent

Reference: J.C. Harrison, M.R. St-Onge, O.V. Petrov, S.I. Strelnikov, B.G. Lopatin, F.H. Wilson, S. Tella, D. Paul, T. Lynds, S.P. Shokalsky, C.K. Hults, S. Bergman, H.F. Jepsen, and A. Solli. Geological map of the Arctic. doi:10.4095/287868. Geological Survey of Canada Map 2159A. [2]

Triassic
201.3 - 251.902 Ma



ID: 3191593
Mesozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Triassic (201.3 - 251.902 Ma)

Lithology: Mafic volcanic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Bateman, A.M., and McLaughlin, D.H. (1920) Geology of the ore deposits of Kennecott, Alaska: Economic Geology: 15: 1-80.
Lasky, S.G. (1929) Transverse faults at Kennecott and their relation to the main fault systems: American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers Transactions: 85: 303-317.
MacKevett, E.M., Jr. (1970) Geologic map of the McCarthy C-5 quadrangle, Alaska: USGS Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-899, 1 sheet, scale 1:63,360.
MacKevett, E.M., Jr. (1976) Mineral deposits and occurrences in the McCarthy quadrangle, Alaska: USGS Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-773-B, 2 sheets, scale 1:250,000.
Cobb, E.H., and MacKevett, E.M., Jr. (1980) Summaries of data on and lists of references to metallic and selected nonmetallic mineral deposits in the McCarthy quadrangle, Alaska: USGS Open-File Report 80-885, 156 p.
Silberman, M.L., MacKevett, E.M., Jr., Connor, C.L., and Mathews, A. (1980) Metallogenic and tectonic significance of oxygen isotope data and whole-rock potassium-argon ages of Nikolai Greenstone, McCarthy quadrangle, Alaska: USGS Open-File Report 80-2019, 31 p.
Armstrong, A.K., and MacKevett, E.M., Jr. (1982) Stratigraphy and diagenetic history of the lower part of the Triassic Chitistone Limestone, Alaska: USGS Professional Paper 1212-A, 26 p.
MacKevett, E.M., Jr., Cox, D.P., Potter, R.W., III, and Silberman, M.L. (1997) Kennecott-type deposits in the Wrangell Mountains, Alaska--High-grade copper ores near a basalt-limestone contact, in Goldfarb, R.J., and Miller, L.D., editors, Mineral deposits of Alaska: Economic Geology Monograph 9, p. 66-89.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10000514, 10112651 & 10308912 (A010706; A011719; A011791; D002176; W002710).
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) MSHA file No. 5000059.
Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF) file ID#MC083, MC090, MC091 & MC093.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0020870013.


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