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Rist Mine (North America Emerald Mine; American Gems Mine; LKA International Emerald Mine), Hiddenite, Alexander Co., North Carolina, USAi
Regional Level Types
Rist Mine (North America Emerald Mine; American Gems Mine; LKA International Emerald Mine)Mine
Hiddenite- not defined -
Alexander Co.County
North CarolinaState
USACountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
35° 54' 39'' North , 81° 5' 3'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Hiddenite536 (2017)1.0km
Stony Point1,317 (2017)6.2km
Taylorsville2,078 (2017)8.4km
Bethlehem4,214 (2017)22.2km
Moravian Falls1,901 (2017)22.5km


A gemstone occurrence/mine located 1.2 km (0.8 mile) N of Hiddenite, on private land. Operated by Emerald Valley Mines (ID: 3101636) (1978). MRDS database stated accuracy for this location is 100 meters.

Originally known as the Rist Mine, but also known as American Gems Mine, LKA International Emerald Mine, and recently (since 1995), the North American Emerald Mine. (specimen labels may be abbreviated NAEM = North American Emerald Mine). This locality is the type location for the chromian spodumene called hiddenite named for William E. Hidden and the town is named for the variety. This location is the most important North American emerald locality.

An Alpine-cleft emerald deposit. Local rocks include biotite gneiss and schist.

Workings include unspecified surface openings.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


33 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets of the Hiddenite District Alexander Co.,North Carolina: The Geological Society Of America
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Description: Garnets are a Almandine- Pyrope chemistry.
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets of the Hiddenite District Alexander Co.,North Carolina: The Geological Society Of America
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Bruce Wayne Osborne Collection
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Min Rec 36:3 p288
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344
Beryl var: Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets Of The Hiddenite District Alexander Co., North Carolina:The Geological Society of America
Beryl var: Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 60: 65.; Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:243; Mertie, John Beaver, Jr. (1959) Quartz crystal deposits of southwestern Virginia and western North Carolina. USGS Bulletin: 1072-D
Beryl var: Goshenite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets Of The Hiddenite District Alexander Co., North Carolina:The Geological Society of America
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: Wise,M.A, Dept of Mineral Science Smithsonian Institution,2003, Parageneiss of hiddenite and emerald bearing veins at the Rist Property ,North Carolina
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344; Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:243
'Chabazite'
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344
Chabazite-Ca
Formula: (Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Reference: Michael A.Wise and Alan J.Anderson,The emerald and spodumene-bearing quartz veins of the Rist emerald mine,Hiddenite, North Carolina,The Canandian Mineralogist, pg. 1529-1541
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets Of The Hiddenite District Alexander Co., North Carolina:The Geological Society of America
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets Of The Hiddenite District Alexander Co., North Carolina:The Geological Society of America
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Min Rec 36:3 p288; Mertie, John Beaver, Jr. (1959) Quartz crystal deposits of southwestern Virginia and western North Carolina. USGS Bulletin: 1072-D
Ferrosilite
Formula: FeSiO3
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets of the Hiddenite District Alexander Co.,North Carolina: The Geological Society Of America
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets Of The Hiddenite District Alexander Co., North Carolina:The Geological Society of America
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets Of The Hiddenite District Alexander Co., North Carolina:The Geological Society of America
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets Of The Hiddenite District Alexander Co., North Carolina:The Geological Society of America
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344
Graphite
Formula: C
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets of the Hiddenite District Alexander Co.,North Carolina: The Geological Society Of America
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Reference: Mineralogical Record 32(2) 129-140; Mertie, John Beaver, Jr. (1959) Quartz crystal deposits of southwestern Virginia and western North Carolina. USGS Bulletin: 1072-D
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344; Mertie, John Beaver, Jr. (1959) Quartz crystal deposits of southwestern Virginia and western North Carolina. USGS Bulletin: 1072-D
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344; Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:243
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344; Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:243; Mertie, John Beaver, Jr. (1959) Quartz crystal deposits of southwestern Virginia and western North Carolina. USGS Bulletin: 1072-D
Quartz var: Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344; Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:243
Quartz var: Bull Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets of the Hiddenite District Alexander Co.,North Carolina: The Geological Society Of America
Quartz var: Citrine
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets Of The Hiddenite District Alexander Co., North Carolina:The Geological Society of America
Quartz var: Rock Crystal
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets Of The Hiddenite District Alexander Co., North Carolina:The Geological Society of America
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets Of The Hiddenite District Alexander Co., North Carolina:The Geological Society of America
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344; Mertie, John Beaver, Jr. (1959) Quartz crystal deposits of southwestern Virginia and western North Carolina. USGS Bulletin: 1072-D
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008)Emerald Crystal Pockets Of The Hiddenite District Alexander Co.,North Carolina:The Geological Society of America
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344; Mertie, John Beaver, Jr. (1959) Quartz crystal deposits of southwestern Virginia and western North Carolina. USGS Bulletin: 1072-D
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets Of The Hiddenite District Alexander Co., North Carolina:The Geological Society of America
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344
Spodumene var: Hiddenite
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344; Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:243; Mertie, John Beaver, Jr. (1959) Quartz crystal deposits of southwestern Virginia and western North Carolina. USGS Bulletin: 1072-D
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets of the Hiddenite District Alexander Co.,North Carolina: The Geological Society Of America
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 79:5 p 344; Mertie, John Beaver, Jr. (1959) Quartz crystal deposits of southwestern Virginia and western North Carolina. USGS Bulletin: 1072-D
Xenotime-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4)
Reference: Mineralogical Record 32(2) 129-140
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets Of The Hiddenite District Alexander Co., North Carolina:The Geological Society of America

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Gersdorffite2.EB.25NiAsS
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
var: Bull Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Citrine4.DA.05SiO2
var: Rock Crystal4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Monazite-(Ce)8.AD.50Ce(PO4)
Xenotime-(Y)8.AD.35Y(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Oligoclase9.FA.35(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Aquamarine9.CJ.05Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Emerald9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Goshenite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Chabazite-Ca9.GD.10(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Ferrosilite9.DA.05FeSiO3
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Spodumene9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
var: Hiddenite9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chabazite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Gersdorffite2.12.3.2NiAsS
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Monazite-(Ce)38.4.3.1Ce(PO4)
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Ferrosilite65.1.2.2FeSiO3
Spodumene65.1.4.1LiAlSi2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Chabazite-Ca77.1.2.1(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Albite
var: Oligoclase
-(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Beryl
var: Aquamarine
-Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Emerald-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Goshenite-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chabazite'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Quartz
var: Amethyst
-SiO2
var: Bull Quartz-SiO2
var: Citrine-SiO2
var: Rock Crystal-SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz-SiO2
Spodumene
var: Hiddenite
-LiAlSi2O6
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Xenotime-(Y)-Y(PO4)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
LiLithium
Li Spodumene (var: Hiddenite)LiAlSi2O6
Li SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
BeBeryllium
Be Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Be Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C GraphiteC
C SideriteFeCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
OOxygen
O Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O QuartzSiO2
O Spodumene (var: Hiddenite)LiAlSi2O6
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O CalciteCaCO3
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O RutileTiO2
O SideriteFeCO3
O SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
O Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
O Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
O Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O Quartz (var: Citrine)SiO2
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O FerrosiliteFeSiO3
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O Quartz (var: Bull Quartz)SiO2
FFluorine
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
MgMagnesium
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
AlAluminium
Al Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Spodumene (var: Hiddenite)LiAlSi2O6
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Al Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
SiSilicon
Si Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Spodumene (var: Hiddenite)LiAlSi2O6
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Si Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si Quartz (var: Citrine)SiO2
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si FerrosiliteFeSiO3
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Quartz (var: Bull Quartz)SiO2
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
P Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
P Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
SSulfur
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S GersdorffiteNiAsS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
CaCalcium
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca Chabazite-Ca(Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
FeIron
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe FerrosiliteFeSiO3
NiNickel
Ni GersdorffiteNiAsS
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As GersdorffiteNiAsS
YYttrium
Y Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
CeCerium
Ce Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Paleozoic - Neoproterozoic
251.902 - 1000 Ma



ID: 3190741
Precambrian-Phanerozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: Neoproterozoic to Triassic (251.902 - 1000 Ma)

Comments: Piedmont

Lithology: Felsic paragneiss; amphibolite grade paragneiss/metavolcanic gneiss

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Cambrian - Neoproterozoic
485.4 - 1000 Ma



ID: 2939765
Biotite Gneiss and Schist

Age: Neoproterozoic to Cambrian (485.4 - 1000 Ma)

Description: Inequigranular, locally abundant potassic feldspar and garnet; interlayered and gradational with calc-silicate rock, sillimanite-mica schist, mica schist, and amphibolite. Contains small masses of granitic rock.

Comments: Original map source: The North Carolina Dept. of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Land Resources, NC Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, 1998 (updated 2007), Geology - North Carolina (1:250,000)

Lithology: Major:{biotite gneiss,mica schist,calc silicate rock}, Minor:{amphibolite}, Incidental:{granitic}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Mertie, Jr., John Beaver (1959, Quartz crystal deposits of southwestern Virginia and western North Carolina. USGS Bulletin 1072-D.
USGS crib list (1981): (12/81).
Rocks & Minerals (1985): 60: 65.
Mineralogical Record (2001): 32(2): 129-140.
Wise, M.A (2003), Parageneiss of hiddenite and emerald bearing veins at the Rist Property, North Carolina, Department of Mineral Science, Smithsonian Institution.
Rocks & Minerals (2004): 79(5): 344.
Mineralogical Record (2005): 36(3): 288.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10297202.
Wise, Michael A. and Alan J.Anderson (2006), The Emerald and Spodumene-bearing Quartz Veins of the Rist Emerald Mine, Hiddenite, North Carolina,The Canandian Mineralogist: volume: 44(6): 1529-1541.
Rocks & Minerals (2007): 82: 243.
Speer, Wade Edward (2008), Emerald Crystal Pockets of the Hiddenite District Alexander County, North Carolina: The Geological Society of America.
Wise, M. A. (2009): Chabazite in Spodumene-bearing Alpine-type Fissure Veins from Hiddenite, North Carolina, USA. Mineralogy and Petrology: 96: 213-220.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file #0370030002.
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) file No. 3101636.

USGS MRDS Record:10297202
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