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Levigliani mine, Stazzema, Apuan Alps, Lucca Province, Tuscany, Italy

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Panorama of the mining area from the right side of the river

Levigliani mine, Stazzema, Apuan Alps, Lucca Province, Tuscany, Italy
This is the oldest gallery of Levigliani mining area, called \

Levigliani mine, Stazzema, Apuan Alps, Lucca Province, Tuscany, Italy
Panorama of the mining area from the right side of the river

Levigliani mine, Stazzema, Apuan Alps, Lucca Province, Tuscany, Italy
This is the oldest gallery of Levigliani mining area, called \

Levigliani mine, Stazzema, Apuan Alps, Lucca Province, Tuscany, Italy
Panorama of the mining area from the right side of the river

Levigliani mine, Stazzema, Apuan Alps, Lucca Province, Tuscany, Italy
This is the oldest gallery of Levigliani mining area, called \

Levigliani mine, Stazzema, Apuan Alps, Lucca Province, Tuscany, Italy
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 44° 1' 10'' North , 10° 17' 24'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 44.01944,10.29000
GeoHash:G#: spz66jkzy
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate


The mercury deposit of Levigliani is hosted within phyllitic and metavolcanic rocks of Middle to Upper Ordovician age (metasandstones, quartzites and phyllites with carbonate-chloritic phyllites levels and calcalkaline metabasites), which were intensely deformed and metamorphosed to the greenschist facies (about 0.3-0.4 GPa, 350°-370°C) during both the Hercynian and the Tertiary Appenninic orogenies. Levigliani deposit reached the present structural arrangment during a syn-tectonic and syn-metamorphic process of mineralization. Levigliani probably represents a pre-Hercynian concentration of mercury sulphide, which survived through Hercynian and Alpine tectono-metamorphic events.

An unique mineralogical situation exists in the Cavetta tunnel, where some decimetric to metric quartz-carbonate veins contain widespread cavities completely or partially filled by native mercury with the walls of the cavities covered by millimetric crystals of cinnabar, pyrite, mercurian sphalerite ... Usually their size does not exceed a few millimeters but in the 18th century were found some very large cavities, containing about 1 tons of native mercury.

Hg mineralization is associated with carbonate-chloritic levels and it occurs as disseminations or as quartz-carbonate veins. Disseminated mineralization is constituted of small levels of cinnabar, flattened along S1; this kind of ore is isoclinally deformed by D1. Dini et al. (2001) report the presence of two generations of veins; the early ones are folded, with axial plane parallel to S1. A later generation of veins was emplaced along extensional fractures, controlled by D2 structures.
In both mineralizations, Dini et al. (2001) recognize two different assemblages:
- A-type: cinnabar I, zincian metacinnabar and pyrite. This assemblage is equilibrated at P-T conditions close to the metamorphic peak of Apuane Metamorphic Complex (P = 0,3-0,4 GPa; T = 350-385°C).
- B-type: cinnabar II, mercurian sphalerite, pyrite, native mercury, chalcopyrite, galena and pyrrhotite. B-type assemblage is present exclusively in the late stage veins of Cavetta adit. According to Dini et al. (1995), B-type assemblage partially overprinted and replaced A-type assemblage during the retrograde stages of metamorphism (T less than 250°C). Grumiplucite is present in this kind of assemblage.

NB: Weddellite previously described as unconfirmed species present at "Cavetta" tunnel is now considered not existent. Also Metacinnabar does not occur in the "Cavetta" tunnel, but is present in other parageneses at Levigliani mine [Ref.: Batoni, M. & Ceccantini, L. (2007): Errata corrige: Levigliani. Solo cinabro alla "Cavetta". Micro (località), 1/2007, 179-179].

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


21 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: D'Achiardi, A. (1873). Mineralogia della Toscana. Ed. Forni.
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Batoni, M. & Ceccantini, L. (2004): La miniera di Levigliani, Lucca, Toscana. Micro (località), 2/2004, 41-53
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Habit: sprays of acicular crystals
Colour: colorless, white
Calomel
Formula: (Hg2)2+Cl2
Habit: tabular xls
Colour: colorless
Fluorescence: red
Reference: Orlandi, P. & Campostrini, I. (2005): Zibaldone. Aggiornamenti di mineralogia italiana 2004. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 3/2005, 184-191.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Orlandi P., Dini A. , Olmi F., 1998. Grumiplucite, a new mercury-bismuth sulfosalt species from the Levigliani mine, Apuan Alps, Tuscany, Italy. Canad. Miner., 36: 1321-1326.
'Chlorite Group'
Habit: globular aggregates of small mica-like crystals
Colour: white, yellow, green
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Colour: red, black
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Habit: rhombohedral
Colour: yellow
Galena
Formula: PbS
Habit: cube-octahedric
Colour: gray
Reference: Biagioni, C. (2009). Minerali della Provincia di Lucca. Associazione Micro-Mineralogica Italiana, Cremona, 352 pp.
Grumiplucite (TL)
Formula: HgBi2S4
Habit: very slender prismatic crystals
Colour: grey-black
Reference: Orlandi P., Dini A. , Olmi F., 1998. Grumiplucite, a new mercury-bismuth sulfosalt species from the Levigliani mine, Apuan Alps, Tuscany, Italy. Canad. Miner., 36: 1321-1326.
Hydromagnesite
Formula: Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Reference: http://forum.fmal.com/viewtopic.php?t=116
Mercury
Formula: Hg
Habit: drops
Metacinnabar
Formula: HgS
Reference: D'Achiardi, A, (1876): Su di alcuni minerali toscani. Guadalcazarite di Levigliani. Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat., Mem., 2, 112-113); Manasse, E. (1920): Sulla leviglianite. Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat., Mem., 33, 156-163; Dini A., 1995. Metacinabro zincifero (leviglianite) e sfalerite mercurifera della miniera di Levigliani (Alpi Apuane, Toscana). Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat., Mem., 102: 67-72.
Metacinnabar var: Leviglianite
Formula: HgS
Reference: Manasse, E. (1920): Sulla leviglianite. Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat., Mem., 33, 156-163; Dini, A. (1995): Metacinabro zincifero (leviglianite) e sfalerite mercurifera della miniera di Levigliani (Alpi Apuane, Toscana). Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat., Mem., 102: 67-72.
Millerite ?
Formula: NiS
Reference: Biagioni, C. (2009). Minerali della Provincia di Lucca. Associazione Micro-Mineralogica Italiana, Cremona, 352 pp.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: http://forum.fmal.com/viewtopic.php?t=116
Nesquehonite
Formula: MgCO3 · 3H2O
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Habit: cubic
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Habit: Tabular exhagonal crystals
Reference: Dini A., Benvenuti M., Costagliola P., Lattanzi P., 2001. Mercury deposits in metamorphic settings: the example of Levigliani and Ripa mines, Apuane Alps (Tuscany, Italy). Ore Geology Reviews, vol. 18, issue 3-4; october 2001
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Habit: prismatic
Colour: colorless, white
Description: Sometimes, in quartz crystals, there are small drops of native mercury
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Habit: lenticular crystals
Colour: brown, yellow
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Habit: tetrahedric xls
Colour: black, amber
Description: Levigliani is the only italian locality for mercurian sphalerite.
Reference: Dini A., 1995. Metacinabro zincifero (leviglianite) e sfalerite mercurifera della miniera di Levigliani (Alpi Apuane, Toscana). Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat., Mem., 102: 67-72.
Stibnite ?
Formula: Sb2S3
Reference: Carobbi, G. & Rodolico, F. (1976): I minerali della Toscana. Leo S. Olschki Editore, Firenze, 278 pp.
Weddellite
Formula: Ca(C2O4) · (2.5-x)H2O
Reference: - Batoni, M. & Ceccantini, L. (2004): La miniera di Levigliani, Lucca, Toscana. Micro (località), 2/2004, 41-54. - Batoni, M. & Ceccantini, L. (2007): Errata corrige: Levigliani. Micro (località), 1/2007, 179

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Mercury1.AD.05Hg
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Cinnabar'2.CD.15aHgS
'Galena'2.CD.10PbS
'Grumiplucite' (TL)2.JA.05bHgBi2S4
Metacinnabar2.CB.05aHgS
var: Leviglianite2.CB.05aHgS
Millerite ?2.CC.20NiS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stibnite ?2.DB.05Sb2S3
Group 3 - Halides
'Calomel'3.AA.30(Hg2)2+Cl2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Ankerite'5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
'Aragonite'5.AB.15CaCO3
'Dolomite'5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
'Hydromagnesite'5.DA.05Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Nesquehonite5.CA.05MgCO3 · 3H2O
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 9 - Silicates
'Albite'9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 10 - Organic Compounds
Weddellite ?10.AB.40Ca(C2O4) · (2.5-x)H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Mercury1.1.7.1Hg
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Metacinnabar2.8.2.3HgS
Millerite ?2.8.16.1NiS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Stibnite ?2.11.2.1Sb2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Calomel9.1.8.1(Hg2)2+Cl2
Group 13 - ACID CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Nesquehonite13.1.5.1MgCO3 · 3H2O
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16b - HYDRATED CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Hydromagnesite16b.7.1.1Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Group 50 - ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Oxalates
Weddellite ?50.1.2.1Ca(C2O4) · (2.5-x)H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Chlorite Group'-
Grumiplucite (TL)-HgBi2S4
Metacinnabar
var: Leviglianite
-HgS

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H NesquehoniteMgCO3 · 3H2O
H WeddelliteCa(C2O4) · (2.5-x)H2O
CCarbon
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C AragoniteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
C NesquehoniteMgCO3 · 3H2O
C SideriteFeCO3
C WeddelliteCa(C2O4) · (2.5-x)H2O
OOxygen
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O AragoniteCaCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O NesquehoniteMgCO3 · 3H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O SideriteFeCO3
O WeddelliteCa(C2O4) · (2.5-x)H2O
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Mg NesquehoniteMgCO3 · 3H2O
AlAluminium
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
SSulfur
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CinnabarHgS
S GalenaPbS
S GrumipluciteHgBi2S4
S Metacinnabar (var: Leviglianite)HgS
S MetacinnabarHgS
S MilleriteNiS
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SphaleriteZnS
S StibniteSb2S3
ClChlorine
Cl Calomel(Hg2)2+Cl2
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca WeddelliteCa(C2O4) · (2.5-x)H2O
FeIron
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe SideriteFeCO3
NiNickel
Ni MilleriteNiS
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
SbAntimony
Sb StibniteSb2S3
HgMercury
Hg Calomel(Hg2)2+Cl2
Hg CinnabarHgS
Hg GrumipluciteHgBi2S4
Hg Metacinnabar (var: Leviglianite)HgS
Hg MercuryHg
Hg MetacinnabarHgS
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
BiBismuth
Bi GrumipluciteHgBi2S4

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Cretaceous
66 - 145 Ma



ID: 3186389
Mesozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Permian
251.902 - 298.9 Ma



ID: 3141608
Permian quartzite

Age: Phanerozoic (251.902 - 298.9 Ma)

Description: low grade metamorphic

Lithology: Major:{quartzite}, Minor{gneiss,phyllite}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
• D'Achiardi A., 1872/73. Mineralogia della Toscana. Arnaldo Forni Editore, Pisa.
• D'Achiardi A., 1876. Su di alcuni minerali toscani. Guadalcazarite di Levigliani. Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat., Mem., 2: 112-113.
• D’Achiardi A., 1877. Miniere di mercurio in Toscana e considerazioni generali sulla genesi loro. Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat., Mem., 3: 133-149.
• Manasse E., 1920. Sulla leviglianite. Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat., Mem., 33: 156-163.
• Zaccagna D., 1932. I giacimenti ferriferi di Monte Tambura e Fondone e Fornovolasco, piombo argentifero di Bottino e Valdicastello, rame del Frigido e di Vagli, mercurifero di Levigliani e Ripa. Mem. Descr. Carta Geol. Ital.: 390-403.
• Carmignani L., Dessau G., Duchi G., 1972. I giacimenti delle Alpi Apuane e loro correlazione con l'evoluzione del gruppo montuoso. Mem. Soc. Geol. Ital., 11: 417-431.
• De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol
• Gallerini L., Gallerini P., 1975. Ritrovamento di un cristallo di cinabro alla miniera di Levigliani. Notiz. Gr. Mineral. Fiorent., 2: 8.
• Brizzi G., 1977. La miniera di Levigliani. Notiz. Gr. Mineral. Fiorent., 4, n. 1: 20-22
• Carmignani L., Dessau G., Duchi G., 1978. Structural control of mineralization in the Apuan Alps. Verh. Geol. B-A, 3:279-283.
• Dini, Benvenuti, Lattanzi, Tanelli (1995): Mineral assemblages in the Hg-Zn-(Fe)-S system at Levigliani, Tuscany. European Journal of Mineralogy, 7, 417-427.
• Dini A., 1995. Metacinabro zincifero (leviglianite) e sfalerite mercurifera della miniera di Levigliani (Alpi Apuane, Toscana). Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat., Mem., 102: 67-72.
• Orlandi P., Dini A. , Olmi F., 1998. Grumiplucite, a new mercury-bismuth sulfosalt species from the Levigliani mine, Apuan Alps, Tuscany, Italy. Canad. Miner., 36: 1321-1326.
• Dini A., Benvenuti M., Costagliola P., Lattanzi P., 2001. Mercury deposits in metamorphic settings: the example of Levigliani and Ripa mines, Apuane Alps (Tuscany, Italy). Ore Geology Reviews, vol. 18, issue 3-4; october 2001
• Batoni, M. & Ceccantini, L. (2004): La miniera di Levigliani, Lucca, Toscana. Micro (località), 2/2004, 41-54.
• Batoni, M. & Ceccantini, L. (2007): Errata corrige: Levigliani. Solo cinabro alla "Cavetta". Micro (località), 1/2007, 179-179.
• Dini, A. & Biagioni, C. (2010): Levigliani e Ripa. Storia, genesi e mineralogia dei giacimenti mercuriferi. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 1/2010, 12-35.

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