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Grotta della Monaca, Sant'Agata di Esaro, Cosenza Province, Calabria, Italyi
Regional Level Types
Grotta della Monaca- not defined -
Sant'Agata di Esaro- not defined -
Cosenza ProvinceProvince
CalabriaRegion
ItalyCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
39° 37' 40'' North , 15° 58' 32'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Sant'Agata di Esaro1,120 (2014)0.9km
Fravitta260 (2014)3.9km
Sangineto484 (2014)5.8km
San Sosti1,269 (2014)5.8km
Vaditari279 (2014)6.6km
Other Languages:
Italian:
Grotta della Monaca, Provincia di Cosenza, Calabria, Italia


Fe and Cu mineral outcrops in karstic cave mined in prehistoric times.

Grotta della Monaca, located in the upper Esaro Valley (on Esaro River hydrographic left) at an elevation of 600 m asl, is a large cave system composed of galleries, chambers and narrow passages having an overall extension of about 400 metres. The cave has been divided into three main sectors: the "Pregrotta", a wide entrance gallery; the so-called "Sala dei pipistrelli", a huge chamber in the middle of the cave system; the "Cunicoli terminali", a series of low and narrow final passages.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


15 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Garavelli, A., Larocca, F., Levato, C., and Pinto, D. (2012) Prehistoric mines of the Upper Esaro Valley (Calabria, Italy). In: Anreiter, P., et al., (eds.), (2012), The Impact of Historic and Prehistoric Mining Activities on the Environment and Societies in Europe. 2nd Mining in European History Conference. Special Conference of the FZ HiMAT, Innsbruck, 7.–10. November 2012. Conference Guide. Innsbruck University Press, Posters, Section I-IV, 93.
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Larocca, F., (ed.), (2005): La miniera pre-protostorica di Grotta della Monaca (Sant’Agata di Esaro, Cosenza). Centro Regionale di Speleologia “Enzo dei Medici“, Roseto Capo Spulico, 98 pp.; Geniola, A., Larocca, F., and Vurro, F. (2006) Approvvigionamento di risorse minerarie nella Grotta della Monaca (Sant’Agata di Esaro - Cosenza). In: Cocchi Genick, D., (ed.), (2006), Materie prime e scambi nella preistoria italiana. Atti della XXXIX Riunione Scientifica dell’Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria, Firenze, 25-27 novembre 2004. Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria, Firenze, vol. III, 1349-1359.
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Larocca, F. (2012) Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italia Meridionale): Una miniera neolitica per l’estrazione dell’ocra. In: Borrell, M., et al., (eds.), (2012), Xarxes al Neolític. Circulació i intercanvi de materiès, productes i idees a la Mediterrània occidental (VII-III millenni aC). Actes Congrés Internacional, Gavà/Bellaterra, 2-4 febrer 2011. Rubricatum, 5, 249-256.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Garavelli, A., Larocca, F., Levato, C., and Pinto, D. (2012) Prehistoric mines of the Upper Esaro Valley (Calabria, Italy). In: Anreiter, P., et al., (eds.), (2012), The Impact of Historic and Prehistoric Mining Activities on the Environment and Societies in Europe. 2nd Mining in European History Conference. Special Conference of the FZ HiMAT, Innsbruck, 7.–10. November 2012. Conference Guide. Innsbruck University Press, Posters, Section I-IV, 93.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Garavelli, A., Larocca, F., Levato, C., and Pinto, D. (2012) Prehistoric mines of the Upper Esaro Valley (Calabria, Italy). In: Anreiter, P., et al., (eds.), (2012), The Impact of Historic and Prehistoric Mining Activities on the Environment and Societies in Europe. 2nd Mining in European History Conference. Special Conference of the FZ HiMAT, Innsbruck, 7.–10. November 2012. Conference Guide. Innsbruck University Press, Posters, Section I-IV, 93.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Larocca, F., (ed.), (2005): La miniera pre-protostorica di Grotta della Monaca (Sant’Agata di Esaro, Cosenza). Centro Regionale di Speleologia “Enzo dei Medici“, Roseto Capo Spulico, 98 pp.; Geniola, A., Larocca, F., and Vurro, F. (2006) Approvvigionamento di risorse minerarie nella Grotta della Monaca (Sant’Agata di Esaro - Cosenza). In: Cocchi Genick, D., (ed.), (2006), Materie prime e scambi nella preistoria italiana. Atti della XXXIX Riunione Scientifica dell’Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria, Firenze, 25-27 novembre 2004. Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria, Firenze, vol. III, 1349-1359.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Garavelli, A., Larocca, F., Levato, C., and Pinto, D. (2012) Prehistoric mines of the Upper Esaro Valley (Calabria, Italy). In: Anreiter, P., et al., (eds.), (2012), The Impact of Historic and Prehistoric Mining Activities on the Environment and Societies in Europe. 2nd Mining in European History Conference. Special Conference of the FZ HiMAT, Innsbruck, 7.–10. November 2012. Conference Guide. Innsbruck University Press, Posters, Section I-IV, 93.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Larocca, F. (2012) Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italia Meridionale): Una miniera neolitica per l’estrazione dell’ocra. In: Borrell, M., et al., (eds.), (2012), Xarxes al Neolític. Circulació i intercanvi de materiès, productes i idees a la Mediterrània occidental (VII-III millenni aC). Actes Congrés Internacional, Gavà/Bellaterra, 2-4 febrer 2011. Rubricatum, 5, 249-256.
Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Reference: Garavelli, A., Larocca, F., Levato, C., and Pinto, D. (2012) Prehistoric mines of the Upper Esaro Valley (Calabria, Italy). In: Anreiter, P., et al., (eds.), (2012), The Impact of Historic and Prehistoric Mining Activities on the Environment and Societies in Europe. 2nd Mining in European History Conference. Special Conference of the FZ HiMAT, Innsbruck, 7.–10. November 2012. Conference Guide. Innsbruck University Press, Posters, Section I-IV, 93.
Lepidocrocite
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Larocca, F. (2012) Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italia Meridionale): Una miniera neolitica per l’estrazione dell’ocra. In: Borrell, M., et al., (eds.), (2012), Xarxes al Neolític. Circulació i intercanvi de materiès, productes i idees a la Mediterrània occidental (VII-III millenni aC). Actes Congrés Internacional, Gavà/Bellaterra, 2-4 febrer 2011. Rubricatum, 5, 249-256.
Libethenite
Formula: Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Reference: Larocca, F. (2012) Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italia Meridionale): Una miniera neolitica per l’estrazione dell’ocra. In: Borrell, M., et al., (eds.), (2012), Xarxes al Neolític. Circulació i intercanvi de materiès, productes i idees a la Mediterrània occidental (VII-III millenni aC). Actes Congrés Internacional, Gavà/Bellaterra, 2-4 febrer 2011. Rubricatum, 5, 249-256.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Garavelli, A., Larocca, F., Levato, C., and Pinto, D. (2012) Prehistoric mines of the Upper Esaro Valley (Calabria, Italy). In: Anreiter, P., et al., (eds.), (2012), The Impact of Historic and Prehistoric Mining Activities on the Environment and Societies in Europe. 2nd Mining in European History Conference. Special Conference of the FZ HiMAT, Innsbruck, 7.–10. November 2012. Conference Guide. Innsbruck University Press, Posters, Section I-IV, 93.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Larocca, F., (ed.), (2005): La miniera pre-protostorica di Grotta della Monaca (Sant’Agata di Esaro, Cosenza). Centro Regionale di Speleologia “Enzo dei Medici“, Roseto Capo Spulico, 98 pp.; Geniola, A., Larocca, F., and Vurro, F. (2006) Approvvigionamento di risorse minerarie nella Grotta della Monaca (Sant’Agata di Esaro - Cosenza). In: Cocchi Genick, D., (ed.), (2006), Materie prime e scambi nella preistoria italiana. Atti della XXXIX Riunione Scientifica dell’Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria, Firenze, 25-27 novembre 2004. Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria, Firenze, vol. III, 1349-1359.
Sampleite
Formula: NaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
Reference: Larocca, F. (2012) Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italia Meridionale): Una miniera neolitica per l’estrazione dell’ocra. In: Borrell, M., et al., (eds.), (2012), Xarxes al Neolític. Circulació i intercanvi de materiès, productes i idees a la Mediterrània occidental (VII-III millenni aC). Actes Congrés Internacional, Gavà/Bellaterra, 2-4 febrer 2011. Rubricatum, 5, 249-256.
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Garavelli, A., Pinto, D., Vurro, F., Mellini, F., Viti, C., Balić-Žunić, T., and Della Ventura, G. (2009) Yukonite from the Grotta della Monaca cave, Sant’Agata di Esaro, Italy: characterization and comparison with cotype material from the Daulton mine, Yukon, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist, 47, 39-51.
Yukonite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
Reference: Garavelli, A., Pinto, D., Vurro, F., Mellini, F., Viti, C., Balić-Žunić, T., and Della Ventura, G. (2009) Yukonite from the Grotta della Monaca cave, Sant’Agata di Esaro, Italy: characterization and comparison with cotype material from the Daulton mine, Yukon, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist, 47, 39-51.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Lepidocrocite4.FE.15γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Hydroxylapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Libethenite8.BB.30Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Sampleite8.DG.05NaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
Scorodite8.CD.10Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Yukonite8.DM.25Ca3Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Lepidocrocite6.1.2.2γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Scorodite40.4.1.3Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A2(XO4)Zq
Libethenite41.6.6.2Cu2(PO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Hydroxylapatite41.8.1.3Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Yukonite42.8.6.1Ca3Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
(AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
Sampleite42.9.4.1NaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H YukoniteCa3Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
H ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
H SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
CCarbon
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C AragoniteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
OOxygen
O YukoniteCa3Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
O ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
O SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O CalciteCaCO3
O AragoniteCaCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
NaSodium
Na SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
PPhosphorus
P LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
P SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
P HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
SSulfur
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
ClChlorine
Cl SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
CaCalcium
Ca YukoniteCa3Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
Ca SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
FeIron
Fe YukoniteCa3Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
Fe ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
CuCopper
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
Cu SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
AsArsenic
As YukoniteCa3Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
As ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Dimuccio, L.A., Garavelli, A., and Vurro, F. (1999) Minerali metallici di interesse archeometrico della “Grotta della Monaca” (S. Agata d’Esaro - Cs). Plinius, 22, 156-157.
Larocca, F., (ed.), (2005): La miniera pre-protostorica di Grotta della Monaca (Sant’Agata di Esaro, Cosenza). Centro Regionale di Speleologia “Enzo dei Medici“, Roseto Capo Spulico, 98 pp.
Geniola, A., Larocca, F., and Vurro, F. (2006) Approvvigionamento di risorse minerarie nella Grotta della Monaca (Sant’Agata di Esaro - Cosenza). In: Cocchi Genick, D., (ed.), (2006), Materie prime e scambi nella preistoria italiana. Atti della XXXIX Riunione Scientifica dell’Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria, Firenze, 25-27 novembre 2004. Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria, Firenze, vol. III, 1349-1359.
Garavelli, A., Pinto, D., Vurro, F., Mellini, F., Viti, C., Balić-Žunić, T., and Della Ventura, G. (2009) Yukonite from the Grotta della Monaca cave, Sant’Agata di Esaro, Italy: characterization and comparison with cotype material from the Daulton mine, Yukon, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist, 47, 39-51.
Larocca, F. (2010) Grotta della Monaca: A prehistoric copper and iron mine in the Calabria region (Italy). In: Anreiter, P., et al., (eds.), (2010), Mining in European History and its Impact on Environment and Human Societies. Proceedings for the 1st Mining in European History-Conference of the SFB HIMAT, Innsbruck, 12.–15. November 2009. Innsbruck University Press, 267-270.
Larocca, F. (2012) Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italia Meridionale): Una miniera neolitica per l’estrazione dell’ocra. In: Borrell, M., et al., (eds.), (2012), Xarxes al Neolític. Circulació i intercanvi de materiès, productes i idees a la Mediterrània occidental (VII-III millenni aC). Actes Congrés Internacional, Gavà/Bellaterra, 2-4 febrer 2011. Rubricatum, 5, 249-256.
Garavelli, A., Larocca, F., Levato, C., and Pinto, D. (2012) Prehistoric mines of the Upper Esaro Valley (Calabria, Italy). In: Anreiter, P., et al., (eds.), (2012), The Impact of Historic and Prehistoric Mining Activities on the Environment and Societies in Europe. 2nd Mining in European History Conference. Special Conference of the FZ HiMAT, Innsbruck, 7.–10. November 2012. Conference Guide. Innsbruck University Press, Posters, Section I-IV, 93.


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