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Michigan, USAi
Regional Level Types
MichiganState
USACountry

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Key
Lock Map
Bedrock geology map of Michigan

Michigan, USA
Geological map

Michigan, USA
Bedrock geology map of Michigan

Michigan, USA
Geological map

Michigan, USA
Bedrock geology map of Michigan

Michigan, USA
Geological map

Michigan, USA
Neighbouring regions:
Locality type:State
Museums in region:


Introduction

The State of Michigan is unique in that it is separated into two geographically distinct regions that are, for the most part, geologically different as well. The State is divided into an Upper and Lower Peninsula, separated by the Straits of Mackinaw between Mackinaw City and Saint Ignace. The state is divided by geology as well and features two very distinct areas. The first area includes all of the Lower Peninsula and approximately one-half (the eastern) portion of the Upper Peninsula, which consist mostly of Paleozoic aged sediments (mostly limestone and dolomite). The second area is the western half of the Upper Peninsula which is dominated by Archean and Proterozoic Precambrian aged gneiss, granites, basalts, and sandstones.

The boundary between the sediments to the east and mostly Precambrian rocks to the west extends from approximately Marquette in the north to Iron Mountain in the south. The following is a very brief description of the geology of Michigan. For a more detailed read, please see the many books published on the subject.

Precambrian Geology

The Precambrian rocks that dominate the western half of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula are very diverse and include both intrusive and extrusive varieties, as well as sediments and their metamorphic equivalents. Rocks of this period include those of the Canadian Shield, the Banded Iron Formations, and the Portage Lake Volcanics. Outcrops of these rocks can be found scattered throughout the area; however, in most cases, the rock record is either fragmentary and incomplete, or buried under overburden left by the glaciers.

Since their formation, much has happened to these rocks. The oldest, the Watersmeet Gneiss, has been dated to 3.56 billion years old, making it some of the oldest rock in North America. The Watersmeet Gneiss, as well as many other of the oldest rocks, have been subjected to at least three major crustal deformations and mountain building events. In addition, there have been at least four smaller scale deformation events in the area. These events were accompanied by the intrusion of granitic rocks deep within the crust that were later brought to the surface by uplift and erosion. In addition to the granitic intrusions, at least four periods of volcanism have been discovered that produced basalt rocks and pyroclastic deposits, as well as dikes and dike swarms composed of diabase and gabbro.

Since their formation, metamorphism of these rocks has produced a multitude of new and reworked rocks and minerals. The greenstone, gneiss, quartzite, marble, slate, and schist found throughout the western Upper Peninsula can all trace their roots to much older rocks. The youngest rocks in this group are the Portage Lake Volcanics, which include basalts, conglomerates, and sandstones. These packages of rocks have remained largely unchanged since their formation, except for very shallow burial metamorphism of the basalts to the prehnite/pumpellyite grade. Rocks of the Portage Lake Volcanic series are associated with the Midcontinent Rift, a great tear in the Earth’s crust that nearly separated North America in two. The Rift can be traced from near Detroit northwest through the Lower Peninsula into Lake Superior, then arching back southwestward across the Keweenaw Peninsula and into Wisconsin.

Many of the metallic mineral deposits in Michigan come from the Precambrian rocks of the western Upper Peninsula, including the world renowned native copper deposits on the Keweenaw Peninsula and the banded iron formation deposits of the Marquette, Menominee, and Gogebic Ranges. Other minerals of note to come from the Precambrian rocks include silver, prehnite, garnet, goethite, datolite, gold, and the famous Lake Superior agate.



Paleozoic Rocks

Rocks of the Paleozoic are represented by formations that underlie all of the Lower Peninsula and the eastern half of the Upper Peninsula. All of these rocks are sedimentary that were deposited in a shallow sea over a period of about 370 million years beginning in the Cambrian and lasting through the Pennsylvanian. During this time, approximately 14,000 feet of mostly limestones, dolomites, sandstones, and shales were deposited on top of the Precambrian basement rocks; the same rocks that are exposed in the western Upper Peninsula. As these sediments were being deposited, the entire region began to downwarp into a bowl-shaped depression. This depression, called the Michigan Basin, dominates the geology of the Lower Peninsula. The basin dips inward from the edges at approximately 2 degrees until reaching the center of the basin near the geographic center of the Lower Peninsula. Most of the Paleozoic rocks in the basin are derived from marine sediments; however, a few fluvial sandstones and coal deposits are exceptions.

What is unique about the entire sedimentary package is that they have not been metamorphosed or subjected to igneous intrusion or volcanism. Structurally, the rocks have not been subjected to major deformation except for minor folding and faulting near the edges of the basin. In essence, these rocks have remained sedimentary rock, modified only slightly by weathering and the action of groundwater. The rocks of the Paleozoic do not represent a complete record of sedimentation in the Michigan Basin. Several times during the sedimentation, uplift interrupted the sinking of the basin which is characterized by erosion, or at least non-deposition, and has created several time gaps, or unconformities. While very few metallic minerals are found in the Paleozoic rocks, almost all of Michigan’s oil and natural gas reserves are found in the Michigan Basin rocks. Also found in the basin are large economic deposits of limestone and dolomite, including the world’s largest limestone quarry located near Rogers City, and large salt deposits under Detroit, Michigan.

Post Pennsylvanian and Pleistocene Geology

This period is marked by the fact that very few rocks are found with an age between the end of the Pennsylvanian and the Pleistocene glacial deposits. This “Lost Interval” in geologic time is represented only by a small area of red beds located near the center of the Basin which are completely buried by glacial deposits and are only known from drill core data. The age of these red beds has been interpreted as youngest Jurassic based on fossil plant spores extracted from the drill cores. Beyond these rocks, no rock record is preserved from this period; this is likely due to a change from deposition to a period of slow erosion on the landscape until the Pleistocene Epoch and the arrival of the glaciers from Canada. It is known that at least four major glaciations took place during the Pleistocene, but only the youngest of these (the Wisconsinan) are preserved in Michigan. The surficial deposits from this epoch include clastic sediments, drift, gravels, sands, and clays. Surface features found scattered across both peninsulas that can be directly attributed to glacial activity include kettle lakes, eskers, lateral and end moraines, and kame deposits. The sediments carried in by the glaciers, while not loaded with economic minerals that can be mined, are very rich in nutrients that make them excellent for growing crops that supply food to millions of people around the world.

One additional rock type that deserves mention are the kimberlite deposits found in Upper Michigan. These kimberlites are thought to have been emplaced during the Cretaceous Period between 150 and 100 million years ago, during the time dinosaurs roamed the earth! First discovered in 1971, these deposits have generated much interest both popular and scientific. To date, no economic diamond deposit has been discovered in Michigan. It has been suggested that Michigan did not have the correct tectonic setting favourable for a highly diamondtiferous kimberlite. It is also believed that the Mid Continent Rift had a very destructive influence on the lithospheric mantle, thus destroying any diamonds being stored in the mantle prior to the kimberlite eruptions. Currently there is no active diamond exploration taking place in Michigan; however, there are a number of untested targets and placer deposits of indicator minerals occurrences in the state. Maybe one day, the state of Michigan will produce the next “diamond rush”?

The State of Michigan is unique geologically, and to truly understand its complexity the rocks must be seen in person and not simply read about in a textbook or trade magazine. Not many places on Earth can boast areas where a person can stand on 3.6 billion year old Archean gneiss then take one step and stand on glacial deposits just 7,000 years old; that is quite an amazing thought!
[Paul Brandes 2011]

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

371 valid minerals. 8 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Aeschynite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6
'commodity:Aggregates'
Localities: Reported from at least 62 localities in this region.
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Albite var: Andesine
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Albite var: Peristerite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Algodonite
Formula: (Cu1-xAsx)
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Allanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Aluminoceladonite
Formula: K(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Amphibole Supergroup var: Uralite'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Amygdaloid'
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 54 localities in this region.
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
'Andesite'
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 61 localities in this region.
Anilite
Formula: Cu7S4
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Annabergite
Formula: Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Anorthite var: Bytownite
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Anthonyite (TL)
Formula: Cu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
Reference: Williams, S.A. (1963): Anthonyite and calumetite, two new minerals from the Michigan Copper District. American Mineralogist. 48, 614-619; Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Anthophyllite
Formula: ☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Anthraconite'
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Antimony
Formula: Sb
'Apatite'
Localities: Reported from at least 52 localities in this region.
'Apatite var: Carbonate-rich Apatite'
'Apatite var: Collophane'
'Aphrosiderite'
Formula: (Fe,Mg,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
'Aplite'
'Apophyllite'
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Aragonite var: Flos Ferri
Formula: CaCO3
Argentopentlandite
Formula: Ag(Fe,Ni)8S8
'Argillite'
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
'Asbestos'
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
'Axinite Group'
Axinite-(Mg)
Formula: Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OH
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Babingtonite
Formula: Ca2(Fe,Mn)FeSi5O14(OH)
Baddeleyite
Formula: ZrO2
'Banded-ferruginous chert'
'Banded iron formation'
Localities: Reported from at least 219 localities in this region.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 67 localities in this region.
'Basalt'
Localities: Reported from at least 81 localities in this region.
Bassetite
Formula: Fe2+(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 10H2O
'Bastnäsite'
Bastnäsite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(CO3)F
Bastnäsite-(Y)
Formula: Y(CO3)F
Beaverite-(Cu)
Formula: Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6
Bertrandite
Formula: Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
'Betafite Group'
Formula: A2(Ti,Nb)2O6Z
'Biotite'
Localities: Reported from at least 41 localities in this region.
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
'commodity:Bismuth'
Formula: Bi
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
'Bitumen'
'Bituminous-coal'
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Brannerite
Formula: (U4+,REE,Th,Ca)(Ti,Fe3+,Nb)2(O,OH)6
Braunite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
'Bravoite'
Formula: (Fe,Ni)S2
Britholite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3OH
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
'commodity:Bromine'
Formula: Br
Brookite
Formula: TiO2
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Buttgenbachite
Formula: Cu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 297 localities in this region.
Calcite var: Manganoan Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Mn)CO3
Calcurmolite
Formula: (Ca,Na)2(UO2)3Mo2(O,OH)11 · nH2O
Callaghanite
Formula: Cu2Mg2(CO3)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Calumetite (TL)
Formula: Cu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Williams, S.A. (1963): Anthonyite and calumetite, two new minerals from the Michigan Copper District. American Mineralogist. 48, 614-619; Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Carbonatecyanotrichite
Formula: Cu4Al2(CO3,SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2O
Carnallite
Formula: KMgCl3 · 6H2O
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Celadonite
Formula: K(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Centennialite (TL)
Formula: CaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)
Reference: Crichton, W.A. and Müller, H. (2014) Centennialite, IMA 2013-110. CNMNC Newsletter No. 19, February 2014, page 168; Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 165-170; Crichton, W. & Müller, H. (2017): Centennialite, CaCu3(OH)6Cl2.nH2O, n = 0.7, a new kapellasite-like species, and a reassessment of calumetite. Mineralogical Magazine:, 81: 1105-1124.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
'Chabazite'
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Localities: Reported from at least 67 localities in this region.
Chalconatronite
Formula: Na2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 82 localities in this region.
Chamosite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Chamosite var: Thuringite
Formula: (Fe,Fe,Mg,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(O,OH)8
Cheralite
Formula: CaTh(PO4)2
'Chert'
Localities: Reported from at least 135 localities in this region.
Chervetite
Formula: Pb2(V2O7)
Chlorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3Cl
Chlorartinite
Formula: Mg2(CO3)(OH)Cl · 2H2O
'Chlorite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 206 localities in this region.
'Chlorite Group var: Brunsvigite'
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Chloritoid
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Chloritoid var: Masonite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Clausthalite
Formula: PbSe
'Clay'
'commodity:Clay'
Localities: Reported from at least 184 localities in this region.
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Clinochlore var: Diabantite
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Al)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8
Clinochlore var: Pennine
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Clinochlore var: Ripidolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
'Clinochrysotile'
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Clino-suenoite
Formula: □{Mn2+2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
'Coal'
'commodity:Coal'
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Columbite-(Fe)
Formula: Fe2+Nb2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
'Conglomerate'
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Connellite
Formula: Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 263 localities in this region.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 263 localities in this region.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 263 localities in this region.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 263 localities in this region.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 263 localities in this region.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 263 localities in this region.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 263 localities in this region.
Copper var: Whitneyite
Formula: Cu
'commodity:Copper'
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 237 localities in this region.
'commodity:Copper'
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 237 localities in this region.
'commodity:Copper'
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 237 localities in this region.
'commodity:Copper'
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 237 localities in this region.
'commodity:Copper'
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 237 localities in this region.
'commodity:Copper'
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 237 localities in this region.
'Copper-silver 'half-breed''
'Copper Stain'
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Corkite
Formula: PbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Coronadite
Formula: Pb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
Corrensite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Cosalite
Formula: Pb2Bi2S5
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Crednerite
Formula: CuMnO2
Cronstedtite
Formula: Fe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Cummingtonite
Formula: ☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Localities: Reported from at least 41 localities in this region.
Cuprite var: Chalcotrichite
Formula: Cu2O
'Dacite'
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 125 localities in this region.
Daubréelite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2S4
'Delessite'
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(O,OH)8
Diamond
Formula: C
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
'commodity:Diamond'
Diaphorite
Formula: Ag3Pb2Sb3S8
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
'commodity:Dimension Stone'
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Diopside var: Schefferite
Formula: (Ca,Mn)(Mg,Fe,Mn)Si2O6
Dioptase
Formula: CuSiO3 · H2O
'Diorite'
Djerfisherite
Formula: K6(Fe,Cu,Ni)25S26Cl
Djurleite
Formula: Cu31S16
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 105 localities in this region.
Dolomite var: Ferroan Dolomite
Formula: Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
'commodity:Dolostone'
Domeykite
Formula: Cu3As
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Dyscrasite
Formula: Ag3Sb
Edenite
Formula: {Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Enstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Enstatite var: Bronzite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)2[SiO3]2
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 149 localities in this region.
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Euclase
Formula: BeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Eugenite
Formula: Ag11Hg2
Euxenite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Fassinaite
Formula: Pb2(S2O3)(CO3)
'Faujasite'
Fayalite
Formula: Fe2+2SiO4
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
'commodity:Feldspar'
'Feldspar Group'
'Feldspar Group var: Perthite'
Ferberite
Formula: FeWO4
Ferrimolybdite
Formula: Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Ferro-hornblende
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Fe2+4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
'commodity:Fire Clay'
Localities: Reported from at least 79 localities in this region.
'Flint'
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Fluorapophyllite-(K)
Formula: KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Localities: Reported from at least 41 localities in this region.
Fluorite var: Chlorophane
Formula: CaF2
Fluorite var: Yttrofluorite
Formula: (Ca1-xYx)F2+x where 0.05< x <0.3
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
'Fulgurite'
Formula: SiO2
Gahnite
Formula: ZnAl2O4
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 51 localities in this region.
Galenobismutite
Formula: PbBi2S4
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Geikielite
Formula: MgTiO3
'commodity:Gemstones'
Gerhardtite
Formula: Cu2(NO3)(OH)3
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Gibbsite
Formula: Al(OH)3
Glauconite
Formula: (K,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Fe3+)(Fe3+,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
'Gneiss'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 244 localities in this region.
Gold
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 94 localities in this region.
'commodity:Gold'
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 56 localities in this region.
'commodity:Granite'
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Graphite
Formula: C
Localities: Reported from at least 32 localities in this region.
'commodity:Graphite'
Grayite
Formula: (Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
Greenalite
Formula: (Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
'Greenstone'
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Greigite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2S4
Groutite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Grunerite
Formula: ☐{Fe2+2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 37 localities in this region.
Guérinite
Formula: Ca5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2O
'Gummite'
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 74 localities in this region.
Gypsum var: Alabaster
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Gypsum var: Satin Spar Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Gypsum var: Selenite
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
'commodity:Gypsum & Anhydrite'
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
'H5 chondrite meteorite'
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Localities: Reported from at least 69 localities in this region.
'Halloysite'
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Hausmannite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Hedenbergite
Formula: CaFe2+Si2O6
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 320 localities in this region.
Hematite var: Martite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Hematite var: Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Hessite
Formula: Ag2Te
Hetaerolite
Formula: ZnMn2O4
Heulandite-Ca
Formula: (Ca,Na)5(Si27Al9)O72 · 26H2O
'Heulandite subgroup'
Hexahydrite
Formula: MgSO4 · 6H2O
Hisingerite
Formula: Fe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Hoganite
Formula: Cu(CH3COO)2 · H2O
Hollandite
Formula: Ba(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
'Hornblende'
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Humboldtine
Formula: Fe2+(C2O4) · 2H2O
Hydrocerussite
Formula: Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2
'Hydrohausmannite'
Hydromagnesite
Formula: Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Hydroxylapatite var: Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Hydroxylpyromorphite (TL)
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3(OH)
Reference: Olds, T.A., Carlson, S.M., Kampf, A.R., Rakovan, J., Laughlin-Yurs, C., Burns, P.C. and Mills, O.P. (2017) Hydroxylpyromorphite, IMA 2017-075. CNMNC Newsletter No. 40, December 2017, page 1580; Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 1577–1581.
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
'Hypersthene'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
'Iddingsite'
Formula: MgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
'IIIAB iron meteorite'
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Iron
Formula: Fe