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Arctic Oceani
Regional Level Types
Arctic OceanOcean

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Area:
14,056,000 km2
Locality type:


The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans. The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some oceanographers call it the Arctic Sea. It is classified as an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, and it is also seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean.

Located mostly in the Arctic north polar region in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere, besides its surrounding waters the Arctic Ocean is surrounded by Eurasia and North America. It is partly covered by sea ice throughout the year and almost completely in winter. The Arctic Ocean's surface temperature and salinity vary seasonally as the ice cover melts and freezes; its salinity is the lowest on average of the five major oceans, due to low evaporation, heavy freshwater inflow from rivers and streams, and limited connection and outflow to surrounding oceanic waters with higher salinities. The summer shrinking of the ice has been quoted at 50%. The US National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) uses satellite data to provide a daily record of Arctic sea ice cover and the rate of melting compared to an average period and specific past years. [Wikipedia]

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

16 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine 75:708
Birnessite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
'Buserite'
Formula: Na4Mn14O27 · 21H2O
Reference: Bogdanov, Y. A., Gurvich, E. G., Bogdanova, O. Y., Ivanov, G. V., Isaeva, A. B., Muravév, K. G., ... & Dubinina, G. I. (1995). Ferromanganese nodules of the Kara Sea. Oceanology, English Translation, VOL. 34, NO. 5, A pp 722-732; Vereshchagin, O. S., Perova, E. N., Brusnitsyn, A. I., Ershova, V. B., Khudoley, A. K., Shilovskikh, V. V., & Molchanova, E. V. (2019). Ferro-manganese nodules from the Kara Sea: Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis. Ore Geology Reviews, 106, 192-204.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine 75:708
'Chlorite Group'
Copper
Formula: Cu
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Murdmaa, I.O., Bogdanova, O.Y., Gorshkov, A.I., Novikov, G.V. and Shevchenko, V.P. (2000): Lithology and Mineral Resources 35(6), 594-597.
Feroxyhyte
Formula: Fe3+O(OH)
Ferrihydrite
Formula: Fe3+10O14(OH)2
Reference: Murdmaa, I.O., Bogdanova, O.Y., Gorshkov, A.I., Novikov, G.V. and Shevchenko, V.P. (2000): Lithology and Mineral Resources 35(6), 594-597.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Krupskaya, V.V., Andreeva, I.A., Sergeeva, E.I., and Cherkashev, G.A. (2002): Lithology and Mineral Resources 37(2), 130-136.
'Hydrotroilite'
Formula: FeS · H2O ?
Reference: Krupskaya, V.V., Andreeva, I.A., Sergeeva, E.I., and Cherkashev, G.A. (2002): Lithology and Mineral Resources 37(2), 130-136.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Mica Group'
Reference: Murdmaa, I.O., Bogdanova, O.Y., Gorshkov, A.I., Novikov, G.V. and Shevchenko, V.P. (2000): Lithology and Mineral Resources 35(6), 594-597.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Bogdanov, Y. A., Gurvich, E. G., Bogdanova, O. Y., Ivanov, G. V., Isaeva, A. B., Muravév, K. G., ... & Dubinina, G. I. (1995). Ferromanganese nodules of the Kara Sea. Oceanology, English Translation, VOL. 34, NO. 5, A pp 722-732
Opal var: Opaline
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Bogdanov, Y. A., Gurvich, E. G., Bogdanova, O. Y., Ivanov, G. V., Isaeva, A. B., Muravév, K. G., ... & Dubinina, G. I. (1995). Ferromanganese nodules of the Kara Sea. Oceanology, English Translation, VOL. 34, NO. 5, A pp 722-732
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Murdmaa, I.O., Bogdanova, O.Y., Gorshkov, A.I., Novikov, G.V. and Shevchenko, V.P. (2000): Lithology and Mineral Resources 35(6), 594-597.
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Reference: Krupskaya, V.V., Andreeva, I.A., Sergeeva, E.I., and Cherkashev, G.A. (2002): Lithology and Mineral Resources 37(2), 130-136.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine 75:708
Vermiculite
Formula: Mg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Reference: Krupskaya, V.V., Andreeva, I.A., Sergeeva, E.I., and Cherkashev, G.A. (2002): Lithology and Mineral Resources 37(2), 130-136.
Vernadite
Formula: (Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Birnessite4.FL.45(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
'Buserite'4.FL.35Na4Mn14O27 · 21H2O
Feroxyhyte4.FE.40Fe3+O(OH)
Ferrihydrite4.FE.35Fe3+10O14(OH)2
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var: Opaline4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Vernadite4.FE.40(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Vermiculite9.EC.50Mg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Hydrotroilite'-FeS · H2O ?
'Mica Group'-
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Ferrihydrite4.3.2.2Fe3+10O14(OH)2
AX2
Vernadite4.4.9.1(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Feroxyhyte6.1.4.4Fe3+O(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
(AB)2X3
Birnessite7.5.3.1(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Vermiculite71.2.2d.3Mg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Buserite'-Na4Mn14O27 · 21H2O
'Chlorite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Hydrotroilite'-FeS · H2O ?
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Mica Group'-
Opal
var: Opaline
-SiO2 · nH2O
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H FeroxyhyteFe3+O(OH)
H Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
H BuseriteNa4Mn14O27 · 21H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Opal (var: Opaline)SiO2 · nH2O
H Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H HydrotroiliteFeS · H2O ?
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H FerrihydriteFe103+O14(OH)2
OOxygen
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O FeroxyhyteFe3+O(OH)
O Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
O BuseriteNa4Mn14O27 · 21H2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O Opal (var: Opaline)SiO2 · nH2O
O Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O HydrotroiliteFeS · H2O ?
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O FerrihydriteFe103+O14(OH)2
NaSodium
Na Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Na BuseriteNa4Mn14O27 · 21H2O
Na Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
AlAluminium
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Opal (var: Opaline)SiO2 · nH2O
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
SSulfur
S SphaleriteZnS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S HydrotroiliteFeS · H2O ?
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Ca Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
MnManganese
Mn Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Mn BuseriteNa4Mn14O27 · 21H2O
Mn Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe FeroxyhyteFe3+O(OH)
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
Fe VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Fe HydrotroiliteFeS · H2O ?
Fe FerrihydriteFe103+O14(OH)2
CuCopper
Cu CopperCu
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS

Other Databases

Wikipedia:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctic_Ocean
Wikidata ID:Q788

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