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Sandawana Mine (Zeus mine), Sandawana-Belingwe District, Mweza Range (Wedja), Matabeleland South, Zimbabwei
Regional Level Types
Sandawana Mine (Zeus mine)Mine
Sandawana-Belingwe DistrictDistrict
Mweza Range (Wedja)Mountain Range
Matabeleland SouthProvince
ZimbabweCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 20° 55' 0'' South , 29° 55' 59'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -20.91667,29.93333
GeoHash:G#: ksm310hz9
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:BSh : Hot semi-arid (steppe) climate


An emerald mine owned by Rio Tinto Zimbabwe.
Known for small emeralds of high quality.

Regions containing this locality

African PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


20 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35 ; Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Mining Annual Review (1985): 427.
Beryl var: Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Mining Annual Review (1985): 427.; Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35 ; Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Clinohumite
Formula: Mg9(SiO4)4F2
Reference: Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Cummingtonite
Formula: ☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35 ; Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35 ; Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Holmquistite
Formula: ☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35 ; Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Phenakite
Formula: Be2SiO4
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35 ; Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35 ; Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
'Wad'
Reference: Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Oligoclase9.FA.35(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Emerald9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Clinohumite9.AF.55Mg9(SiO4)4F2
Cummingtonite9.DE.05☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Holmquistite9.DD.05☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Phenakite9.AA.05Be2SiO4
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Wad'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Phenakite51.1.1.1Be2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Clinohumite52.3.2d.1Mg9(SiO4)4F2
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Cummingtonite66.1.1.1☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Holmquistite66.1.2.9☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite
var: Oligoclase
-(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Beryl
var: Emerald
-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Chlorite Group'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Wad'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Holmquistite☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
LiLithium
Li Holmquistite☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
BeBeryllium
Be Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be PhenakiteBe2SiO4
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
OOxygen
O Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Holmquistite☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O PhenakiteBe2SiO4
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O QuartzSiO2
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O RutileTiO2
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
FFluorine
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
MgMagnesium
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Holmquistite☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Holmquistite☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
SiSilicon
Si Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Holmquistite☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si PhenakiteBe2SiO4
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si QuartzSiO2
Si ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
SSulfur
S SphaleriteZnS
KPotassium
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
FeIron
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Archean
2500 - 4000 Ma



ID: 3191003
Archean crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: Archean (2500 - 4000 Ma)

Lithology: Crystalline metamorphic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Mesoarchean - Paleoarchean
2800 - 3600 Ma



ID: 3308714

Age: Archean (2800 - 3600 Ma)

Lithology: Plutonic and metamorphic

Reference: Thiéblemont, D. (ed.). New edition of the 1:10,000,000 geological map of Africa. CGMW-BRGM. [190]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Mining Annual Review (1985): 427.
Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131


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