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Dossi di Franscia (Franscia Mine; Franscia Mines; Franscia Quarries), Campo Franscia (Franscia), Lanzada, Lanterna Valley, Malenco Valley, Valtellina, Sondrio Province, Lombardy, Italyi
Regional Level Types
Dossi di Franscia (Franscia Mine; Franscia Mines; Franscia Quarries)- not defined -
Campo Franscia (Franscia)- not defined -
LanzadaMunicipality
Lanterna ValleyValley
Malenco ValleyValley
Valtellina- not defined -
Sondrio ProvinceProvince
LombardyRegion
ItalyCountry

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Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
46° 17' 17'' North , 9° 54' 15'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Area:
1.0 km2
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Lanzada1,365 (2014)3.4km
Vassalini247 (2014)4.0km
Caspoggio1,375 (2014)4.2km
Santa Elisabetta123 (2014)4.5km
Chiesa in Valmalenco2,203 (2014)4.8km
Name(s) in local language(s):
Dossi di Franscia (Miniera di Franscia; Miniere di Franscia; Cave di Franscia), Campo Franscia (Franscia), Lanzada, Val Lanterna, Valmalenco (Val Malenco), Valtellina, Sondrio, Lombardia, Italia


At Dossi di Franscia, a group of hillocks to the SSW of Campo Franscia (Franscia) village, the various mineral sites can be grouped into ancient asbestos mines and prospecting works; serpentinite quarries; outcrops of mineralised veins and lenses in the country rock.
Minerals occur in different formation environments inside serpentinite: asbestos-andradite clefts; carbonate-rich fissures; titanian hydroxylclinohumite-forsterite-calcite veins; rodingite dykes; carbonate veins (hydrothermalites) with Ti-Ni-Cu minerals; chromitite lenses and veins.

Asbestos-andradite clefts are the source of remarkable specimens of demantoid. For demantoid and fibrous chrysotile, the best finds are recorded from the ancient mines, locally named “Trona Granda”, located in front of the building of Ristoro di Franscia and below the present Mauri serpentinite quarry (now they are collapsed) (Sigismund, 1948; Gramaccioli, 1962 and other authors). Various other mines, quarries, prospecting works, and outcrops sporadically yielded good specimens of demantoid and fibrous chrysotile, such as: the serpentinite quarries (Mauri and Gerosa quarries) located, in proximity of the building of Ristoro di Franscia, below the spurs of Ciudé or Piodé (an elevation at the east foot of Motta Mt.); some old galleries in the little valley beneath the building of Ristoro di Franscia; the hillock overhanging the building of Ristoro di Franscia. Here, demantoid typically forms lenticular or spheroidal crystal nodules, attaining various centimetres in diameter, named “asbestos seed” (“semenza d’amianto”) by the miners/quarrymen.

Hydrated magnesium carbonates are sporadically found inside serpentinite fissures. Artinite was described as a new mineral species on specimens, consisting of white radiating veinlets, collected by Pietro Sigismund in the summer of 1902 at the old municipal asbestos mine, located after the chapel of Dossi di Franscia (Brugnatelli, 1902 and 1906). A large fissure lined with artinite, as spherules of acicular crystals up to 2 cm in diameter, in association with hydromagnesite and probably coalingite, was found during the winter of 1987-88 at the Mauri serpentinite quarry. The first find of nesquehonite was recorded in 1921 from the “Trona Granda” asbestos mines (Artini, 1921).

Rodingite dykes crop out a few tens of meters from Ristoro di Franscia. Typical minerals are: colourless to white small crystals of diopside; colourless, pinkish or yellow rhombododecahedral crystals of grossular; green and yellow prismatic crystals of vesuvianite with red-brown terminations. Associated minerals include clinochlore, calcite, chalcocite, bornite, and malachite. White veins of fibrous pectolite, in association with creamy calcite, embedded in a chlorite-rich facies were found at the beginning of the 1960s to the west of Ristoro di Franscia. Acicular pectolite crystals up to 2 cm are known from the cavities in the compact mineral.

Magnetite, dolomite, pecoraite, and heazlewoodite in carbonate veins (hydrothermalites) have been found in the dump of an abandoned mine near Ristoro di Franscia (Bedognè et al., 1993). Finds of copper minerals (native copper, bornite, chalcocite, and cuprite) and other species (rutile, quartz, apatite, brucite, etc.) were reported by Sigismund (1947).

Chromitite lenses and veins at Dossi di Franscia are known for a long time. A chromitite lens was reported from the Ciatùn asbestos mine, currently no longer identifiable on the territory but whose location is probably in the area of the present Mauri serpentinite quarry. It was the source of bright emerald-green crystals of “uvarovite” (actually chromian andradite) in association with violet chromian clinochlore, asbestos, and probable sepiolite (Sigismund, 1948; Gramaccioli, 1962). Reevesite, zaratite, theophrastite, brucite, calcite, and prehnite have been found on the fractures of chromitite blocks from the dumps in the neighbourhood of Ristoro di Franscia. Chromitite lenses have also been found at the Mauri and Gerosa serpentinite quarries. A chromitite vein crops out in one of the abandoned adits to the southeast of Ristoro di Franscia.

NOTES

Artinite: Dossi di Franscia is the type locality for this mineral species, discovered by Pietro Sigismund (1874-1962), mineral collector and pioneer mineral seeker in Valtellina, in the summer of 1902 at the old municipal asbestos mine, located after the chapel of Dossi di Franscia (Brugnatelli, 1902 and 1906). However, six years earlier, Luigi Brugnatelli already studied an identical hydrated magnesium carbonate (Brugnatelli, 1897 and 1899) which he personally collected in Valbrutta (Val Brutta). From the chemical analysis he deduced the formula MgCO3•Mg(OH)2•3H2O, but, due to the scarcity of the analysed material (0.171 g including impurities), Brugnatelli thought it was prudent to wait for a new analysis before recognising the mineral as a new species. The new analysis, that he performed on the abundant Sigismund's material forwarded through Ettore Artini, confirmed the identicalness of the two finds.

"Uvarovite": emerald-green crystals in chromitite fissures, traditionally considered "uvarovite" (Sigismund, 1948; Gramaccioli, 1962; De Michele, 1972, and other authors), are actually chromian andradite with a content in Cr2O3 varying inside the crystals from 9.6% in the core to 0.8% at the rim (Bedognè et al., 1993; Sciesa, 1993).

“Ti-bearing clinohumite; titanclinohumite”: according to the analyses performed, this mineral in the Malenco valley serpentinite is practically fluorine-free (Trommsdorff and Evans, 1980). Therefore, after the institution of the new species hydroxylclinohumite in 1999, all records of “titanclinohumite” in the antecedent literature and all specimens preserved in public and private collections consequently labelled are now Ti-bearing hydroxylclinohumite (Bedognè et al., 2006).

Mauri quarry: one of the two active serpentinite quarries at Dossi di Franscia is operated by the company Marmi Mauri S.r.l.. As the same company operates three serpentinite quarries in the municipal territory of Lanzada (at Le Prese, Valbrutta, and Dossi di Franscia respectively), some confusion can arise about the exact provenance of specimens simply labelled as from “Mauri quarry, Lanzada”. Nevertheless, the name Mauri quarry has been generally used among the mineral collectors to indicate the one located at Le Prese (http://www.mindat.org/loc-233994.html), where vesuvianite-rich rodingite dykes have been evidenced.

Provided geographical coordinates refer to the still active "Dossi di Franscia" Quarry. The whole collecting area, as here described, encompasses several sub-localities in a radius of about 1 km.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
The Alps, EuropeMountain Range

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


44 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 2 erroneous literature entries.

Detailed Mineral List:

Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Andradite var: Demantoid
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
'Apatite'
Reference: Sigismund, P. (1947) Due interessanti paragenesi della magnetite in Valmalenco. Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., 86, 5-11. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Artinite (TL)
Formula: Mg2(CO3)(OH)2 · 3H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Brugnatelli, L. (1902) Sopra un nuovo minerale delle cave d’amianto della Valle Lanterna. Rend. R. Ist. Lomb. Sc. Let., Serie II, 35, 869-874. Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 264 De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
'Asbestos'
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Description: No references in literature.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Clinochlore var: Chromian Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Clinohumite
Formula: Mg9(SiO4)4F2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Clinohumite var: Titanclinohumite
Formula: Mg9(SiO4)4F2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Coalingite ?
Formula: Mg10Fe3+2(OH)24[CO3] · 2H2O
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Epsomite ?
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Heazlewoodite
Formula: Ni3S2
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp. AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
Hydromagnesite
Formula: Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Morenosite
Formula: NiSO4 · 7H2O
Description: The supposition that the morenosite find simply reported in Palache et al. (1951) as from Val Malenco could be referred to Dossi di Franscia is incorrect. In fact, analysis #4 in the annexed table of selected analytical data gives the reference to Cavinato's publication (1936), in which morenosite from Primolo (Chiesa in Valmalenco) was described.
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Volume II: 518 (Val Malenco only in description but with reference to Cavinato's publication in the annexed table of selected analytical data).; DaDa
Nesquehonite
Formula: MgCO3 · 3H2O
Reference: Artini, E. (1921) Sulla presenza della nesquehonite nelle cave d’amianto di Franscia in Val Lanterna. Rend. R. Acc. Naz. Lincei Cl. sc. fis. mat. nat., Serie 5, 30, 153-157. Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 227.
Pecoraite ?
Formula: Ni3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Pectolite
Formula: NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Pentlandite
Formula: (FexNiy)Σ9S8
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Perovskite
Formula: CaTiO3
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Reevesite
Formula: Ni6Fe3+2(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Sigismund, P. (1947) Due interessanti paragenesi della magnetite in Valmalenco. Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., 86, 5-11. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Sepiolite
Formula: Mg4(Si6O15)(OH)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Theophrastite
Formula: Ni(OH)2
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Uvarovite
Formula: Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3
Description: emerald-green crystals in chromitite fissures, traditionally considered “uvarovite” (Sigismund, 1948; Gramaccioli, 1962; De Michele, 1972, and other authors), are actually chromian andradite with a content in Cr2O3 varying inside the crystals from 9.6% in the core to 0.8% at the rim (Bedognè et al., 1993; Sciesa, 1993).
Reference: Sigismund, P. (1948) Granato e vesuvianite in Val Malenco. Atti Soc. It. Sci. Nat., 87, 145-171. Gramaccioli, C.M. (1962) I minerali valtellinesi nella raccolta di Pietro Sigismund. Ed. privata, Milano, 179 pp. De Michele, V. (1974) Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Ed. De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol., 408 pp. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp. Sciesa, E. (1993) Le cromititi della Valmalenco (Alpi Centrali). Il Naturalista Valtellinese - Atti Mus. civ. Stor. nat. Morbegno, 4, 3-9.
Vesuvianite
Formula: (Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Zaratite
Formula: Ni3(CO3)(OH)4 · 4H2O ?
Reference: Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bismuthinite ?2.DB.05Bi2S3
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Heazlewoodite2.BB.05Ni3S2
Pentlandite2.BB.15(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Brucite4.FE.05Mg(OH)2
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Perovskite4.CC.30CaTiO3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Theophrastite4.FE.05Ni(OH)2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Artinite (TL)5.DA.10Mg2(CO3)(OH)2 · 3H2O
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Coalingite ?5.DA.55Mg10Fe3+2(OH)24[CO3] · 2H2O
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Hydromagnesite5.DA.05Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Magnesite5.AB.05MgCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Nesquehonite5.CA.05MgCO3 · 3H2O
Reevesite5.DA.50Ni6Fe3+2(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
Zaratite5.DA.15Ni3(CO3)(OH)4 · 4H2O ?
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Epsomite ?7.CB.40MgSO4 · 7H2O
Morenosite7.CB.40NiSO4 · 7H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Andradite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
var: Demantoid9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Antigorite9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Chrysotile9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
var: Chromian Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
Clinohumite9.AF.55Mg9(SiO4)4F2
var: Titanclinohumite9.AF.55Mg9(SiO4)4F2
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Forsterite9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Pecoraite ?9.ED.15Ni3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Pectolite9.DG.05NaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Sepiolite9.EE.25Mg4(Si6O15)(OH)2 · 6H2O
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Uvarovite ?9.AD.25Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3
Vesuvianite9.BG.35(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Asbestos'-
'Chlorite Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
Heazlewoodite2.5.3.1Ni3S2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Pentlandite2.7.1.1(FexNiy)Σ9S8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite ?2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Perovskite4.3.3.1CaTiO3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
X(OH)2
Brucite6.2.1.1Mg(OH)2
Theophrastite6.2.1.5Ni(OH)2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 13 - ACID CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Nesquehonite13.1.5.1MgCO3 · 3H2O
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Magnesite14.1.1.2MgCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 16b - HYDRATED CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Artinite (TL)16b.3.1.1Mg2(CO3)(OH)2 · 3H2O
Zaratite16b.4.1.1Ni3(CO3)(OH)4 · 4H2O ?
Reevesite16b.6.3.1Ni6Fe3+2(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
Coalingite ?16b.7.6.1Mg10Fe3+2(OH)24[CO3] · 2H2O
Hydromagnesite16b.7.1.1Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Epsomite ?29.6.11.1MgSO4 · 7H2O
Morenosite29.6.11.3NiSO4 · 7H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Forsterite51.3.1.2Mg2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Uvarovite ?51.4.3b.3Ca3Cr2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Clinohumite52.3.2d.1Mg9(SiO4)4F2
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Pectolite65.2.1.4aNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Antigorite71.1.2a.1Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Chrysotile71.1.5.1Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Pecoraite ?71.1.2d.4Ni3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Sepiolite74.3.1b.1Mg4(Si6O15)(OH)2 · 6H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Andradite
var: Demantoid
-Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
'Apatite'-
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Asbestos'-
'Chlorite Group'-
Clinochlore
var: Chromian Clinochlore
-Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
Clinohumite
var: Titanclinohumite
-Mg9(SiO4)4F2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ArtiniteMg2(CO3)(OH)2 · 3H2O
H MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2O
H NesquehoniteMgCO3 · 3H2O
H BruciteMg(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Clinochlore (var: Chromian Clinochlore)Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
H HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
H ZaratiteNi3(CO3)(OH)4 · 4H2O ?
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H SepioliteMg4(Si6O15)(OH)2 · 6H2O
H ReevesiteNi6Fe23+(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
H TheophrastiteNi(OH)2
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H CoalingiteMg10Fe23+(OH)24[CO3] · 2H2O
H EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
H PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4
BBoron
B Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
CCarbon
C ArtiniteMg2(CO3)(OH)2 · 3H2O
C NesquehoniteMgCO3 · 3H2O
C CalciteCaCO3
C MagnesiteMgCO3
C AragoniteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
C ZaratiteNi3(CO3)(OH)4 · 4H2O ?
C ReevesiteNi6Fe23+(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
C CoalingiteMg10Fe23+(OH)24[CO3] · 2H2O
OOxygen
O ArtiniteMg2(CO3)(OH)2 · 3H2O
O MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2O
O NesquehoniteMgCO3 · 3H2O
O PerovskiteCaTiO3
O CupriteCu2O
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O QuartzSiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O MagnesiteMgCO3
O AragoniteCaCO3
O BruciteMg(OH)2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Clinochlore (var: Chromian Clinochlore)Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
O Clinohumite (var: Titanclinohumite)Mg9(SiO4)4F2
O Andradite (var: Demantoid)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
O ForsteriteMg2SiO4
O ZaratiteNi3(CO3)(OH)4 · 4H2O ?
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O SepioliteMg4(Si6O15)(OH)2 · 6H2O
O ReevesiteNi6Fe23+(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O TheophrastiteNi(OH)2
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O RutileTiO2
O ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2
O CoalingiteMg10Fe23+(OH)24[CO3] · 2H2O
O EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
O PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
FFluorine
F Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
F Clinohumite (var: Titanclinohumite)Mg9(SiO4)4F2
F ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2
NaSodium
Na Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Na PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg ArtiniteMg2(CO3)(OH)2 · 3H2O
Mg NesquehoniteMgCO3 · 3H2O
Mg MagnesiteMgCO3
Mg BruciteMg(OH)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Clinochlore (var: Chromian Clinochlore)Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
Mg Clinohumite (var: Titanclinohumite)Mg9(SiO4)4F2
Mg HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Mg ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg SepioliteMg4(Si6O15)(OH)2 · 6H2O
Mg AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2
Mg CoalingiteMg10Fe23+(OH)24[CO3] · 2H2O
Mg EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
AlAluminium
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Al Clinochlore (var: Chromian Clinochlore)Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Clinochlore (var: Chromian Clinochlore)Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
Si Clinohumite (var: Titanclinohumite)Mg9(SiO4)4F2
Si Andradite (var: Demantoid)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si SepioliteMg4(Si6O15)(OH)2 · 6H2O
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2
Si PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
SSulfur
S MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2O
S ChalcociteCu2S
S HeazlewooditeNi3S2
S PyriteFeS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S SphaleriteZnS
S Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
S EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
CaCalcium
Ca PerovskiteCaTiO3
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Andradite (var: Demantoid)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
TiTitanium
Ti PerovskiteCaTiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Cr Clinochlore (var: Chromian Clinochlore)Mg5(Al,Cr)2Si3O10(OH)8
Cr UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Fe Andradite (var: Demantoid)Ca3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe ReevesiteNi6Fe23+(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Fe CoalingiteMg10Fe23+(OH)24[CO3] · 2H2O
NiNickel
Ni MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2O
Ni HeazlewooditeNi3S2
Ni ZaratiteNi3(CO3)(OH)4 · 4H2O ?
Ni ReevesiteNi6Fe23+(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
Ni TheophrastiteNi(OH)2
Ni Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
Ni PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4
CuCopper
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu CopperCu
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Jurassic
145 - 201.3 Ma



ID: 3133710
Upper Penninic Nappes

Age: Jurassic (145 - 201.3 Ma)

Description: ophiolite complex

Lithology: Meta-basalt group, meta-peridotite

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Jurassic
145 - 201.3 Ma



ID: 2368143
Metamorphe Gesteine, meist Metamagmatite

Age: Jurassic (145 - 201.3 Ma)

Lithology: Serpentinite, talc schist

Reference: Geological Institute. Geological Map of Switzerland 1:500,000. isbn: 3906723399. University of Bern. [49]

Paleozoic
251.902 - 541 Ma



ID: 3185906
Paleozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Phanerozoic (251.902 - 541 Ma)

Comments: Alps

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Brugnatelli, L. (1897) Prime contribuzioni allo studio dei giacimenti di amianto della Valle Lanterna. Rendiconti del Reale Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere, Serie II, 30, 1-13.
Brugnatelli, L. (1899) Über ein wahrscheinlich neues Mineral aus den Asbestgruben im Val Brutta (Veltin). Zeitschrift für Kristallografie, 31, 55-56.
Brugnatelli, L. (1902) Sopra un nuovo minerale delle cave d’amianto della Valle Lanterna. Rendiconti del Reale Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere, Serie II, 35, 869-874.
Brugnatelli, L. (1906) Über Artinit, ein neues Mineral der Asbestgruben von Val Lanterna (Veltin). Zentralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, 144-148.
Artini, E. (1921) Sulla presenza della nesquehonite nelle cave d’amianto di Franscia in Val Lanterna. Rendiconti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche et naturale, Serie 5, 30, 153-157.
Sigismund, P. (1947) Due interessanti paragenesi della magnetite in Valmalenco. Atti della Società italiana di scienze naturali, 86, 5-11.
Sigismund, P. (1948) Granato e vesuvianite in Val Malenco. Atti della Società italiana di scienze naturali, 87, 145-171.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Volume II, page 227.
Gramaccioli, C.M. (1962) I minerali valtellinesi nella raccolta di Pietro Sigismund. Ed. privata, Milano, 179 pp.
Bedognè, F. (1970) Località di ritrovamento dei demantoidi. In: Boscardin, M., De Michele, V., and Scaini, G. (1970) Itinerari mineralogici della Lombardia. Ed. Museo civico di storia naturale e Società italiana di scienze naturali, Milano, 77-80.
Amthauer, G., Kurtz, W., Rost, F., and Schloemer, H. (1974) Chemismus und Genese des Andradits aus dem Serpentinit des Val Malenco (Bernina-Gebiet/Oberitalien). Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, 54, 691-706.
De Michele, V. (1974) Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Ed. De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol., 408 pp.
Gramaccioli, C.M. (1975) Minerali alpini e prealpini. Istituto Italiano Edizioni Atlas, Bergamo, 2 vol., 472 pp.
Bedognè, F. (1979) Itinerari mineralogici. Valmalenco e media Valtellina. Ed. Comunità Montana Valtellina-Ass. Turismo, Sondrio, 63 pp.
Bedognè, F. (1980) Die Mineralien der Grüngesteine des Val Malenco. Lapis, 1980/6, 9-13.
Trommsdorff, V. and Evans, B.W. (1980) Titanian hydroxyl-clinohumite formation and breakdown in antigorite rocks (Malenco - Italy). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 72, 229-242.
Bedognè, F. and Sciesa, E. (1993) Die Demantoide vom Val Malenco, Sondrio, Italien. Mineralien-Welt, 1993/6, 25-28.
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., and Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Sciesa, E. (1993) Le cromititi della Valmalenco (Alpi Centrali). Il Naturalista Valtellinese - Atti del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Morbegno, 4, 3-9.
Bedognè, F. and Sciesa, E. (1994) Asbestklüfte und ihre Mineralien im Serpentinit des Val Malenco (Sondrio, Italien). Mineralienfreund, 1994/4, 13-19.
Benetti, F. (1994) Guida mineralogica della Val Malenco. Grafica Mevio, Sondrio, 203 pp.
Bedognè, F., Sciesa, E., and Vignola, P. (1999) Il “demantoide” della Valmalenco. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 23, 4, 208-217.
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., and Sciesa, E. (2006) I minerali della media-alta Valtellina, delle Orobie valtellinesi e della Val Poschiavo. Aggiornamenti sulle altre località della provincia di Sondrio. Bettini, Sondrio, 255 pp.


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